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2019-02 04

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] How to Effectively Create Eco-friendly Energy Using FOG

When we flush the toilet, the waste goes to the sewage treatment plant where the solid waste called sludge is separated from liquid waste. It seems as if this sludge will have no further use, but that turned out to be false. In fact, sludge is a massively important energy source for humans. In ‘Recent trends in anaerobic co-digestion: Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) for enhanced biomethanation,’ Professor Jeon Byong-hun (Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering) explains the new trend in anaerobic digestion called, ‘anaerobic co-digestion,’ which is recently receiving a lot of attention. Anaerobic co-digestion yields energy through combusting not only the sewage sludge but also the lipidic waste such as fat, oil, and grease. FOG contains dense carbon and, thus, can largely increase the amount of methane when co-digested, which in turn can increase the amount of energy. Professor Jeon Byong-hun (Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering) explains the anaerobic co-digestion, which creates methane from sludge and FOG, which can be combusted to create eco-friendly energy. When sludge gets processed in the sewage treatment plant, this biomass is broken down by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. This results in several end products, and one of them is methane. Methane could in turn be combusted to generate energy – a renewable, eco-friendly energy. This process is called anaerobic digestion. The anaerobic digestion is a necessary process used world-wide in order to reduce the amount of sewage sludge as well as to create eco-friendly energy. However, anaerobic digestion with only the sewage sludge as its source yielded an insignificant amount of energy, and there needed to be a way to increase the yielded energy. The diagram explains the ordinary sewage treatment in Phase 1 and the process of anaerobic co-digestion in Phase 3. (Photo courtesy of Jeon) Nonetheless, there have been several drawbacks in this particular process, which Jeon acknowledges and has suggested a new direction for the research. The problem is that long chain fatty acids (LCFA) contained in FOG inhibits the process, creating problems such as sludge floatation, washout, and scum formation. In the paper, Jeon discussed numerous pretreatment approaches and the latest techniques to solve these problems. Finally, based on the laboratory, pilot, and full-scale investigations, he concluded that the co-digestion of sludge and FOG greatly increased biomethane production, and presented several factors (such as concentration of FOG loading, mixing intensity, reactor configuration, and operation conditions) as the influential factor in improving the biomethane production. Jeon highlights the necessity of this particular form of bioenergy. “Most forms of energy can only be electrical energy. Solar, wind, and even atomic energy are all electrical energy only. Electrical energy is important, but it cannot replace everything, especially fossil fuel. Fossil fuel can be converted into electrical energy, but unlike other electrical energy sources, it can also become liquid, as well as gas and a solid energy carrier, and do many things, such as being put into transportation vehicles. The bioenergy coming from sludge and FOG can replace this portable energy source. Basically, this energy can do what any other eco-friendly energy cannot do,” Jeon emphasized. (Front row, middle) Jeon and his students pose for a photo in the laboratory. Lim Ji-woo Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2019-01 30

[Academics][Excellent R&D] ACEnano Toolbox for H2020

Whilst the rapid development of technology has made our lives immensely easier, it has also brought unavoidable consequences that have affected our society. It is a double-edged sword with ongoing debates among scholars, civilians, and politicians regarding the extent to which it should be regulated to safeguard our society, resulting in such different standards and regulations imposed onto products. Yoon Tae-hyun (Department of Chemistry), is in the process of developing a toolbox that would allow companies to avoid clashes with these different regulations imposed in each country. H2020 stands for horizon 2020, which marks the project's initial deadline in the year 2020 massively funded by the European Union. (Photo courtesy of NewsH) Yoon’s work in the field of analytical chemistry involves analyzing the influence of each nanoparticle that is also vastly used in our daily products such as makeup and humidifier sterilizers, depending on their size, shape, component, physical or chemical response, and biological influence. His focus is on developing the ACEnano toolbox (Analytical and Characterization Excellence in nanomaterial toolbox), which is an international cooperative research between Korea and the European Union (EU) with the goal of H2020 (Horizon 2020). With the goal of creating a nanomaterial risk assessment tool, he wishes to help companies overcome the different regulatory barriers in each country when exporting their products. “Each country has its own legal and regulatory systems that companies must pass before putting their products out in the market. Most companies do have the capacity to develop high quality and effective products to bring maximum profit, but they don’t have enough capacity nor specialized knowledge in the safety area that ultimately prevents them from entering the market,” said Yoon. ACEnano toolbox development steps (Photo courtesy of Yoon) The project is carried out with ACEnano international consortium, with main members from the EU such as Austria, Germany, and Sweden, as well as partner countries such as Korea, China, and Mexico. The research also involves global equipment and manufacturing companies to add practicality. The developed toolbox will help companies using nanotechnology to minimize any potential harm coming from the nanoparticles on the human body or the environment, hence giving it the name, "safety by design." “The fact that companies will also be able to develop environmentally and physically safe, high quality and effective products and thus have no problems with tough regulations in different countries will allow countries to avoid clashes and lead to continuous exchange,” stated Yoon. According to Yoon, the EU has already started registering all nanomaterials since 2018, and Korea plans to follow its steps in 2023. This creates an opportunity for partial commercialization of the toolbox in just two to three years. He believes that in order to protect the environment from nano-chemical materials and our health from unregulated nano-chemical products, it is definitely crucial for there to be regulations. However, there should also be a global standard that rules out unnecessary and tough regulations that are not based on scientific evidence to also allow companies to be more interactive with their products and their development. “Recently, there have been frequent chemical material accidents that have instigated debate on whether to have tougher regulations or not. However, I don’t think this is a simple black-and-white matter to decide. New technology is always a double-edged sword, and we should look for ways to minimize the negatives and maximize the positives,” said Yoon. Park Joo-hyun

2019-01 14

[Academics]Performance of Stock Price with Changes in SRI Governance Index

Professor Lee Chang-won (School of Business) recently presented his study on the performance of stock price with changes in socially responsible investment (SRI) governance index. Mainly looking at the different levels of performance that various corporations are achieving depending on their SRI, Lee has managed to publish his studies in the academic journal, "Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management." According to Lee, while the performance of a corporation was evaluated only on its actual profit in the past, the importance of fulfilling its social responsibility is gaining weight in its evaluation in order to achieve sustainable growth nowadays. With a trend of studying how to reflect social responsibility within the actual performance of a company, Lee has managed to find the correlations between the stock price of a corporation, which represents its performance, and its inclusion within the SRI governance index. Professor Lee Chang-won (School of Business) recently presented his study on the performance of stock price with changes in SRI governance index, finding the correlation of how corporations within the index showed higher levels of performance both in the short and long term. “It is those that are included in this SRI governance index that have managed to show a higher performance both in the short and long term,” stated Lee. Having to satisfy the various stakeholders within the company, it is mainly those that have managed to conduct such social actions that have seen an actual rise of their stock price, or in other words, shown high levels of performance. This is especially applicable to global corporations, as they have to satisfy the different levels of social actions that their more varied stakeholders require. Socially responsible investment (SRI) It was explained by Lee that the social responsibility of corporations varies across a number of fields, including those of environmental, economic and even those related to the governance structure of such companies. Presenting an example of environmental responsibility, he explained how corporations within the index focus upon issues, both internally and externally. Internally, the working environments of the workers are improved, whereas externally, environmental problems such as air pollution are tackled by the company. The importance of such actions is becoming enhanced, especially when related to the sustainable growth of a corporation. Additional to the traditional financial index, the SRI is also becoming a significant metric for success. “It can be compared to today’s students. They are not only required to simply study hard during their school years but also to become skilled in order to adapt and succeed in the contemporary society. The same goes for companies, as they have to do more than simply make profit,” explained Lee. Lee explained how the inclusion of the SRI governance index has now become an important metric for the performance of corporations and their sustainable growth. The research and its future With the importance of social responsibility for corporations gaining light, Lee believes that it is the highest level of management that should be mostly focused towards this trend. In order to become a corporation that successfully conducts business on the international level, it is crucial to be included within the SRI index and fulfill the levels of social responsibility that is being required in the current industry. Lee started his research in order to prove this correlation and arouse the attentions of domestic corporations, which put a heavy emphasis upon ‘owner leadership.’ Using the traditional event history analysis method, Lee focused upon the actual factors that had an impact upon a corporations’ stock price and compared the performance of those that are either included or excluded within the SRI governance index from 2003 to 2012. He was able to conclude the significance of the inclusion within the SRI index as being crucial, especially within the global business environment. This is due to the fact that it is not only the developed markets, but also the markets of developing countries that are placing a higher emphasis upon social responsibility. Based on his research, Lee showed his hopes towards corporations showing a higher interest in social responsibility, becoming a company that goes from ‘Good to Great’ and that can show actual contributions towards a healthier society. He also added that the students of Hanyang should also become figures that are able to acknowledge and fulfill the responsibilities that the society requires, being able to carry out the school philosophy of ‘Love in Deed’ when they become the true leaders of society in the future. Choi Seo-yong Photos by Park Guen-hyung

2019-01 14

[Academics][Excellent R&D] GET-Future Lab

Amidst the rising awareness and concerns over climate change, two major events such as the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015 and Volkswagen’s Dieselgate scandal have really started to place countries worldwide under the pressure of stricter environmental regulations. With many countries accelerating their research to overcome the future environmental challenges whilst embracing the oncoming wave of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Professor Sun Yang-kook (Department of Energy Engineering) has taken up this major mission as a leading research lab in Korea. Sun Yang-kook (Department of Energy Engineering) is explaining how crucial the development of ion battery technology is for Korea. According to the United States Environment Protection Agency (EPA), one of the major emitters of greenhouse gas, a vital contributor to climate change, is carbon dioxide (CO2). The primary source of CO2 includes cars and factories where there is a high usage of fossil fuel and industrial processes. That is why countries, especially those who are member-states of the UN and have agreed to the Paris Agreement, are striving to keep low emission levels to mitigate the worsening conditions. The fact that fossil fuel is an exhaustible source only adds to the incentive to develop the appropriate technology that could even further improve living conditions. One of the major examples of ongoing research for this are the battery-run cars. The current commercial batteries on the market are lithium-ion batteries. However, because it is comparatively less abundant, less capacity-efficient, and higher in cost, research for replacements have already long been in place. Now, there are the likes of Li-S batteries, Li-Air batteries, and Na-ion batteries, but they are still in the process of research and are not enough to fully supplement nor replace the lithium-ion batteries. “Especially because Korea does not have abundant natural resources, it is crucial for us to develop our own technology ahead of other countries,” said Sun. The expected battery-run car sales rate per year (Photo courtesy of Sun) The development of the next generation of ion battery technology is vital as it can decide your place in the future market. Developing and securing this environmentally friendly technology is the future, and that is why time is crucial. “In 2017, sales for battery-run and hybrid cars was highest in Japan (1.1 million), and then in China (800,000), Europe and America in that order. For China, its battery-run car sales increased by 38 percent within just a year and is expected to increase up to 1.5 million by 2020. Overall, the market for battery-run cars and the natural demand for car batteries is expected to increase from $15.7 billion (2016) to $67.6 billion (2020, 331 percent increase from 2016),” said Sun. Sun and his GET-Future Lab lab students That is why Sun has taken full responsibility to lead the GET-Future Lab. The GET-Future Lab receives full support from the school and is the only lab where active research on next generation batteries and interactive knowledge sharing with both companies, such as LG Chemical and POSCO, takes place. “This lab was mainly created and run for three things: secure vital battery technology to take the lead in the market, increase the high-skilled workforce in the battery field in Korea, and enhance research exchange with foreign countries. Getting here was a competitive process as well. Luckily, my work and passion were recognized, and I am proud to lead this lab and contribute to our country’s future,” said Sun. Park Joo-hyun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-12 31

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Nonfoamy Macrophages, More Effective in Restraining Arteriosclerosis

Department of Life Science Professor Choi Jae-hoon's thesis: "Transcriptome analysis reveals nonfoamy rather than foamy plaque macrophages are proinflammatory in atherosclerotic murine models" was officially published offline on October 26th of this year through the Circulation Research Journal. The objective of the study was to examine the state of foamy and nonfoamy macrophages to determine which are more likely to drive lesional inflammation. “The single-cell RNA sequencing” technique was selected as the breakthrough of the year by the 2018 science journal. That is, now it was possible to study how and when each cell creates a leg, a foot, or a tail through the single-cell RNA sequencing. Recently, technology has developed to the extent that using this technique has made it possible to catch the change of a gene in a single cell, instead of many cells. According to Professor Choi Jae-hoon (Department of Life Science), newly announcing the traits of macrophages during the process of discovering arteriosclerosis is one step forward for the science community. Inflammation is the reaction of our body in the case of injury or infection. Activating an immunocyte is a process of curing inflammation. Similarly, if lipids (simply known as fat) accumulate in blood vessels and bring infections to the body, the immunocytes that follow the inflammation are a compound of cells including macrophages and a lymphocytes. Among those, macrophages are one of the most important cells, which acts as a cleaner, eating up dead or damaged organic body. These macrophages detect and eliminate lipids effectively at first, but when lipids pile up, it becomes difficult to remove, and the infection tends to grow. The initial state of macrophages before they eat up lipids is called nonfoamy macrophages. Macrophages grows bigger as they consume lipids, and this state is known as foamy macrophages. Initially attacked macrophages actively trigger inflammation, whereas macrophages that consumed many lipids do not contain much genes related to infection and instead work hard to eliminate lipids. In the past, analysis was done on the whole rather than respecting the individual traits of single cells. Through single-cell RNA sequencing, they first discovered that macrophages that came into the blood vessel before the uptake of lipid facilitated inflammatory responses. On the other hand, the macrophages that had become bigger by consuming lipids lacked the ability to be inflamed, effectively eliminating lipids. Nonfoamy macrophages must be restrained. “The fire broke out in the nonfoamy state, so the fire must be put out in such a state,” stated professor Choi. The foamy macrophages take care of infections in the beginning, but when they cannot handle them, they die and the cells burst, creating inflammation all over again. Suppressing nonfoamy macrophages is a much more effective way to restrain arteriosclerosis since nonfoamy macrophages promote inflammation. Professor Choi is posing with his graduate students in the lab at the College of Natural Sciences. The beginning of professor Choi’s research was when one of his graduate students performed an experiment of extracting only the foamy macrophages in order to grasp the traits of them. That was in the year 2012, a year after he first came to Hanyang University. Professor Choi also studied at Washington State University for a year with his studies concluding in January of this year. The single-cell RNA sequencing, an integral part of research needed for his thesis, was conducted in Washington as the same technique was not available at Hanyang University. Professor Choi expressed his hopes to perform similar research in Korea in the future, when Hanyang University is equipped with the available sources. He enthusiastically went on to say that he wanted to further study bioinformatics, which is a technique used to analyze the big data that single-cell RNA sequencing produces. Professor Choi emphasized the need to accurately analyze what is going on in a living body, and advised students to do research that can help many people. “Just like the study of life science, look further into the future rather than seeing short term results and gains.” Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-12 17

[Academics]Fear Not English Writing; Use Translation

Learning a second language is laborious as one can recall the horrors of attempting to write for the first time using the foreign language. Out of the four skills of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), writing skills are thought of as the most difficult to master. That is why most English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes leave out the writing until the last. Nevertheless, Professor Lee Mun-woo (Department of English Language Education) argues that no exposure to writing at the early stage merely indicates that the hardest task is procrastinated to the later stage. “I figured that, instead, we should allow the beginners to face the writing but with little help from their first language.” In her paper, ‘Translation revisited for low-proficiency EFL writers,’ Lee proposes a case for a successful method in teaching EFL writing: namely, a translation method. Professor Lee Mun-woo (Department of English Language Education) aims to develop an EFL education model specific for Korean teachers and students. Lee held a three-semesters-long action research, personally teaching thirteen middle and high school students, all of whom had very low levels of English proficiency. “By low-proficiency, I mean that some students could barely read and write in English,” she recalled. At first, students were told to create their own stories, written in Korean. Those were then translated into English by the students themselves. Initially, they were not allowed to use their dictionaries. “It was a very difficult process. Students would write ‘I…’ and nothing more came out.” After that, they were allowed to discuss in groups. Although none had a sufficient knowledge of English, some unexpectedly accurate suggestions emerged from time to time. On the last stage, they completed their writings with the peers' feedback and the one-to-one writing conference with the teacher. Lee analyzed the collected data, her notes, and the students’ written pieces. The outcome was significant. “The participating students showed clear improvements in both their confidence and their actual capacity for English writing,” remarked Lee. Students, who at the start stopped at inserting English words into the slots of the corresponding Korean words, started to be aware of the change in verb tenses, the English word order, and even of the appropriate uses of the ing-verb form and to-verb form. "I wish my beloved students would grow up to be ones that are recognized for their ability and loved for their personality." Lee clearly remembers the simultaneously growing confidence of her students. They often said, "I was afraid of English writing before – now, I feel like I can manage. I’m not scared anymore." She projects that the translation method could bring about a meaningful effect, especially in the English classrooms in Korea. For this, a follow-up study is being conducted; this time, however, the study will target students at a higher English proficiency. Lee says her aim is to build an EFL education model for Koreans. “Although having English-proficiency is important in Korean, most Korean EFL classes do not have a teaching method specifically adjusted for Korean students. Thus, many Koreans are troubled with learning. This study is meaningful in that it sets the first stepping stone toward developing a Korean-specific EFL teaching method, especially for those who are the most marginalized inside the classes.” Lim Ji-woo Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-12 10

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Key to Possibly a New Generation of Batteries

Phones, laptops, cars, and many other daily necessities that we use are run by batteries. Batteries are something we need and can be obtained easily in any stores, but how much do we actually know about the basic principles of batteries, and what goes on behind the doors of the labs that research and experiment these must-haves? After numerous trial and error, Professor Sun Yang-kook (Department of Energy Engineering) and Dr. Hwang Jang-yeon's (Department of Energy Engineering) paper on the “Development of P3-K0.69CrO2 as an Ultra-High-Performance Cathode Material for K-ion Batteries” marks a huge milestone in the research field of batteries. The principle of batteries (Photo courtesy of A battery has three parts with different charges called a cathode (positive terminal) and an anode (negative terminal) on each side of the battery and an electrolyte in the middle. When either end of the battery is hooked up to an electrical circuit and the battery is turned on, the chemical reactions in the battery cause a build-up of electrons at the anode, after which, some of them flow through the electrical circuit into the cathode. Meanwhile, the ions in the anode travel across the electrolyte into the cathode. This process can be reversed, and this is how you charge and recharge your battery. The process of charging something with your battery and then recharging your battery is called a cycle. When cycles repeat, the electrochemical processes change the chemicals in both the cathode and the anode, eventually burning them out. This is why a battery has a limited lifespan. The current commercial rechargeable batteries that one can commonly see in any phones or cars are lithium-ion batteries. According to Sun, there has been a boom in sodium-ion and potassium-ion batteries as a possible substitute for lithium-ion batteries since 2010. “It’s because sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are more abundant, and, therefore, low in cost. The better accessibility and availability make them a better candidate in case lithium-ion batteries need to be replaced in the future,” said Sun. Although the mechanisms of sodium-ion and potassium-ion batteries are similar to that of lithium-ion batteries, there have been major difficulties hindering the commercialization of these batteries. Lithium (Li), sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) are in Group 1 of the periodic table. (Photo courtesy of BBC) Some of the difficulties come from sodium and potassium being highly reactive to oxygen and water. Based on the periodic table, reactivity increases as you go down the group as the size of the ions increase. That is why sodium (Na) is more reactive than lithium (Li), and potassium (K) is more reactive than sodium (Na). Principally, because there was a lack of appropriate equipment that could foster the experiments of such highly reactive materials, it was only last year that research on potassium-ion batteries was revisited. “The size of potassium-ions are very big, so it’s hard for them to slip into the cathode part of the battery that is optimized for lithium-ions as much as they can. This means that this battery will not be efficient enough and die out quicker than lithium-ion-charged batteries,” said Sun. This was the beginning of his research on potassium-ion batteries. According to computer simulations, it seemed theoretically possible to overcome such problems. However, Sun was the first to successfully realize this theory by finding the right balance of electrodes with potassium, chromium (a transition metal that makes the transition of the ions and electrons possible in a battery, also used in lithium-ion batteries), and oxygen. “In the case of lithium-ion batteries, about 100 cycles of charging and recharging was possible, whereas sodium and potassium-ion batteries could produce around 30 cycles. In order to carry out research on potassium-ion batteries, it was important not to have it exposed as it would easily react with air and water, contaminating the experiment. This is why we created a “cell” that created an optimal, no air and no water environment,” said Sun. Sun explaining the findings of the P3-K0.69CrO2 (Photo courtesy of Sun) After numerous trial and error, Sun was able to find the right balance between the amount of potassium (K) and chromium (Cr) needed to become a stable battery. P3-K0.69CrO2 shows that for a potassium-ion battery to be stable and work as a battery, there needs to be a ratio of 0.69 potassium, 1 chromium, and 2 oxygen. In the case of lithium-ion batteries, there needs to be a ratio of 1 lithium and 1 chromium to work as a full battery. “Then we put sodium in the cathode and potassium in the anode. Because sodium is smaller in size than potassium, more of the sodium can be stored into the potassium anode when charging, while the bigger potassium would help keep the battery charged. After 300 cycles of experimenting, we found the optimal balance,” said Sun. With this right balance, Sun was able to create a potassium-ion battery that is usable for 1000 cycles. Sun wishes to continue his study on potassium-ion batteries until he develops an electrode solely for potassium-ions. “Although I was able to get the number of cycles up, it is still less efficient than lithium-ion batteries. I hope that in the future potassium-ion batteries can also become commercialized, as it is a much more affordable and abundant option than lithium.” Park Joo-hyun

2018-12 05

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Promoting the Global Competence of Domestic Businesses

The Korea Institute of Sustainable Economy (KISE) is one of the 18 surviving teams of the Social Science Korea (SSK) business, supervised by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF). Being evaluated on mainly three stages, KISE has managed to surpass the former two evaluation processes by currently focusing its research upon enhancing the global competence of domestic businesses, especially from the viewpoint of distribution systems. The Social Science Korea (SSK) business refers to a research program funded by the NRF, which was first started in 2010 with the purpose of promoting research institutions that conduct research activities in the field of humanities and social science on an international basis. Whereas most research programs of the social science field are funded on a two to three year period, the SSK is a more long-term one which was targeted with ten years of research, developing into three stages: small, medium, and large-sized projects. Only the teams that pass the evaluations of the NRF upon their progress on the former stages are able to move on to the projects of the later phases. With an initial 90 teams being selected out of the 500 that applied for the small-sized studies, only 45 were able to move on to the medium-sized projects. Once again, the number was halved to 20 when advancing on to the final stage, with the current surviving teams counting up to only 18. KISE In this sense, KISE has made great progress on not only the former two phases of research, but also its current large-sized project. Professor Kim Bo-young (School of Business), the director of KISE, explained the progress that KISE has gone through the past eight years of research since 2010. Professor Kim Bo-young (School of Business), the director of the Korea Institute of Sustainable Economy (KISE), is explaining the research progress that KISE has gone through since 2010. Small-sized project When first starting the SSK project, KISE first focused upon an agenda that had both a social impact and practical implications. With a large emphasis being put on the Free Trade Agreements (FTA), especially upon the food industry at the time, KISE targeted their research towards the sustainable growth of ‘Food Security,’ ‘Food Safety,’ and ‘Global Branding Strategies.’ While giving a main focus upon China, as a major trade partner, KISE studied and compared the food safety management system of the two countries. Also giving light to the distributional process of the food industry, KISE conducted research on the strategies of marketing and positioning that the domestic businesses should implement when exporting food. KISE studied the actual products of Korea and China, and the strategies that would help them gain competence in the global market and maintain a global brand image. With the studies mainly focused upon China, during this stage, Kim and her team formed a global network with Chinese research institutions, while holding various symposiums on the subject. Medium-sized project Moving on to the medium-sized project in 2013, KISE targeted their focus more to the open global market in order to meet the goals of sustainable development. During this stage, KISE also collaborated with the Climate Change Center of Konkuk University, in order to study the steady supply and growth of food during extreme weather conditions. The studies also became more diversified with focusing on mainly four points within the global market. With health products gaining more popularity in the global markets and the industry also fiercely enhancing, KISE studied how Korean health products, such as ‘Ginseng,’ should promote themselves within this particular market. Unlike the small-sized stage, the comparatives were extended from China to other countries including the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The international consuming patterns and how Korean industries should position themselves within such global trends was also a main study of this stage. Risk communication models were also researched and compared on a global basis. With various countries all having their own model, the advantages and disadvantages of each model were given a thorough research. Cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MOFD) was made in order to find the ideal model of handling food-related crisis. The last of the four main points, the actual infrastructure of the distribution process, was not put upon full focus during the medium phase, but was given more light in the later large-sized project. Large-sized project (Current) When entering the large-sized phase in 2016, the distribution system went through a great change under the fourth industrial revolution. For this reason, the infrastructure of the distribution process, from the former stage, became the main research in this large phase. With offline and online channels becoming united, the distribution system is going through an innovative process in which the consuming patterns are also greatly changing. Being in an early stage of adaption of such systems, KISE targeted its research towards how both consumers and industries would react to this major change. Kim is explaining how the use of big-data will be an important aspect in the new distributional system of the fourth industrial revolution. How this innovative change is being accepted in other comparative countries was a start of this particular research. Collaborating with the Japanese company ‘MUJI’ and having access to their big data on consumption patterns, KISE is further targeting their research beyond the food industry into other various consumer goods and how the domestic industries should position themselves in this rapidly changing system. With the access of big data allowing KISE to extend and deepen their research, there are still some remaining goals of the institution. According to Kim, studying the practical implications that the innovative distribution system has upon market competence, the rapidly changing consumer patterns, and the global strategies that domestic businesses should implement within this new system to maintain their global competence and brand image are the main remaining tasks that KISE should conclude during this large stage. With around two years left for the SSK project, Kim asserted that this does not designate an end to the current research that KISE is conducting. Although the SSK project did indicate a start for KISE, it does not necessarily correspond to an end. Kim also added that there will be further tasks and research that she and KISE should conduct in helping promote the global competence of domestic businesses, especially in the forms of sustainable growth. Choi Seo-yong Photos by Park Guen-hyung

2018-11 19

[Academics]Political Democratization to Democratization in Everyday Life

The viral tidal wave of the Me Too movement that started in 2017 did not fail to hit Korea as well. The liberal movement is one of the most revolutionary moments in Korea after the candle light revolution and the impeachment of the former president. Basing his research on such revolutionary acts, professor Joo Sung-soo (Graduate School of Public Policy) reported his study results and the newly coined term, “democratization in everyday life” on the Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), one of the major national television and radio network companies in Korea. Joo Sung-soo (Graduate School of Public Policy) was a panelist on the SBS program, "A World Changed by Individuals." (개인이 바꾸는 세상) (Photo courtesy of Joo) Sexual assaults and corruption have existed since time immemorial. However, the explosion of allegations is a recent phenomenon that has not been observed before. According to Joo, the focus of the research was “why now?” It took Joo a laborious process of five months just to get together with various scholars and the SBS debate committee, after which he was finally able to conclude that the burst in the waves of accusations all boiled down to the activation of IT platforms and individualism. After the succession of the Sewol Ferry incident and the piles of unresolved sexual assaults and hidden camera issues, people have come to live in constant anxiety and fear that they can no longer trust anyone but themselves to help or protect themselves from these threats. Luckily, various online platforms have allowed these individuals to gather online to share and talk about their fear, dissatisfaction, and needs for change. People have then started forming a tight bond of empathy, which has eventually led to mass action, an example of which was the candle light revolution. The candle light revolution in the midst of growing anxiety was a historical event that ignited the beginning of a domino effect that uncovered the dirty crusts of our society. Joo is explaining the term 'democratization in everyday life' during the interview on November 16th, 2018. The successful impeachment of the former president after a series of protests has encouraged people to be aware of the power of their voice. If it was not for the online platform, the candlelight revolution would have been impossible. In other words, such revolutionary acts have all started from individuals who have gathered online. “The term ‘democratization in everyday life’ is based on IT technology and the tight-knit network that individuals form through online conversation and collective intelligence. In this way, individuals form a bond of empathy through which they can freely express themselves, and the freedom of expression is of course, one of the essential conditions of a democracy,” said Joo. Joo presents his research on SBS on November 2nd, 2018. (Photo courtesy of Joo) Joo admitted that the internet definitely has two faces. “Up till now, I think only the dark side of the internet has been dealt with. I won’t deny that it can isolate some people, but I believe that it has more positive sides to it than the negatives. This especially applies for Koreans,” said Joo. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), 57 percent of South Koreans use social media for news at least once a day, while 47 percent use it several times a day. “It means that the majority of Koreans, especially teenagers and young adults, are constantly exposed to the online world, a place where they can learn new information on a daily basis and freely form new connections with other online-users countless times throughout the day,” said Joo. “Times are changing and I think that it’s important we make a change in our values accordingly.” The younger generations live in an era where they are constantly exposed to a free flow of information and democratic ideologies. Korea, along with its Chinese and Japanese counterparts, is slowly moving away from its authoritative culture. However, there is still a distinct generational gap as this sort of value change is more apparent in the younger and comparatively liberal generation. This can only create more generational conflict and societal instabilities. “That’s why I came up with the term, 'democratization in everyday life.' It’s different from political democratization because the latter only focuses on politics. Now we should focus not only on the politics but also on bringing democracy into our daily lives, fully living up to our rights like freedom of expression and speech,” said Joo. When asked to impart any lasting words of wisdom, Joo responded, “democratization in everyday life also exists in our school. Amongst your colleagues, your seon-hubaes (senior-junior), or between a professor and a student, there may exist some sort of authoritative relationship. I’m a professor, but I also go through unjust treatment from time to time. Democracy begins with being able to express. I hope this sort of free atmosphere also spreads throughout the school as well.” Park Joo-hyun Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-11 13

[Academics]Complementary Relationship of the Chinese Government and Company

A practical curiosity of whether Chinese companies that have adopted ISO 14001, which is an environmental management evaluation system, can actually avoid the government’s inspections regarding environmental factors has fueled the research of Professor Choi Seong-jin (School of Business). Choi is not only interested in research based on China, but he is also actively supporting Chinese students in Hanyang University. His thesis is whether the voluntary restraint in private sectors and the compulsory monitoring of the government contradict or complement each other. Professor Choi Seong-jin (School of Business) is explaining the logic behind his thesis on November 9th, 2018. The marketplace is not perfect, as scholars of transaction costs have suggested. If the market is left freely, problems like monopoly or social costs like external diseconomy may increase. This brings out the need for governments to intervene and act as a surveillant so that the market is well off. However, companies find the monitoring of the government a burden, and governments themselves face the problem of enormous costs to oversee the activities of all companies. This has facilitated the enactment of a self-regulatory organization called private regulations. Namely, companies can reduce uncertainty coming from the government by implementing ISO 14001 before government efforts to intervene in environmental factors. By using data collected from approximately 1,500 Chinese companies in 12 cities, it shows that private and governmental regulations are in a complementary state. Furthermore, the research findings indicate the connection with the government, often times called “guanxi” in Chinese, strengthens this tendency. If ISO 14001 is adopted in a public institution, or if the CEO is connected to the government in some way, the company can be even more free from government intervention of environmental regulations. Choi revealed his hopes for Chinese students interested in business administration, entrepreneurship, or strategy to visit him in the School of Business any time. (Photo courtesy of Choi) Other than his vast array of research revolving around China, professor Choi is also very much interested in guiding Chinese students as a current adviser for them in the School of Business. “25 percent of students in the School of Business are Chinese students,” he said. “My goal when teaching at Hanyang University is that my research on China and my teachings of students would balance each other and bring about synergism in both areas.” He meets around five Chinese students a week for a face-to-face, casual talk about everyday life. Choi majors in the relationship between company and government also known as nonmarket strategy, as well as student entrepreneurship. He is the adviser of the “New Business Lab” at the School of Business, creating many goods that represent Hanyang University through a 3D printer. Although his major in nonmarket strategy is a non-mainstream field in research, professor Choi stressed his hopes for students in Hanyang University to not be afraid to go on the narrow, unfamiliar path of study or occupation, as long as they like what they are doing. Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Lee Jin-myung