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2017-06 18

[Academics]Precise Diesel Engine Control in Action

Professor Sunwoo Myoung-ho of the Department of Automotive Engineering is an expert in the field of internal combustion engines and serves as a director at ACE lab. His paper, “Simplified Decoupler-Based Multivariable Controller with a Gain Scheduling Strategy for the Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Variable Geometry Turbocharger Systems in Diesel Engines,” discusses a novel method of applying a new control strategy in order to reduce the emission of nitroxide in diesel engines. Sunwoo explains precise diesel engine control and how it works. One critical disadvantage of diesel engine is that after the combustion, nitroxide is produced along with carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon and other chemicals. Once nitroxide meets water, it becomes nitrite hydrate (H2NO3) which could cause asthma and other bronchial diseases. There are two solutions that could be suggested to reducing nitroxide. First, is to control the engine in an extremely precise method, and, second, is to use catalyst to reduce nitroxide. One certain benefit that could arise from Sunwoo’s studies is that it makes diesel engines more of a “green car” in addition to being fuel efficient. As the production of nitroxide level gets significantly lower, it results in improvement of air pollution, less bronchial diseases for people and reduction of exhaust fume as well. Sunwoo has been researching on clean diesel, which focuses on making the diesel engines much cleaner and greener, for decades . Another program that Sunwoo, along with Hyundai Motor Company, has been focusing on for the past five years is meeting the Euro 7 standards. Euro 7 is the regulation of exhaust gases which is expected to go into effective in 2019. The draft for meeting the regulations has been produced so far. Sunwoo is planning to produce the cleanest internal combustion engine possible. "Think different, and act different." Sunwoo has provided some valuable advice for Hanyang students: “Find what you like the most. This is the primary mission of college life. Make your career different from others. This is the most important mission of all. Finally, never give up and do your best.” Kim Seung-jun Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-06 12

[Academics]Bringing Unknown Species into the Light

Professor Lee Won-choel of the Department of Life Science is a researcher who studies biological diversity, animal taxonomy, sociobiology, and marine biology. A passionate animal taxonomist who specializes in meiofauna, microscopic organisms living in the sea floor, Lee found and classified over 100 new species. His recent paper, “A new species of the genus Nannopus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Nannopodidae) from the mudflat of Ganghwa Island, Korea” introduces his discovery of Nannopus ganghwaensis. Lee talks about his discovery of Nannopus ganghwaensis. The species Nannopus ganghwaensis, which belongs to the order of harpacticoid copepods of meiofauna group is a discovery Lee made during his scientific project regarding researching life in Ganghwa mudflat. In order to clarify that it is entirely new, Lee took several steps. First of all, he observed that the specimen displays general features of a harpacticoid through microscope. Then Lee proceeded into a more complicated procedure, using electronic microscope and carefully examining and dissecting each segment, including each legs and hairs. The next step was identifying the specimen through literary data analysis. Comparing and contrasting each feature of harpaticoid copepods species through this procedure, Lee could find other species of harpacticoids that looked most similar to the newly found ones. “Nannopus ganghwaensis had general features to those species. But when observed much closer into its finest detail, it has its own distinctive features such as having a smooth seta, or thick hair, without additional fine hairs at the end of the forth inner leg. In addition, the innermost seta at the fifth exopod was fused into the segment,” Lee said. Above are pictures of Nannopus ganghwaensis that Lee drew. After dissection, Lee drew the specimen onto a sheet of paper. The most important of the whole process, the carefully measured drawings were later used in his thesis. After pictures were taken through electronic microscope, additional DNA analysis that distinguishes the species was done. Since Lee specializes in marine biology, he not only explores Korean seas but ventures out to oceans worldwide, scuba diving in the North and South Pole, the Maldives, New Caledonia, and more to collect samples of microscopic marine life. Currently, Lee is a project leader in the BK21 Plus Eco-Bio Fusion Research Team, which focuses on training graduate students. In addition, Lee is working for the National Institute of Biological Resources, publishing illustrated guides to newly-discovered and researched organisms. Lee helped to publish the illustrated guide of invertebrate fauna in Korea. “The socioeconomic significance of biological diversity research is that one’s country can be fully aware of its biological resources. This means that the country in question can demand other nations of the same profit when the latter is making use of the former’s resources, according to Convention on Biological Diversity,” Lee explained. In addition, Lee’s field of research gives basic information about organisms due to his work of classifying and finding new species. When secondary research is necessary because of medical reasons, data about various species is more than necessary. Lee’s personal goal is to open international conferences in Korea for students to attend with ease. This was achieved when he organized the 15th International Meiofauna Conference in 2013 and the 12th International Conference on Copepods in 2014 at Hanyang University. “I think I will continue to research as I have always done. There are 4000 harpacticoid copepods and about 2.5 million of them are yet to be found." Lee’s passion is run by his pure interest and enjoyment in finding, classifying, and giving names to new species that are brought into light through his endeavors. Lee scuba dives into the deep sea to collect specimens for his studies. (Photo courtesy of Lee) As a researcher, Lee believes that studying what one truly enjoys lasts long. “In society, people’s choices of their careers are too limited because of social or economic pressures. But people, especially those planning to become researchers, should find their interests in the direction that the masses haven't yet taken in order to strengthen their academic foundation,” Lee advised. Jang Soo-hyun Photos by Moon Ha-na

2017-05 30

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Fusion Research in Enlightenment

Professor Choi Dong-ho of the Department of Medicine is June’s Researcher of the Month for his active role in developing knowledge in the field of medicine. In his paper, “Design and Fabrication of a Thin-Walled Free-Form Scaffold on the Basis of Medical Image Data and a 3D Printed Template: Its Potential Use in Bile Duct Regeneration”, Choi explains how he has created the bile duct, a body part that exports bile from liver to duodenum with 3D printer and being able to successfully conduct clinical demonstration on rabbits. Professor Choi explains about the 3D printing and its relation to artificial organs. For 20 years, Choi has been working on stem cell research which has eventually led to the stage of creating artificial organs with 3D printing techniques. Bile duct is one of the very sensitive body parts where it is hard to fix once problem occurs. Although there are artificial blood vessels, there has been no artificial bile ducts created. What makes it so complicated to make is that since bile is carried through the bile duct, it shrinks as time goes on if created with the material as commonly used as Gore-Tex. The material should be sturdy enough to withstand the bile, and it should be flexible enough to be sewed up as well which is definitely not an easy task. Process of creating bile duct through 3D printing (Photo courtesy of Choi) The diagram above depicts the process of creating bile duct. It first goes through the data acquisition through MRI images and 3D designing. As some cells are mixed up to the mold, it grows into the shape and size as designed. Important technique here is to develop the bio ink that congeals once it flows out of the 3D printing machine. Creating hydrogel and mixing up the stem cells to it is another important task to be completed. "I hope that what I create can be of help to people." Choi’s team is currently in the stage of obtaining patent in the techniques to create artificial organs through 3D printing. Since there are tremendous types of researches to be carried out through his studies, ranging from stem cell reprogramming to drug screening, Choi wishes that creating safe artificial organs in the end is what he wishes to achieve. “I am still doing translational research with various other departments and I hope that what I create can be of help to not only the patients, but even for my family as well in times of emergency,” concluded Choi. Kim Seung-jun Photos by Moon Hana

2017-05 22

[Academics]Novel Way of Measuring Cellular Nanoparticles (1)

Nanoparticles, which are particles with diameters at least one dimension less than 100nm, are gaining intense interest from researchers. This is due to their wide applications in diverse fields such as biomedicine, materials, and electronics. Nanoparticles in medical treatments, for example, are used as drug carriers which are introduced to the human body to deliver medicine to targeted tissues. But because the safety of nanoparticles are not yet fully proven, it is important to understand to what extent the human body can be exposed to nanoparticles. In the paper “Flow Cytometry-Based Quantification of Cellular Au Nanoparticles”, Professor Yoon Tae-hyun (Department of Chemistry) focuses on the quantitative measurement of nanoparticles associated with mammalian cells. Among the increasing research interests toward nanoparticles, Yoon developed a new efficient way to quantitatively count cellular nanoparticles. With the approach of analytical chemistry, Professor Yoon and his research team utilized a technique called flow cytometry (FCM), which is already commonly used in biological and medical fields. One of its uses is to measure the number of blood (e.g. platelet, red and white blood cells) in blood samples. “While the ultimate purpose of our research is to determine whether it is hazardous to humans or not, a more detailed or fundamental subject in this specific study was to develop a method of quantitatively measuring how many nanoparticles would associate with a single mammalian cell,” explained Yoon. As it is a very micro-level research, the goal of the research is to be as simple and accurate as possible. Yoon and his team exposed cells to gold nanoparticles and measured the scattered light intensity of the cell samples using a flow cytometer. Yoon gave the example of fine dust for easier understanding. “When there is a large amount of fine dust in the air, it is usually hard for people to have clear vision because light is scattered by fine dust particles. However, we are able to recognize the existence of nanoparticles thanks to the scattered intensity of a laser source in a flow cytometer. When nanoparticles are associated with cells, the laser beam will be scattered by the nanoparticles and the scattered intensity will be high. If there are no nanoparticles, the laser beam will not scatter but just shoot straightforward,” explained Yoon. Overall graphic and imagery process of FCM, and scattering lights of cells with nanoparticles. (Photo courtesy of Yoon) The main significance of the research not only comes from the fact that it tried to tackle and study fundamental characteristics of nanoparticles, but also from how Yoon and his team improved the conventional FCM technique for utilization. His team discovered the statistical relationship between the FCM-scattered light intensity of the cell samples and the number of nanoparticles associated with cells. This finding enabled Yoon's team to accurately detect and quantify the cellular association of nanoparticles. “I think it is important to have thorough knowledge about the safety and effectiveness of the use of nanoparticles, and our research can act as a foundation for acquiring such knowledge to develop further applications. Along with the new findings, I hope our research contributes to the fusion of nanoscience and technology, along with other research areas such as biomedical fields,” said Yoon. Yoon hopes to research on nanoparticles for practical use in different fields. Yun Ji-hyun Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-05 14 Important News

[Academics]Production of Green Energy

Professor Lee Kun-sang of the Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering is an expert in the field of earth resources. His paper, “Evaluation of CO2 injection in shale gas reservoirs with multi-component transport and geomechanical effects”, discusses a novel method of sequestrating carbon dioxide while extracting more shale gas efficiently. Professor Lee explains the findings depicted in his paper. Carbon dioxide, also known as CO2, continues to be a huge problem on the agenda nowadays. Numerous countries and environmental groups are trying to reduce CO2 emissions by imposing carbon tax. This may help reduce the CO2 emission rate but it does not actually reduce the total amount of CO2 in the air. What Lee has been studying may be a groundbreaking way to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere. The idea sparked up a few years ago when Lee and his students were funded the government through a research program to visit Pennsylvania State University in the US, that has been initiating research on this topic. The most well-known idea at the moment is to store the CO2 in the ground, but the problem with this was the economic drawbacks. Lee’s research focuses on injecting CO2 into shale reservoirs, which is a very tight sedimentary rock. Basic Diagram of CCS method. (Photo courtesy of Global CCS Institute) This method, also known as carbon capture and storage (CCS), is the act of separating CO2 from flue gases and collect them to store them underground. Just injecting CO2 into the ground results in high costs to store them, but Lee's approach not only takes care of CO2 in the air, but also allows for an easier extraction of shale gas as CO2 has a stronger tendency to absorb to shale. Simply put, CO2 increases the pressure into the methane gas while CO2 resides in the shale. All in all, CCS is economically and environmentally beneficial. Lee is continuously working to keep the natural properties of shale rock. Since it has a very meticulous feature, injecting oil or gas in them changes the properties a lot. Trying to develop the most refined model that would keep the properties of shale rock is one of Lee’s goals. Professor Lee has worked on a profitable model of reducing CO2 and collecting more methane gas that would benefit the environment. Kim Seung-jun Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-05 02 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Simulation of Human Movements

Professor Kwon Tae-soo. Human movements are much more intricate and complicated than it seems. Many attempts were done to portray moving human actions by computer program and animation. Those attempts were partly successful until now, yet with certain limitations. Professor Kwon Tae-soo of the Department of Computer Science & Engineering is greatly interested in simulating human motion. In his recent paper, “Momentum-Mapped Inverted Pendulum Models for Controlling Dynamic Human Motions”, he explains about how physics can be applied into animating human movement and be used in its development. Simulating human animation is a complicated business. Most of the animation we see in games and movies is based on a technical method called motion capture. Motion capture is a method of simulating motions by attaching sensors to a moving object and tracking the information of the movements, then analyzing its numerical data. However, movements of these animations have certain limits because of its foundation which merely consists of pre-captured motions. Therefore, in order to exceed this disadvantage, quite a few research was done utilizing physics into developing animation using Inverted Pendulum Model, or IPM, which analyzes human motions through controlling robots by computerized robot simulator program. Although IPM became a potentially alternative method of producing simulation of motions, it had a problem of producing unnatural movements of characters. Kwon, who was aware with this limitation of IPM, developed a new form of IPM called Momentum-Mapped Inverted Pendulum Models (MMIPM). The similarity of IPM and MMIPM is that both methods use two kinds of robot, a simple kind of robot, an upside-down kind of pendulum which is comprised of a cart and a pole, and a humanoid. Due to the difficulty of controlling a complex humanoid, the simple robot is first used. By using conversion after mapping the present state of simple robot, signals for controlling the humanoid can be calculated. The difference of the quality of movement of characters between IPM and MMIPM. (Photo courtesy of Kwon) One of the main contrasts between IPM and MMIPM is the way mapping is done. While mapping for IPM must use both the center of mass and center of pressure of the robot for mathmatical differentiation, momentum-mapping uses the center of mass. Differentiating one time instead of two is highly beneficial because the quality of signals improve. In addition, if two feet of the humanoid are above the ground, center of pressure becomes absent, mapping with conventional IPM method become impossible, whereas mapping with MMIPM is still possible. MMIPM also concentrates on modeling the changes of postures and how much the human body is tilted during performing certain actions. Therefore, because of the differences or technical improvements of MMIPM compared with IPM, expressing more natural and difficult movements can be realized. As a result, Kwon could successfully produce more natural movements of running, and complex acrobatic motions such as spinning, backflip, and handstand. Character performing a backflip. (Photo courtesy of Kwon) Character performing a handstand. (Photo courtesy of Kwon) Professor Kwon’s future studies also focus on human movements, which are reenacting motions of soft parts of the human body, such as fat. According to Kwon, the technology which is used for today’s animations and games is from a decade ago. “Although at first a game with great graphics may seem like something big. However, when you start an online game, soon you will realize that the actions of your characters are mere repetitive movements, ” said Kwon. Through his study, Kwon aspires to broaden the limits of present day game-play and animation. “My ultimate objective is enabling game characters to perform unexpected movements when players enjoy unpredictable game plays,” Kwon revealed. Jang Soo-hyun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-05 01 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] How ‘Fit' Are You With Your Boss? (1)

For a higher competency of a company or a corporation, factors like personality, values and goals that employees and leaders prioritize were focus of a research in management or psychology studies. It has been thought that such factors should be met between a leader and an employee for higher effectiveness in a company. Rather than determining how ‘fit’ a leader and an employee is under the standards of aforementioned aspects, there has been a new perspective suggested by Professor Shin Yu-hyung of the Department of Management. Appointed as one of the researchers of the month, her recent paper, “Does Leader-Follower Regulatory Fit Matter? The Role of Regulatory Fit in Followers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior” discusses the two different concepts, ‘promotion focus’ and ‘prevention focus’ and how it works between a leader and an employee. From her doctoral course, Shin realized how aptitude and characterisitcs of people are important. The core of Shin’s research is one’s different strategic intentions, which can be divided into prevention focus and promotion focus. Promotion focus refers to a strategy to bear risks for positive outcome. Thus employees with promotion focus would put themselves into challenges for better results in their tasks even if they have to bear risks during the process. On the other hand, employees with prevention focus will contain themselves inside a security zone, putting their biggest effort to avoid the worst outcome. Thus, unlike the ones with promotion focus, they would not try to change the conditions in the given environment and will aim to accomplish the goals within the boundary of rules or conditions. For example, consider two college students in their 3rd year. Both of them studies hard to get better GPAs but their focus can be different. Student A with promotion focus studies hard because A wants to get higher scores to apply to a company he or she wishes. Student B with prevention focus would only study hard merely to avoid an F on his or her GPA. In the paper, Shin tried to examine and demonstrate such relevance with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), which refers to discretionary and extra-role behavior that is considered to increase overall effectiveness in an organization, a company in this case. What Shin chose was to prove it through a survey. She chose 140 leaders and 640 employees from different fields of Korean domestic companies. The questions mainly asked of one’s attitude to different focus, whether it is more toward promotion or prevention. As a result, Shin was able to witness different focus strategy each employees and their leaders take. According to the graph, the allignment of leader and follower (employee) proves the highest effectiveness of OCB. (Photo courtesy of Shin) Analysis of the survey showed several facts. First, when an employee pursues promotion focus, his or her fit with a leader showed less significance. “People with high promotion focus are the ones who tries to break a conventional frame or a box, which makes their fit with their leaders less necessary. Only their degree of the focus will determine their degree of accomplishment,” explained Shin. However, the importance of ‘fit’ was shown in the case of an employee with high prevention focus. In this case it has been proven that the more one is fit with his or her leader, the better accomplishment one can make. “As people with prevention focus tries to work most effectively within the given frame, they try to cooperate and negotiate well with others while abiding by the law, which makes the fit with their leaders more important,” said Shin. While researches on regulatory fit between leaders and employees have been done for a long time, the different perspective Shin suggested is getting credits for positive feedbacks of the paper. In the same line, Shin is working on how various styles of working can affect the outcome. In a case like where an employee is the one who tends to take more steps in completing his task while his or her leader is the one who is always chased by the dead line. As the cooperation between a leader and an employee is always important for a successful company, Shin expects the research could positively affect and motivate more innovative management studies. Shin said she will keep on researching to contribute to HYU and Korea's good brand image. Yun Ji-hyun Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-04 26

[Academics]Interrogating History (1)

History, by definition, chronicles and recounts past events of people, countries, and the world at large. It may answer the wh-questions concerning a particular event, reporting from time and place of an event to who and what were involved. However, it does not always perform an excellent job in informing us why an event occurred. Professor Carl Joergen Saxer (Division of International Studies), whose primary interest lies in political science, wanted to shed light on the unexplored domain of history, the big question of why. Saxer unfolded his curiosity about why the Nordic countries participated in the Korean War. The Big Question, Why History books state that in the 1950s, just five years after the World War 2, the Nordic countries—Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—had participated in the Korean War in the form of medical aid. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Nazi Germany and Sweden remained neutral. Additionally, until recently, those countries had very limited knowledge about Korea, had no diplomatic relations and was located on the other side of the globe. Yet, they decided to participate in the war by supporting the country with medical supplies. At this point, a question should arise: what led the three countries to participate in a war that went on in a remote, unrecognized land that most Nordic people had never heard about? Delving into the state archives of the Nordic countries, Saxer disclosed the answer to the question. He accessed to documentations related to decision making process and examined the thought process of what led governments in the first place to participate and what led them to the decision of how to participate. As it turned out, for diplomatic reasons, the Nordic government have always emphasized on humanitarian intervention, out of moral concerns. This means their participation in the Korean War should be on account of the North Korean invasion in South Korea. However, the documents showed otherwise: it was much more of a political matter. "The national archives allowed me to access to documents that showed the decision-making process" The emphasis on the Nordic countries when it came to participating in the war was actually to do as little as possible, signifying an outside factor that urged its decision: the America. Norway and Denmark had just become members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and were under American pressure to defend Korea under the United Nations flag—perchance this was the reason they only joined the war by supporting the medical supplies and not combat materials. In other words, the concerns of politicians when they came to participate in the war was not so much about what was going on in the Korean peninsula but rather about the potential of the war to result in another big issue: World War 3. It was very much influenced by the Cold War in European countries that the fear arose in relation to the possible outbreak of another global disaster. Coming down to a summary, moral element intermingled with their international stance in a context of fear of potential World War 3 and insecurity of the Cold War led the Nordic countries to participate in the Korean War in the least aggressive manner. “I usually don’t research much on history as my interest is more on democracy in politics. But with this research, I was very interested in looking into the documents. I do empirical research, meaning I don’t speculate about how things should or would be in the future but rather how things were or have been. I was very interested in finding out why people act the way they do and how certain decisions are reached,” explained Saxer on his motivation of this research. "I intend to write a book on the linkage between foreign policy making and domestic politics in middle powers." Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-04 17 Important News

[Academics]Factors that Influence Donation Intentions via SNS

Social Network Service, also called as SNS, is rapidly developing its features to suit the current information-oriented society. In the 21st century, various types of communication do not require individuals to be nearby physical. Keeping pace with the times, the behavior dimension behind donating has also been altered into an online format. With the Internet's prompt speed and secured environment, people can now donate to charity organizations found on SNS pages. Through his paper “Factors Influencing Intention To Donate Via Social Network Site (SNS): From An Asian’s Perspective,” Professor Ahn Jong-chang, Department of Information System, investigates the correlations between people’s intention to donate and online external factors. Ahn is explaing the correlation between four external factors and the donation intention via SNS. Professor Ahn’s study examines whether external factors influence people’s general attitude towards online donation, and their intention to donate via SNS. These four external factors are defined as charity project, charity organization, Internet technology features and SNS features. Professor Ahn conducted an online survey of 258 respondents from South Korea and Malaysia based on the framework of the structural equation modelling- a multivariate statistical analysis technique used to analyze structural relationships. There are preceding researches regarding SNS donation intentions. However, these researches analyzed the correlation between the donation intention and only three external factors- charity project, charity organization, and the Internet technology features. “Since Internet 1.0, which was entirely made up of web pages connected by hyperlinks, has developed into Internet 2.0, the web characterized by change from static to dynamic or user-generated content and the growth of social media, my research partner and I came surmised that these multilateral interactions between users of SNS will also affect the donation intentions,” said Ahn. After analyzing the responses, Ahn discovered that the Internet technology features significantly influence general attitudes of people towards online donation, and general attitude positively contributes to people’s intention in donating via SNS. “We have found the full mediation effect of the general attitude towards online donation on the relationship between Internet technology features and intention to donate via SNS,” mentioned Ahn. The framework of the structural equation modelling above shows that Internet technology features influence people's donating intention through SNS. (Photo courtesy of Elsvier) However, the rest of the factors- charity project, charity organization, and the SNS features, were found to be ineffective, compared to the Internet technology features. Professor Ahn emphasized the importance to strengthen the Internet’s technological environment. “This consequentially means that if charity organizations long to fundraise significant amount of donations via SNS, they have to strengthen the Internet environment especially in the security field.” Although the research was based on an online survey of 258 people, Ahn says that his results cannot be generalized globally. “The research puts basis on the online survey conducted with Malaysian and South Korean respondents. This particularly limits my conclusion to the Asian areas,” highlighted Ahn. Professor Ahn produced his paper with a graduate student from Hanyang University, and he revealed the arduousness of the small research group. “Unlike a scientific research which can have a definite and distinct cause and effect results, this kind of social science research may incur ambiguity. Thus, clear and logical reasoning and firm data are considerably crucial,” asserted Ahn. The long road to publication taken by Ahn was strenuous. Due to the limited size of his research team, Ahn had to bear significant pressure and duty. Also, the time taken to finalize the paper took longer than other bigger research groups. However, it was Professor Ahn’s perseverance and passion towards academic achievements that produced promising consequences. Professor Ahn Jong-chang is expanding his research area to the West. Currently, Professor Ahn is working on submitting dissertations on the same topic but in the perspective of the West. It is his hope that the research environment of the social science field will be meliorated. “I wish all students of Hanyang University will continue working in their fields with passion. Just like Confucius said, the blissful time will come, if we make efforts not with anguish but with joy.” Kim Ju-hyun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-04 10 Important News

[Academics]For the Future of Alternative Fuel Vehicles

It is a well-known fact that carbon-based vehicles are one of the main factors for causing problems that threatens environmental security such as climate change. It was an impediment task to develop Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFV) to reduce the amount of fossil fuel for the upcoming future. However, while the introduction of such eco-friendly transportation system has drawn a lot of attention, it has failed to become as widespread as it was expected to be. Professor Jeong In-jae of the Department of Industrial Engineering pointed out that it is mainly because of the serious lack of AFV’s refueling stations, which could be either electricity recharging stations or hydrogen stations. From his recent article “An optimal approach for a set covering version of the refueling-station location problem and its application to a diffusion model”, Jeong suggested the desirable algorithm example to build the most efficient number of refueling station to reduce the investment costs needed to develop refueling infrastructure. Jeong said increasing the number of refueling stations is the first task to motivate AFV industry. “It is like a vicious cycle,” said Jeong. A lot of people are being hesitant to change their conventional carbon-based vehicles to AFV because there is no sound infrastructure to support AFV. Thus, possible manufacturers of refueling stations also become hesitant to build more as there are no sufficient demand. “Everybody agrees with the impediment need for more spread of AFVs, but there are obvious vicious cycle which disturbs it. It is necessary for the government to step in the market,” said Jeong. To first initiate the growth of the market of both AFV and its refueling station, it is necessary to make initial investment possible, which is the problem of finance. To minimize the needed expense, Jeong assumed two situations to suggest different algorithms respectively. The difference between two situation lies whether there is or no existing refueling station as the math would be different between the two. The aim of the algorithm was same tough, to make the less stations for the greater effect. “I started to gain interest on the subject about 7 years ago. I had a chance to meet some the professors in the United States who had a same interest about AFVs. Thought that it is the subject which perfectly meets what is actually needed in the current society,” said Jeong. He also added how it is hard to know what kind of AFV will lead the future automobile industry is still yet to be clear, it is very important to prepare it beforehand. “It is hard to say that electric cars are the ones which is most eco-friendly as electricity still is an energy that is made from fossil fuels. Hydrogen cars are better in such aspect. But we don’t know the future so we have to have a theory and policy regarding both of them beforehand,” said Jeong. An example of a refueling station for electric cars. (Photo courtesy of bizwatch) While it is agreed by many that the research and development of AFVs main infrastructure should be more progressed and encouraged, Jeong said it is unfortunate to witness how the Korean government is merely trying to take care of matters as they come, which can lead to serious waste of the government budget. Still, regarding the topic, Jeong is now preparing to write another paper. If this paper was about how to calculate the most efficient number of stations, the next subject for his research is to calculate the most desirable driving route for an AFV. “Compared to carbon-based vehicles where stations are now practically easy-to-find and access, AFVs have a limited vehicle range. It can be different by company to company but the average distance is 130km when the car is fully charged. However, considering the fact that there are still less stations and cars have to recharge during its route, the efficient route of AFV is drastically different from that of carbon-based vehicles,” explained Jeong. Although Jeong had to work on all research by himself, he said it is still a big pleasure for him to work as a ‘researcher’. “When a lot of professors reach into years of careers, they become more of a ‘manager’ than a ‘researcher’. Instead of being involved in a research, they became a manager who direct and instruct his or her fellow researchers of graduate students. However, I thought that I’d want to remain as a researcher which led me to spare more time on my own research. It is tough and hard to do, but I want to keep my identity as a scholar as long as I can.” As a researcher, Jeong will continue on devoting his passion. Yun Ji-hyun Photos by Choi Min-ju