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2017-05 14 Important News

[Academics]Production of Green Energy

Professor Lee Kun-sang of the Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering is an expert in the field of earth resources. His paper, “Evaluation of CO2 injection in shale gas reservoirs with multi-component transport and geomechanical effects”, discusses a novel method of sequestrating carbon dioxide while extracting more shale gas efficiently. Professor Lee explains the findings depicted in his paper. Carbon dioxide, also known as CO2, continues to be a huge problem on the agenda nowadays. Numerous countries and environmental groups are trying to reduce CO2 emissions by imposing carbon tax. This may help reduce the CO2 emission rate but it does not actually reduce the total amount of CO2 in the air. What Lee has been studying may be a groundbreaking way to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere. The idea sparked up a few years ago when Lee and his students were funded the government through a research program to visit Pennsylvania State University in the US, that has been initiating research on this topic. The most well-known idea at the moment is to store the CO2 in the ground, but the problem with this was the economic drawbacks. Lee’s research focuses on injecting CO2 into shale reservoirs, which is a very tight sedimentary rock. Basic Diagram of CCS method. (Photo courtesy of Global CCS Institute) This method, also known as carbon capture and storage (CCS), is the act of separating CO2 from flue gases and collect them to store them underground. Just injecting CO2 into the ground results in high costs to store them, but Lee's approach not only takes care of CO2 in the air, but also allows for an easier extraction of shale gas as CO2 has a stronger tendency to absorb to shale. Simply put, CO2 increases the pressure into the methane gas while CO2 resides in the shale. All in all, CCS is economically and environmentally beneficial. Lee is continuously working to keep the natural properties of shale rock. Since it has a very meticulous feature, injecting oil or gas in them changes the properties a lot. Trying to develop the most refined model that would keep the properties of shale rock is one of Lee’s goals. Professor Lee has worked on a profitable model of reducing CO2 and collecting more methane gas that would benefit the environment. Kim Seung-jun nzdave94@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-05 02 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Simulation of Human Movements

Professor Kwon Tae-soo. Human movements are much more intricate and complicated than it seems. Many attempts were done to portray moving human actions by computer program and animation. Those attempts were partly successful until now, yet with certain limitations. Professor Kwon Tae-soo of the Department of Computer Science & Engineering is greatly interested in simulating human motion. In his recent paper, “Momentum-Mapped Inverted Pendulum Models for Controlling Dynamic Human Motions”, he explains about how physics can be applied into animating human movement and be used in its development. Simulating human animation is a complicated business. Most of the animation we see in games and movies is based on a technical method called motion capture. Motion capture is a method of simulating motions by attaching sensors to a moving object and tracking the information of the movements, then analyzing its numerical data. However, movements of these animations have certain limits because of its foundation which merely consists of pre-captured motions. Therefore, in order to exceed this disadvantage, quite a few research was done utilizing physics into developing animation using Inverted Pendulum Model, or IPM, which analyzes human motions through controlling robots by computerized robot simulator program. Although IPM became a potentially alternative method of producing simulation of motions, it had a problem of producing unnatural movements of characters. Kwon, who was aware with this limitation of IPM, developed a new form of IPM called Momentum-Mapped Inverted Pendulum Models (MMIPM). The similarity of IPM and MMIPM is that both methods use two kinds of robot, a simple kind of robot, an upside-down kind of pendulum which is comprised of a cart and a pole, and a humanoid. Due to the difficulty of controlling a complex humanoid, the simple robot is first used. By using conversion after mapping the present state of simple robot, signals for controlling the humanoid can be calculated. The difference of the quality of movement of characters between IPM and MMIPM. (Photo courtesy of Kwon) One of the main contrasts between IPM and MMIPM is the way mapping is done. While mapping for IPM must use both the center of mass and center of pressure of the robot for mathmatical differentiation, momentum-mapping uses the center of mass. Differentiating one time instead of two is highly beneficial because the quality of signals improve. In addition, if two feet of the humanoid are above the ground, center of pressure becomes absent, mapping with conventional IPM method become impossible, whereas mapping with MMIPM is still possible. MMIPM also concentrates on modeling the changes of postures and how much the human body is tilted during performing certain actions. Therefore, because of the differences or technical improvements of MMIPM compared with IPM, expressing more natural and difficult movements can be realized. As a result, Kwon could successfully produce more natural movements of running, and complex acrobatic motions such as spinning, backflip, and handstand. Character performing a backflip. (Photo courtesy of Kwon) Character performing a handstand. (Photo courtesy of Kwon) Professor Kwon’s future studies also focus on human movements, which are reenacting motions of soft parts of the human body, such as fat. According to Kwon, the technology which is used for today’s animations and games is from a decade ago. “Although at first a game with great graphics may seem like something big. However, when you start an online game, soon you will realize that the actions of your characters are mere repetitive movements, ” said Kwon. Through his study, Kwon aspires to broaden the limits of present day game-play and animation. “My ultimate objective is enabling game characters to perform unexpected movements when players enjoy unpredictable game plays,” Kwon revealed. Jang Soo-hyun luxkari@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-05 01 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] How ‘Fit' Are You With Your Boss? (1)

For a higher competency of a company or a corporation, factors like personality, values and goals that employees and leaders prioritize were focus of a research in management or psychology studies. It has been thought that such factors should be met between a leader and an employee for higher effectiveness in a company. Rather than determining how ‘fit’ a leader and an employee is under the standards of aforementioned aspects, there has been a new perspective suggested by Professor Shin Yu-hyung of the Department of Management. Appointed as one of the researchers of the month, her recent paper, “Does Leader-Follower Regulatory Fit Matter? The Role of Regulatory Fit in Followers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior” discusses the two different concepts, ‘promotion focus’ and ‘prevention focus’ and how it works between a leader and an employee. From her doctoral course, Shin realized how aptitude and characterisitcs of people are important. The core of Shin’s research is one’s different strategic intentions, which can be divided into prevention focus and promotion focus. Promotion focus refers to a strategy to bear risks for positive outcome. Thus employees with promotion focus would put themselves into challenges for better results in their tasks even if they have to bear risks during the process. On the other hand, employees with prevention focus will contain themselves inside a security zone, putting their biggest effort to avoid the worst outcome. Thus, unlike the ones with promotion focus, they would not try to change the conditions in the given environment and will aim to accomplish the goals within the boundary of rules or conditions. For example, consider two college students in their 3rd year. Both of them studies hard to get better GPAs but their focus can be different. Student A with promotion focus studies hard because A wants to get higher scores to apply to a company he or she wishes. Student B with prevention focus would only study hard merely to avoid an F on his or her GPA. In the paper, Shin tried to examine and demonstrate such relevance with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), which refers to discretionary and extra-role behavior that is considered to increase overall effectiveness in an organization, a company in this case. What Shin chose was to prove it through a survey. She chose 140 leaders and 640 employees from different fields of Korean domestic companies. The questions mainly asked of one’s attitude to different focus, whether it is more toward promotion or prevention. As a result, Shin was able to witness different focus strategy each employees and their leaders take. According to the graph, the allignment of leader and follower (employee) proves the highest effectiveness of OCB. (Photo courtesy of Shin) Analysis of the survey showed several facts. First, when an employee pursues promotion focus, his or her fit with a leader showed less significance. “People with high promotion focus are the ones who tries to break a conventional frame or a box, which makes their fit with their leaders less necessary. Only their degree of the focus will determine their degree of accomplishment,” explained Shin. However, the importance of ‘fit’ was shown in the case of an employee with high prevention focus. In this case it has been proven that the more one is fit with his or her leader, the better accomplishment one can make. “As people with prevention focus tries to work most effectively within the given frame, they try to cooperate and negotiate well with others while abiding by the law, which makes the fit with their leaders more important,” said Shin. While researches on regulatory fit between leaders and employees have been done for a long time, the different perspective Shin suggested is getting credits for positive feedbacks of the paper. In the same line, Shin is working on how various styles of working can affect the outcome. In a case like where an employee is the one who tends to take more steps in completing his task while his or her leader is the one who is always chased by the dead line. As the cooperation between a leader and an employee is always important for a successful company, Shin expects the research could positively affect and motivate more innovative management studies. Shin said she will keep on researching to contribute to HYU and Korea's good brand image. Yun Ji-hyun uni27@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-04 26

[Academics]Interrogating History

History, by definition, chronicles and recounts past events of people, countries, and the world at large. It may answer the wh-questions concerning a particular event, reporting from time and place of an event to who and what were involved. However, it does not always perform an excellent job in informing us why an event occurred. Professor Carl Joergen Saxer (Division of International Studies), whose primary interest lies in political science, wanted to shed light on the unexplored domain of history, the big question of why. Saxer unfolded his curiosity about why the Nordic countries participated in the Korean War. The Big Question, Why History books state that in the 1950s, just five years after the World War 2, the Nordic countries—Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—had participated in the Korean War in the form of medical aid. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Nazi Germany and Sweden remained neutral. Additionally, until recently, those countries had very limited knowledge about Korea, had no diplomatic relations and was located on the other side of the globe. Yet, they decided to participate in the war by supporting the country with medical supplies. At this point, a question should arise: what led the three countries to participate in a war that went on in a remote, unrecognized land that most Nordic people had never heard about? Delving into the state archives of the Nordic countries, Saxer disclosed the answer to the question. He accessed to documentations related to decision making process and examined the thought process of what led governments in the first place to participate and what led them to the decision of how to participate. As it turned out, for diplomatic reasons, the Nordic government have always emphasized on humanitarian intervention, out of moral concerns. This means their participation in the Korean War should be on account of the North Korean invasion in South Korea. However, the documents showed otherwise: it was much more of a political matter. "The national archives allowed me to access to documents that showed the decision-making process" The emphasis on the Nordic countries when it came to participating in the war was actually to do as little as possible, signifying an outside factor that urged its decision: the America. Norway and Denmark had just become members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and were under American pressure to defend Korea under the United Nations flag—perchance this was the reason they only joined the war by supporting the medical supplies and not combat materials. In other words, the concerns of politicians when they came to participate in the war was not so much about what was going on in the Korean peninsula but rather about the potential of the war to result in another big issue: World War 3. It was very much influenced by the Cold War in European countries that the fear arose in relation to the possible outbreak of another global disaster. Coming down to a summary, moral element intermingled with their international stance in a context of fear of potential World War 3 and insecurity of the Cold War led the Nordic countries to participate in the Korean War in the least aggressive manner. “I usually don’t research much on history as my interest is more on democracy in politics. But with this research, I was very interested in looking into the documents. I do empirical research, meaning I don’t speculate about how things should or would be in the future but rather how things were or have been. I was very interested in finding out why people act the way they do and how certain decisions are reached,” explained Saxer on his motivation of this research. "I intend to write a book on the linkage between foreign policy making and domestic politics in middle powers." Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-04 17 Important News

[Academics]Factors that Influence Donation Intentions via SNS

Social Network Service, also called as SNS, is rapidly developing its features to suit the current information-oriented society. In the 21st century, various types of communication do not require individuals to be nearby physical. Keeping pace with the times, the behavior dimension behind donating has also been altered into an online format. With the Internet's prompt speed and secured environment, people can now donate to charity organizations found on SNS pages. Through his paper “Factors Influencing Intention To Donate Via Social Network Site (SNS): From An Asian’s Perspective,” Professor Ahn Jong-chang, Department of Information System, investigates the correlations between people’s intention to donate and online external factors. Ahn is explaing the correlation between four external factors and the donation intention via SNS. Professor Ahn’s study examines whether external factors influence people’s general attitude towards online donation, and their intention to donate via SNS. These four external factors are defined as charity project, charity organization, Internet technology features and SNS features. Professor Ahn conducted an online survey of 258 respondents from South Korea and Malaysia based on the framework of the structural equation modelling- a multivariate statistical analysis technique used to analyze structural relationships. There are preceding researches regarding SNS donation intentions. However, these researches analyzed the correlation between the donation intention and only three external factors- charity project, charity organization, and the Internet technology features. “Since Internet 1.0, which was entirely made up of web pages connected by hyperlinks, has developed into Internet 2.0, the web characterized by change from static to dynamic or user-generated content and the growth of social media, my research partner and I came surmised that these multilateral interactions between users of SNS will also affect the donation intentions,” said Ahn. After analyzing the responses, Ahn discovered that the Internet technology features significantly influence general attitudes of people towards online donation, and general attitude positively contributes to people’s intention in donating via SNS. “We have found the full mediation effect of the general attitude towards online donation on the relationship between Internet technology features and intention to donate via SNS,” mentioned Ahn. The framework of the structural equation modelling above shows that Internet technology features influence people's donating intention through SNS. (Photo courtesy of Elsvier) However, the rest of the factors- charity project, charity organization, and the SNS features, were found to be ineffective, compared to the Internet technology features. Professor Ahn emphasized the importance to strengthen the Internet’s technological environment. “This consequentially means that if charity organizations long to fundraise significant amount of donations via SNS, they have to strengthen the Internet environment especially in the security field.” Although the research was based on an online survey of 258 people, Ahn says that his results cannot be generalized globally. “The research puts basis on the online survey conducted with Malaysian and South Korean respondents. This particularly limits my conclusion to the Asian areas,” highlighted Ahn. Professor Ahn produced his paper with a graduate student from Hanyang University, and he revealed the arduousness of the small research group. “Unlike a scientific research which can have a definite and distinct cause and effect results, this kind of social science research may incur ambiguity. Thus, clear and logical reasoning and firm data are considerably crucial,” asserted Ahn. The long road to publication taken by Ahn was strenuous. Due to the limited size of his research team, Ahn had to bear significant pressure and duty. Also, the time taken to finalize the paper took longer than other bigger research groups. However, it was Professor Ahn’s perseverance and passion towards academic achievements that produced promising consequences. Professor Ahn Jong-chang is expanding his research area to the West. Currently, Professor Ahn is working on submitting dissertations on the same topic but in the perspective of the West. It is his hope that the research environment of the social science field will be meliorated. “I wish all students of Hanyang University will continue working in their fields with passion. Just like Confucius said, the blissful time will come, if we make efforts not with anguish but with joy.” Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-04 10 Important News

[Academics]For the Future of Alternative Fuel Vehicles

It is a well-known fact that carbon-based vehicles are one of the main factors for causing problems that threatens environmental security such as climate change. It was an impediment task to develop Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFV) to reduce the amount of fossil fuel for the upcoming future. However, while the introduction of such eco-friendly transportation system has drawn a lot of attention, it has failed to become as widespread as it was expected to be. Professor Jeong In-jae of the Department of Industrial Engineering pointed out that it is mainly because of the serious lack of AFV’s refueling stations, which could be either electricity recharging stations or hydrogen stations. From his recent article “An optimal approach for a set covering version of the refueling-station location problem and its application to a diffusion model”, Jeong suggested the desirable algorithm example to build the most efficient number of refueling station to reduce the investment costs needed to develop refueling infrastructure. Jeong said increasing the number of refueling stations is the first task to motivate AFV industry. “It is like a vicious cycle,” said Jeong. A lot of people are being hesitant to change their conventional carbon-based vehicles to AFV because there is no sound infrastructure to support AFV. Thus, possible manufacturers of refueling stations also become hesitant to build more as there are no sufficient demand. “Everybody agrees with the impediment need for more spread of AFVs, but there are obvious vicious cycle which disturbs it. It is necessary for the government to step in the market,” said Jeong. To first initiate the growth of the market of both AFV and its refueling station, it is necessary to make initial investment possible, which is the problem of finance. To minimize the needed expense, Jeong assumed two situations to suggest different algorithms respectively. The difference between two situation lies whether there is or no existing refueling station as the math would be different between the two. The aim of the algorithm was same tough, to make the less stations for the greater effect. “I started to gain interest on the subject about 7 years ago. I had a chance to meet some the professors in the United States who had a same interest about AFVs. Thought that it is the subject which perfectly meets what is actually needed in the current society,” said Jeong. He also added how it is hard to know what kind of AFV will lead the future automobile industry is still yet to be clear, it is very important to prepare it beforehand. “It is hard to say that electric cars are the ones which is most eco-friendly as electricity still is an energy that is made from fossil fuels. Hydrogen cars are better in such aspect. But we don’t know the future so we have to have a theory and policy regarding both of them beforehand,” said Jeong. An example of a refueling station for electric cars. (Photo courtesy of bizwatch) While it is agreed by many that the research and development of AFVs main infrastructure should be more progressed and encouraged, Jeong said it is unfortunate to witness how the Korean government is merely trying to take care of matters as they come, which can lead to serious waste of the government budget. Still, regarding the topic, Jeong is now preparing to write another paper. If this paper was about how to calculate the most efficient number of stations, the next subject for his research is to calculate the most desirable driving route for an AFV. “Compared to carbon-based vehicles where stations are now practically easy-to-find and access, AFVs have a limited vehicle range. It can be different by company to company but the average distance is 130km when the car is fully charged. However, considering the fact that there are still less stations and cars have to recharge during its route, the efficient route of AFV is drastically different from that of carbon-based vehicles,” explained Jeong. Although Jeong had to work on all research by himself, he said it is still a big pleasure for him to work as a ‘researcher’. “When a lot of professors reach into years of careers, they become more of a ‘manager’ than a ‘researcher’. Instead of being involved in a research, they became a manager who direct and instruct his or her fellow researchers of graduate students. However, I thought that I’d want to remain as a researcher which led me to spare more time on my own research. It is tough and hard to do, but I want to keep my identity as a scholar as long as I can.” As a researcher, Jeong will continue on devoting his passion. Yun Ji-hyun uni27@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-04 03 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Detecting Ultra-Sensitive Benzene

Professor Kim Hyoun-woo of the Division of Materials Science and Engineering is April’s Researcher of the Month, for his active role in exploring the field of materials science and engineering. In his paper “Ultra-sensitive benzene detection by a novel approach: Core-shell nanowires combined with the Pd-functionalization”, Kim explains how the detection of benzene gas has become much more efficient than ever. The palladium being extra sensitive to benzene gas has been the key to the detection technique which has drawn attention in this field. Kim has discovered the link between palladium and benzene gas. The Pd-functionalized SnO2-ZnO C-S NW is the substance developed by Kim in order to detect benzene, a toxic gas. Since nano-sized palladium particles are added on a cell with SnO2 and ZnO covered on top, the sensor produces a spillover effect, distributing the benzene gas particles along the conduction band. The effectiveness of Kim's model is proven through the gas response. (Photo courtesy of Kim) This is important since benzene gas can be found in everyday life. It is inside cigarette smoke, smog, exhaust fumes and may be found in new houses, creating sick house syndrome. Through Kim’s finding, this benzene gas, which could be lethal to human lives, can be spotted in a much more sensitive manner. Since the sensors and cells created in a smaller size would lead to higher sensitivity, the particles have been selected in nano-sizes. The only problem that could arise with this sensor is that it depends heavily upon the selectivity of which gas it wants to detect. The compatibility between different particles could create great results as Kim has found out in the case of palladium and benzene, while in other cases, disastrous results may be spawned. Kim explains how his model works. Kim wishes to develop better usage of sensors than those that are being distributed in every day life as of now. “I want to find the best usage of a new sensing principle totally different from the current ones,” said Kim. Kim Seung-jun nzdave94@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-03 28

[Academics]Impact of Nickel on Frog Embryos

Environmental pollution permeates many lives of animals and humans and lowers the quality of life due to causes that consist of not only diseases but surprisingly of malformations as well. Professor Gye Myung-chan of the Department of Life Science specializes in the embryology of mammals and amphibians, and the harmful effects of environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Graduated from both HYU and its graduate school, he was given many awards and president of various academic societies, such as Korean Society of Environmental Biology. His recently published paper called “Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryo” observes nickel’s adverse influence to frog’s embryos. Gye is interested in embryology, which is a field of study that observes the early stages of life including the formation of sperm, ovum, and embryo. Even though amphibians include most endangered animals compared to other species, there is not enough research about frogs. This situation applies to studies about how organisms are affected by environmental pollutants occurred by artificial causes, such as nickel and other heavy metals, which is being researched by a lot of scholars. Searching for his own domain of studies, Gye decided to conduct an experiment regarding how nickel can negatively affect Bombina orientalis, a common widespread frog that lives in Korea. Due to its mild disposition, big and thus easily observable eggs, and the small body size being the advantage of handling with ease, the frog was chosen for the subject of Gye’s studies. “I also wanted to show that Korean frogs can be used as an important biological resource.” Gye included. To begin with, Gye let the frog’s embryos grow in multiple amount of nickel for 168 hours and found out the sublethal and lethal concentrations of the substance. “Sublethal concentration, which is about 1~10 uM (the 1,000,000/1 of 1 mole) is where embryos survive to display various abnormalities, such as underdevelopment of gills, tail dysplasia, bent trunk, and abdominal blister. On the other hand, lethal concentration, approximately 100 uM, is where death of embryos disenable the observation of their malformation,” said Gye. Various deformations of tadpoles under sublethal nickel concentration. (Photo courtesy of Gye) The period where the embryos were most sensitive to nickel was the ‘pre-muscular response to muscular response stages’. These stages are when the embryos develop to use their muscles to make their tail move. “Like the thalidomide incident where the babies of women who take doses of the medicine to reduce nausea in the early stage of their pregnancy became deformed, there is a much more sensitive period of certain substance’s adverse effects, ” explained Gye. The deformation of the embryo's tail during ‘pre-muscular response to muscular response stages’. The stage is where the tadpole starts to move its tail using its muscles. (Photo courtesy of Gye) Seeing that the tadpoles displayed signs of deformations, especially the abnormality of tail muscles, he cloned their DNA that controls the development of the muscles to find out the exact causes for the malformations. “DNA transcripts RNA, and it makes proteins. Proteins that are needed for composing muscles is then selectively turned on by hormones. Next, the signals of the hormones are caught by the transcription factors that help produce RNA,” Gye described. Then, he discovered that nickel prevented the activation of the transcription factors such as myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA, thus inhibiting the development of muscle proteins. Gye also found out that exogenous calcium reacts oppositely to nickel’s adverse effects. “The composition of calcium is similar to that of nickel. They compete against each other and then calcium replaces nickel, “ Gye mentioned. Gye found out that calcium’s substitution of nickel restores some of its negative effects to the embryos by re-increasing protein levels and calcium-dependent kinase activities, which has the role of changing the structures of proteins. “The dangers of nickel and other heavy metals apply not only to frog embryos, but also to other species and humans. The only solution to the problem is to reduce and prevent the spills of nickel caused by mining and industrial production, and law enforcement that regulates the spills is necessary,” Gye explained. Greatly interested in environment and the humans that live in it, Gye is currently leading the Enterprise Organization for Development of Alternative Chemicals of EDC of the Ministry of Science, ITC, and Future Planning. “I hope, through my research that I could realize Hanyang’s founding philosophy, Love in Deed, by enabling people to live healthier. I wish I could benefit the society by conducting useful and practical research,” Gye said. "I want to realize the founding philosophy of Hanyang by heightening the quality of life through my research." Jang Soo-hyun luxkari@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-03 21 Important News

[Academics]Genetic Architecture of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatology is a rather unexplored branch in the medical field, and its causes and cures have not yet been fully prepared. However, Professor Bae Sang-cheol of the College of Medicine at Hanyang University stands as one of the pioneers to define and research the causal factors of rheumatology and discover better remedies. In his research “Update on the genetic architecture of rheumatoid arthritis”, Bae clearly defines the factors of rheumatoid arthritis with regards to human genetics, and predicts the possibility for precision medicine. Bae is one of the pioneers in Korea to research and advance cures rheumatoid arthritis. In his paper, Bae has organized the causes and possible remedies for rheumatology researched in the last five years- collecting all data with advanced medical technology. Rheumatism hasn't been explored completely yet, so its causes are only speculated to be genetic and environmental factors. “Rheumatism is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the causes tend not to be external factors. It's assumed that 60% of the causes is the immune system attacking upon itself, acting out of misconception,” said Bae. Human genetic studies into rheumatoid arthritis have uncovered more than 100 genetic loci associated with susceptibility to the disease. This means that the majority of factors are highly shared across multiple ancestral populations. Bae and his fellow researchers organized the data on impaired immune processes and disease phenotypes for rheumatism. “The ultimate goal of this research paper was to enhance the possibility of finding the repurposed drug for each rheumatoid arthritis patient,” mentioned Bae. Since 2005, medical technology developed rapidly, especially in the genome field. For about a decade, a significant amount of the data was collected on genome structures that are likely to influence the rheumatoid diseases. “The grand development in this area is that now, technology can examine the whole genetic variants, instead of individual ones, using the whole genome analysis technique,” said Bae. Rheumatology-related genetics directly affect gene expression and protein function, and also influence cell signaling pathways. According to the cumulated data, this process causes the immune function to be disordered, and spawns diseases in patients. “Proteins that are encoded by rheumatoid risk variants have the potential to help the development of targeting drugs,” Bae explained. Two years were spent in total on the production of this paper, and each process was intricate. First, Bae was invited to co-write with rheumatology experts to analyze the causes and possibilities of advancing repositioning drugs. Then, he had to edit and peer review the analysis and consult with graphic designers to obtain desired pictures of rheumatoid figures. “All these processes took a long time, but interacting with peer reviewers was particularly helpful in advancing this article,” said Bae. Bae stresses the importance of enhancing research on drug repositioning. Drug repurposing, also called as drug repositioning, is applying and utilizing existing medicine to develop into rheumatoid remedies. This technique significantly curtails the cost and time to invent new drugs that target rheumatoid diseases, because existing drugs have already been approved for its pharmacodynamics. Also, the development of precision medicine, which therapeutically targets for personalized rheumatoid state, is being accelerated. “Rheumatoid arthritis does not signal the body in a unique way- it feels more like a cold in the beginning. But alerting oneself to get regular health checks may help to prevent the threatening disease." Bae's ultimate goal is to develop and contribute to organic and personalized rheumatoid arthritis drug invention. His efforts to contribute to the field of rheumatology are prominent, just like his favorite poem, 'The Road Not Taken', by Robert Frost. “Reminding yourself of the original attitude and always trying your best will undoubtedly lead you to success,” advised Bae. Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-03 14 Important News

[Academics]Way to Improve Korean Healthcare Ecosystem by U-healthcare System

Professor Lee Chang-won of School of Business is an expert in the field of healthcare management. From his years at graduate school in the United States, Lee became interested in telemedicine, so-called ubiquitous healthcare (u-healthcare) that can provide healthcare service and treatments to its patients regardless of time and location. After coming back to Korea, Lee started to study more deeply about healthcare management and also wrote a paper on how to effectively and efficiently allocate hospital resources. One of his most recent paper, “Improving healthcare quality: A technological and managerial innovation perspective,” specifically researched on quality characteristics of u-healthcare services for a health care service that influences users’ (hospital staffs) usage intentions. Prof.Lee is an expert in the field of healthcare management. The background of u-healthcare system starts with the aging society, a society with more than 7 percent of people who are older than 65 in a whole population. Such social changes have become a serious problem in many countries. In Korea as well, due to the increasing life expectancies and lowering birth rate, there are increasing number of elderlies. Societal aging influence on nearly every factor that affect an individual’s life quality, from economic growth, labor markets, housing, and health. To be more specific, it leads to reduction of productive workforce, while the costs of healthcare for the elderly greatly increases. Thus, it became crucial for the Korean government’s policy makers to initiate an innovative IT-based healthcare system to help people get access to qualified, but more affordable healthcare services. “In the case of patients who need regular medicine subscription or examination, it is unnecessary for them to visit hospitals every time. I think the u-healthcare system will be useful for both patients who requires long-term care and who lives far away from hospitals,” said Professor Lee. “There are various identified quality characteristics of u-health care. It includes, connectivity, compatibility, complexity, perceived benefit, and perceived trust. It was our purpose of the study to research on how such characteristics actually influence on the usage attention of hospital staffs,” explained Professor Lee. Thus, it is crucial for Korea’s policy makers to understand usage intentions of its stakeholders to later plan and implement the system better. To do so, Prof. Lee and his team did an empirical research on the 142 staff (physicians, nurses, technicians, and administrative staff) of hospitals in Korea. They used multiple survey methods via both online and offline to collect the needed data. The survey included about 3-4 pages of questions to understand their wiliness for new u-healthcare. The graph shows the overall framework of the research done in the paper. (Photo courtesy of Prof. Lee) The result showed several interesting connection or relevance between the characteristics of u-healthcare and usage intention of hospital staffs. First, it showed positive relationships with connectivity, compatibility and performance expectancy. It explained how an individual expects themselves to perform better with u-healthcare system when one has an ability to connect with u-healthcare system anytime anywhere. On the other hand, complexity and performance expectancy showed negative responses from the staffs. If a system is complex and difficult, taking more time to handle easily, it showed that their expectancy of performance is likely to reduce. “There were also quite high conservative responses from some of the staffs from the concern that u-healthcare is more accessible and affordable to patients,” said Prof Lee. “However, this study identifies benefits of u-healthcare system. Thus, it is a new task for us to suggest a new solution for people who are reluctant to adopt and use new technologies,” added Prof. Lee. Last but not least, Prof. Lee shared some more thoughts about the future of healthcare industry or management. “I feel that there are still misconceptions about “managing” healthcare and hospitals, people easily think that those two concepts of hospital and management cannot go along since management is all about seeking a private interest of a business organization. I think we definitely need a change of recognition,” said Prof. Lee. According to him, healthcare business or management should be more comprehensively compromised on consensus made among key players of healthcare ecosystem. “Managing an organization is not about promoting an interest of a certain group of people, but it is about considering the purpose (or mission) of every individual organization resulting in making a better society,” concluded Prof. Lee. Prof. Lee will continuously strive to develop better hospital ecosystem in Korea. Yun Ji-hyun uni27@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Yoon-soo