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2019-05 13

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Manpower Cultivation for Industry Convergence of 5G and Unmanned Vehicles

The Fourth Industrial Revolution has changed and is still influencing the development of all of society in its technological advancements, which has enabled further convenience in people's daily lives. Recently, South Korea obtained the title of being the first country in the world to launch the 5th generation (5G) of wireless communication, and the utilization of 5G technology has become a hot potato all across the globe. In light of pursuing 5G utilization, Professor Kim Sun-woo (Division of Electronic Engineering) is making efforts toward the innovation of the core original technology of 5G and unmanned vehicle technology based on 5G. Professor Kim Sun-woo (Division of Electronic Engineering) has successfully enrolled in a research center that concentrates on the intensive research of unmanned vehicles based on 5G technology. Kim was first appointed as a Hanyang University professor in 2005 and has continuously been conducting research on wireless communications, signal processing technology, and precise positioning, which is technology that accurately locates moving objects. Along with his steady efforts into his field of interest, Kim particiated in a 5G technology proposal contest at the 2017 University Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Research Center and was successfully selected among other fierce competitors. His team at the research center is composed of 10 professors from Hanyang University, Seoul National University, and Ajou University, along with 10 related large conglomerates and small and medium-sized enterprises. “Current research regarding 5G unmanned vehicles has been ongoing since 2017 and is expected to continue for up to six years. The research is based on in-depth applied mathematics for developing core original technology, and we are working on innovating both software and hardware for the realization of such technology,” said Kim. For the research to be successful, a firm basis along with a high quality of programming is also needed. Furthermore, in order to compete internationally, Kim’s team is actively progressing with joint research with skillful personnel from all parts of the world and conducting customized research in accordance with the enterprises’ requirements. The 5G Research Center is demonstrating drone flights incorporated with 5G, running a demonstration on an RC car that drives autonomously, and using a specific device that recognizes vision and motion. (Photo courtesy of Wireless Systems Laboratory) As 5G technology is becoming more commercialized in our society and is expected to maintain its influence for approximately 10 years, continuous innovation of original technology on communications is needed, and as time passes by, various applied technology will emerge. The current notable autonomous vehicles, smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT) technology, drones, etc. are all based on and will be further developed using 5G. According to Kim, “Developing 5G and original technology for unmanned vehicles, along with cultivating related manpower to this field, has significant implications. Keeping such a research center at Hanyang plays a pivotal role when it comes to increasing the status of our university.” While communication technology was utilized fundamentally for conversations between individuals or for transmitting data in the past, the current and the future trend of 5G technology will be expanded to include communication between objects. “Based upon such trends, a variety of applied services are expected to emerge, and these services will have considerable influence on human society that will change the entire spectrum of thoughts from people,” insisted Kim. Kim believes that gaining international competitiveness and surviving in such a fast-moving society is important. For these things to happen, providing the best quality of funding in Research and Development (R&D) and progressing differentiated research programs are necessary. In addition, efforts toward internationalization and participation in various academic activities are also needed. “Of course, I am willing to conduct more research into communication technology, but I think my first job as a professor is to foster Hanyang students into excellent academic experts. Students have limitless potential and talent. What we lack is imagination. With their infinite imagination, the way to success is to keep expanding their efforts into fulfilling their dreams,” Kim concluded. The Wireless Systems Laboratory will continue with their research and development to help increase their global competitiveness. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim Min-jae

2019-05 13

[Academics][Researcher of the month] Silver Nanoclusters for Solar Cells Advanced in Stability and Efficiency

Professor Bang Jin-ho (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, ERICA Campus) recently published his research "Ag(I)-Thiolate-Protected Silver Nanoclusters for Solar Cells: Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Look into the Photoelectrode/Electrolyte Interface," and was chosen as the researcher of the month for ERICA Campus. This research uncovered a new synthesis route that ensures better stability and extends the excited state lifetime of silver nanoclusters. Such research findings are expected to take our society one step closer to developing nontoxic, environmentally-friendly solar cells. Professor Bang Jin-ho (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, ERICA Campus) secured the safety of solar cells and advanced the efficiency of light conversion. Silver is an environmentally-friendly material that easily absorbs light. However, silver is in a more unstable state than gold, and a new synthesis route was needed to improve its stability. In order for silver to be used in solar cells, the electron needs to be in a floating state for a long period. This so called floating state is known as the excited state lifetime, which is the length of time that the electron beamed by light stays in a high energy state. A longer excited state lifetime is necessary for more opportunity for electron transfer to occur. So what is the new synthesis route? The research team found out that if pH is reversible back and forth, then it is possible to create a ligand frame if pH is turned into acid, and back to normal if pH is raised. The ligands that cover the surface of the silver nanoclusters stabilize it. With the shell protection provided by the ligands, stability and the excited state lifetime can be enhanced. The new synthesis route helped overcome the drawbacks of the silver nanoclusters by inducing agglutination of the compounds silver (Ag) and sulfur (S) at the surface of the silver nanoclusters. This extended the light conversion efficiency of solar cells by two times and extended the safe driving period of solar cells. Professor Bang Jin-ho and a professor from his research team are showing the darkroom used to evaluate the solar cells. This research began in 2013 and is still ongoing after the publication of this research article. Bang and his research team are the leading group in this field, holding the highest conversion efficiency. Currently, Bang is conducting research related to materials, specifically batteries. He is interested in the development of electrode materials, and the advancement of electrode systems, which have a lot in common with batteries. He discussed his ultimate goal of actualizing and commercializing his research findings, so that they can increase convenience in people's lives. The primary goal for the research team now is to increase the efficiency to a level that allows competition compared to the traditional solar cells, in terms of engineering perspectives. The secondary goal is in line with the initial goal in that fundamental research of knowing the basic principle of motion is vital in an attempt to increase efficiency. Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-05 12

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Repairing Software with Software

As the era of the Internet of Things (IoT) approaches, the everyday embedded devices (from MP3 players to cars) also happen to carry their users' most personal information. If they fall into the wrong hands, these handy devices could easily turn against their users. Nevertheless, the software embedded in most devices has serious, well-known security weaknesses. Professor Oh Hee-kuck (Division of Computer Science, ERICA Campus) saw this problem, and through his recent study ARM Architecture-specific Binary Adjustment Technique and Low-level Obfuscation Method Research, invented software that can remove all software vulnerabilities. Through his research, Professor Oh Hee-kuck (Division of Computer Science, ERICA Campus) invented software that protects the security vulnerabilities of the software of embedded devices. According to Oh, many of the vendors of embedded devices are not mainstream platforms. Thus, they lack the capital and technology to properly implant the latest security technology or to offer sufficient updates for their software. Also, although 90 percent of small devices are based on the same ARM processor (a type of CPU), the devices have myriads of varieties. The security technologies applied on one device do not work on other kinds of devices, based on factors such as the manufacturing platform or the compiler version. For this reason, many embedded devices are left vulnerable to even the most outdated attacks. Through his research, Oh invented security software that can repair other software. His software aims to detect weak spots and strengthen devices’ security in a uniform way, regardless of the manufacturing platform or the program version. So, even if the device was not aided with security technology upon manufacturing or even if the original vendor disappeared, the device's security can constantly be strengthened. “Success in this research will greatly enhance the general security of embedded devices and may also encourage faster development of safe IoT,” explained Oh. Oh heavily emphasizes the importance of the individual device-user's awareness on the issue of security. Most importantly, Oh stressed the importance of individual’s awareness about security. “How many of you ignore the update message of the security system or set very weak passwords?” asked Oh. Even if the security system is strong, if the user’s password is weak, the attackers will easily make it through to the confidentialities. Furthermore, Oh explained that security is like a chain - if one link is broken, the others will easily collapse. “Perhaps, the ones who contribute the most to weak security are the individual users,” added Oh, encouraging each user to pay more attention to the importance of security. Lim Ji-woo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-04 30

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Hedging Deep Features for Visual Tracking

Professor Lim Jong-woo (Division of Computer Science and Engineering) has recently published his thesis "Hedging Deep Features for Visual Tracking" in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI). The thesis was mainly about discovering an algorithm that enables visual tracking of objects' features within a video through an artificial neural network. Professor Lim Jong-woo (Division of Computer Science and Engineering) wrote a thesis on discovering an algorithm that enables the visual tracking of the features of objects within a video through an artificial neural network. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) According to Lim, the studies of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have led to the development of the field of computer vision and deep learning by producing continuous results over the past 10 years. A CNN refers to a network that delivers information about certain objects through the analysis of data produced within each layer of information. The former part of the network provides information about the location of a certain object, whereas the latter mainly handles data related to the type or meaning of the object. In order to accurately position or track an object within a video, both types of information are required, which leads to the need for technology that can successfully fuse the provided information within each layer. Lim’s recent research enables this particular fusion of the various layers of information by applying a technology called hedging, which was derived from machine learning methods. Whenever a new frame is input, the location of the object is traced based upon a corrective filter that collects the information within the different layers of the CNN. This "history sensitive hedging" method, which was newly introduced in Lim’s studies, recalls every result of each layer, enabling the selection of the most relevant layer in relation to the present frame. This hedging method has allowed more efficient and productive results compared to the conventional methods of the visual tracking of objects. The overall visual tracking process that occurs within a newly input frame, using the hedging technology introduced by Lim (Photo courtesy of Lim) The significance of the research Lim’s recent thesis is an extension of his past research "Hedged Deep Thinking," published in 2016 in the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), which focused on applying the visual features in deep learning to the procedures for tracking objects. The conventional method was simply using all the positional information derived from each layer of the CNN, yet the CVPR thesis introduced an algorithm that selects only the necessary information through a hedging method. “My latest thesis is one that expands such studies by applying a Siamese network that further distinguishes the object of scrutiny and a cumulative regret model that reflects the former weight measures within previous frames into the most present one,” explained Lim. A Scale search step was also added in order to prepare for situations in which the size of the object changes. Lim stated that his newly presented algorithm has allowed a further step within the field of visual tracking technology by producing superior results compared to the conventional State-of-the-art algorithm. For an easier understanding, Lim pointed out the current CCTV business. Enabling the visual tracking of certain objects within a video, which includes both organic and inorganic materials, Lim’s newly introduced algorithm allows this process to be conducted in a more intelligent manner by efficiently selecting only the necessary features within each layer of the CNN. As an example, Lim illustrated a potential use of this new technology by using the CCTV monitoring process at airports. His new technology would make the process of identifying and tracking suspicious figures easier. Automatic driving and action cameras were also other fields that Lim presented as examples the technology could be applied to. Lim is explaining the significance of his newly published thesis and how it can be applied to more practical fields. Future plans Lim shared his future plans of conducting research on the multiplex visual tracking technology that allows the tracking process to be widened towards multiple objects, which is an expansion of the current visual tracking technology which mainly focuses on tracking a single object. Furthermore, he also stated how he and his laboratory students are working on the image-based attitude estimation and three dimensional restoration technologies, which can be related to the fields of automatic driving, AR/VR, and even robots. As for the last comments, Lim stated that many professors and students of the Division of Computer Science and Engineering are currently conducting research on artificial intelligence and its related fields such as computer vision and data mining. “I hope that such research aids in the needed progress in this field, and that the professors and students are able to find various opportunities of acquiring the professional knowledge to develop their strengths and abilities,” finished Lim. Choi Seo-yong Photos by Kim Joo-eun

2019-04 22

[Academics]A New Finding About T Cells May Cure More Diseases

When our defense mechanisms attack our own body, it is because a type of white blood cell called T cells are failing to do their job. For a long time, there had been a solidified belief on how T cells work. Recently, however, Professor Choi Je-min (Department of Life Science) proved this wrong, suggesting a correct insight into the mechanism behind T cells and making a prediction about the probability of finding an effective cure. Professor Choi Je-min (Department of Life Science) is explaining the correct mechanisms behind T cells. T cells normally play a central role in our immune system. They have a notably sophisticated battle technique, because although the cells number up to 10 billion, a single cell focuses on defeating only one specific antigen. That is, when a virus enters our body, only one cell out of the myriad notices and prepares to fight, similar to a highly-specialized sniper. The rest of the cells stand by, thereby being called bystander T cells. Nevertheless, T cells malfunction from time to time. They recognize our own body as an enemy, even attacking harmless cells. This causes autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Researchers used to believe that, based on how T cells work, only one T cell would be responsible for the malfunctions as well. Choi raised the crucial question of whether this is actually true or not. "Do all the other T cells (9,999,999,999 in number) absolutely stand by while this happens?" Choi (center) and his students in their laboratory Choi found out that this is not the case. In fact, the bystander T cells also play a crucial role in causing autoimmune diseases. Choi and his students performed multiple experiments to prove this fact. For one of them, they injected a nerve cell antigen into a mouse and expected to find only the type of T cell responsible for the specific antigen to be found in the area of injection. Surprisingly, they found only 4 percent of T cells were antigen-specific cells. 95.31 percent were bystander T cells. Choi explains that this means, unlike the traditional thinking, bystander T cells contribute to attacking antigens they are not responsible for, and therefore, contribute to causing autoimmune diseases. Choi's finding is important in that it gives us a new, more correct insight into our body’s immune system. Also, it may contribute immensely to new medicines being developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. “Whereas the previous medicines focused on controlling only the antigen-specific T cells, our finding suggests that we should also take into account the bystander T cells to cure the disease,” explained Choi. Likewise, Choi hopes the finding will become the key to understanding more about the human body and ultimately lead to the development of more effective medicines. Lim Ji-woo Photos by Park Geun-hyung

2019-04 15

[Academics]2019 HEAD Start Program for Potential Artists

2019 HEAD Start Program is a project held from March to the end of December to support students who have talent and interest in art but cannot proceed with their education due to financial reasons. The HEAD Lab (Hanyang Education in Art+Design Lab) has been leading the program by providing the participants with a place for education and deploying the necessary human resources. Professor Kim Sun-ah (Department of Applied Art Education) has been in charge of the HEAD Start program since last year, and she is excited for the changes that the program is adopting this year. Professor Kim Sun-ah (Department of Applied Art Education) is the head of the HEAD Lab, leading the 2019 HEAD Start program. According to Kim, this project has been ongoing since 2010. The distinct feature of the 2019 HEAD Start program is that the HEAD Lab receives support from the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education, which is good news for participating students as well, since they are now able to receive an official certificate for completing the HEAD Start program. The program is held every Saturday and consists of a three hour class for elementary school students, and a four hour class for middle and high school students. “It is so hard to wake up early on Saturdays every week, yet these are determined future artists who persistently come to join our program," said Kim. What the students wish to express varies according to their age groups. For elementary schoolers, self-expression and the opportunity for communication seem important. As they get older, they want activities that can help them visualize their thoughts and effectively deliver them in a creative manner. Accordingly, the teaching methods and contents of the classes are different for both groups. For example, even if all the students are asked to draw a portrait, the given materials or expressions and teaching methods will be different. As of this year, there will be outdoor classes, allowing the students to wander around Seongdong district and see for themselves how regional materials can become artistic features. The increase in MOU collaboration with external institutions or local cultural foundations to allow the exhibition of art in local communities will create a valuable experience for the young artists. Also, the number of “highly talented" classes, classes for students desiring deep learning about art, or even a career in an art-related field, has increased from five to seven with the same number of students. The class curriculums will be based on what the students want to work on, by implementing a system called the student development program. The students enrolled in the HEAD Start program receive art education from around 20 training instructors, some of whom are school teachers with experience in gifted education, on-site designers, writers, and university professors. The mentors, on the other hand, are mostly students from the Department of Applied Art Education and are fixed for a year so that they can steadily look over the students throughout the process. The aim of the HEAD Start program is to foster future artistic professionals by cultivating interested, passionate individuals with high potential. Kim's research focuses on social integration, specifically on how art education can contribute to the integration of society, which triggered her to take the role as the head of the HEAD Lab for this project. Her decision to take part in the program was reinforced when she saw the dramatic development in the students' art skills as well as high satisfaction after joining the program, especially since they had not received much private education or financial support before. Kim proudly mentioned that assigning of one mentor per five students in the program has had a positive impact on the social and emotional development of the young participants. “I am excited for this year’s new and advanced HEAD Start program, and I hope increasing social support allows even more students to receive the art education they want. I am proud to be contributing to a program that supports the growth of future artists.” Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2019-04 15

[Academics][Excellent R&D] BK21 PLUS, Supporting and Fostering Talented Students

United Arab Emirates (UAE) is well known for being an oil-producing country and a typical example of a wealthy country whose prosperity is due to its natural resources. On the other hand, South Korea does not have any natural resources to export; thereby, it focuses on technological advancement to remain competitive in global society. In order to enable such development, the government has been putting a significant emphasis on fostering talented individuals. This has led South Korea to possess a high quality of education. Considering the situation and trend of Korea, Brain Korea (BK) business has emerged to educate and train more competent individuals. The current head of BK PLUS, Professor Park Wan-jun (Department of Engineering), introduces the necessity of such educational programs. Professor Park Wan-jun (Department of Engineering) is currently the representative of Hanyang University in BK21 PLUS business. What is BK21 PLUS? In general, the overall BK business's purpose is to foster the highest level of talented creative students in Master’s or Doctoral programs that supports new creativity-based knowledge and innovative technology. This business first started under the name BK Program at Seoul National University as a pilot project. With successful outcomes, BK project upgraded to BK21 PLUS, which aims to bring up outstanding individuals in the 21st century. Through the assistance of the Korean government, selected universities’ graduate students receive a considerable amount of financial support for advanced and further research. In fact, the Department of Electronic Engineering of Hanyang University has been participating in this business since September 1st of 2013 and will end on August 31st of 2020. During the seven years of this project, each selected university should meet quality outcomes standards in order to receive financial assistance. Hanyang University has successfully produced fulfilling outcomes and has been able to receive 2.3 billion from the government annually. BK21 PLUS business has its importance in improving the quality of graduate schools’ education and research that strengthens the basis of research-centered universities. In addition, it not only fosters talented master's and doctorate students to become proficient at field experiences through industrial cooperation, but also further supports those who are in specialized areas that can become legitimate experts. Lastly, it provides the graduate students’ research scholarships and actualizes the personnel expenses of rising research manpower. This means that by reflecting the inflation rate, the amount of financial support correspondingly increases so that graduate students do not have to worry about living expenses; this provides them with an environment in which they can fully concentrate on research and education. Hanyang University ranks the highest in terms of research capability amongst other participants in BK21 PLUS. Hanyang University’s performance in BK21 PLUS BK21 PLUS is currently focusing on a semiconductor display system, convergence of broadcasting communication systems, and mobile phone systems. The participating universities ought to produce a certain item regarding these technologies and those universities are: Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea University, Yonsei University, Kyunghee University, Sungkyunkwan University, Pohang University of Science and Technology, and Kaist. Park notes, “Our university ranks first in terms of research capability. In fact, in the 2015 mid-term evaluation, Hanyang University was reported as being the top class amongst the participants.” However, Park criticizes, “Although we have the highest level of research capability, we ranked low in educational capability and the extent of system improvement. Therefore, I believe our school should put more effort into this program.” National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea is planning to launch the succeeding business BK21 FOUR after the end of BK21 PLUS. Park believes, “It is absolutely appropriate for the government to make investments in education. Since there are a lot of privileges and advantages in this project, many graduate schools are seeking to become part of it. Hanyang University should keep up with the research results and definitely remain in this business in the future as well.” Kim Min-jae Photos by Park Guen-hyung

2019-04 01

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] The High Mobility of Single-Crystal Nanowires Opens Potential for Future Displays

Semiconductors have become indispensable in our daily lives as we use electronic goods almost every moment. In those goods, most of the semiconductors used are inorganic semiconductors, with occasional exceptions of organic semiconductors. This is because the former is far superior in conduction velocity than the latter. In response to the latter's inferiority, Professor Sung Myung-mo (Department of Chemistry), in his paper "Single-Crystal Poly Nanowires with Ultrahigh Mobility," have introduced a single-crystal nanowire using the newly created polymer called PCDTPT and increased the electrical coductivity of organic semiconductors by more than 10 times. Professor Sung Myung-mo (Department of Chemistry) is the researcher of the month with his thesis "Single-Crystal Poly Nanowires with Ultrahigh Mobility." The organic semiconductor has two noticeable advantages when it comes to applications in electronics. First, it is flexible, and it can be made into solution form. However, it is not yet widely used because it lacks in its mobility compared to inorganics. Also, it has the downside of being unsafe since it is organic matter. However, after Sung's research, humanity has come one step closer to the possibility of substituting inorganic semiconductors, now that the mobility performance of organic semiconductors has significantly increased. Organic semiconductors can be divided into small molecules and polymers. Organic semiconductor polymer is called conducting polymers, which means that the organic matter contains conductivity. Mobility is the speed per second that the transistor moves. The mobility has increasedby more than 10 times, overturning the previous notion that an organic matter cannot have high mobility. Here, the mobility is important because it is frequently used in transistors and decides the working speed. It only took Sung and his team about six months to deduct the research results, because they had already accumulated research needed to facilitate the process. One of the major research prjoects that they have been looking into over the past 10 years was the Nano Patterning method. It is the technology needed to make nano-sized sticks, with which matters that cannot be made into single crystal forms can transform with the creation of a nano-sized wire. They learned that the mobility increased when they made nanowire single crystals. The process of how single-crystal nanowires are made. Each stick-shaped line refers to one single-crystal nanowire. (Photo courtesy of Sung) The question on the surface may be, "How did the mobility increase by over 10 fold?" They predict that it is due to the unique structure of PCDTPT crystals. In existing conducting polymers, which are molecules that have the shape of a thin board, the molecules align next to each other and the conduction takes place sideways. In the case of PCDTPT crystals, however, it takes a vertical direction that differs by 90 degrees from the established conducting polymers. Samsung first created OLED electronics, made of organic semiconductors and it caught the attention of the global market due to its thin, lightweight structural characteristics, and low-power technology. While it seemed impossible at the time, it is now an ongoing research project that the world may conveniently be using as everyday technology in the future. “Persistence is the most important factor a researcher must have. Never give up, even if it seems unlikely that the research will succeed,” advised Sung to future researchers of Hanyang. Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-03 18

[Academics]Protein Supplementation Improves Physical Performance In Undernourished Elderly Subjects

The existing theory towards the physical performance of the elderly was that decrepitude could only be tackled by providing nutrition alongside a certain level of physical exercise. Professor Park Yong-soon (Department of Food and Nutrition), however, has managed to go against this existing belief, proving that protein supplementation itself, irrelevant to any levels of physical exercise, can help overcome decrepitude by preventing muscle loss of the undernourished and frail elderly population. With her recent research even being published in the renowned academic journal, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN), Park has been recognized for her breakthrough in tackling the long problems associated with decrepitude. Professor Park Yong-soon (Department of Food and Nutrition) explains her recent research on the impact of protein supplementation and the physical abilities of the undernourished elderly. Having selected 120 elderly subjects, Park provided them with 0.8, 1.2, and 1.5 grams of protein on a daily basis for 12 weeks. The protein was provided in the form of powder dissolved in a corn silk tea solution. The protein powder was carefully selected, due to the weakened digestive system of the seniors and, thus, it was essential that the powder had a high purity of protein in order to ensure that the subjects took in the required amount of additional nutrition. Furthermore, Park also implemented strict dietary control, keeping track of the total amount of nutrition that her subjects were ingesting daily. The subjects were also carefully selected by Park. Focusing only on those aged between 75 and 85, the subjects all had to pass a certain "Power Test," which evaluated their physical abilities such as the time it takes them to walk four meters and how much time it takes them to sit down and stand up. Selecting 120 out of a total screening of 400, Park closely examined the changes in physical abilities among the selected subjects, being able to successfully prove that the supplementation of protein itself does have a positive impact on the physical abilities of the frail elderly. The diagrams show how the subjects were randomly assigned protein supplements during the research period. (Photo Courtesy of Park) According to Park, as the research was conducted in the form of a clinical demonstration, there were many hardships that had to be overcome. A basic clinical demonstration included observing the process of giving selected subjects a certain substance and analyzing the results. However, as it is literally impossible to have total control over the subjects, unexpected variables occur, especially with elderly subjects being relatively more vulnerable to external factors. “Many of the subjects had to quit due to sudden accidents or illnesses. We also had to deliver the products to them door to door in order to prevent any mistakes,” explained Park. Although Park has proven the positive impacts of protein supplements upon the frail elderly, she stated that she is now working on finding the most ideal amount, as the current research only provided fixed amounts of 0.8, 1.2, and 1.5 grams of protein for its subjects. In addition to her further research, Park also showed her hopes of changing the current Body Mass Index (BMI) standards, asserting that it is debatable whether the elderly should have the same standards as younger adults. She explained that standards for the elderly should be changed, as a certain amount of fat has been proven to be healthier for them. As a nutrionist, Park hopes to further extend her research to find the ideal protein supplement amount and to revise the current BMI standards. Choi Seo-yong Photos by Park Guen-hyung

2019-03 18

[Academics]Designing Working Offices in Accordance with the Current Trend

Technological development has changed many aspects of people's lifestyle. Particularly, as the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Internet of Things (IoT) are heavily embedded in our daily lives, individuals’ working patterns have also changed over time. Whereas the traditional working space was only limited to offices with individual desks, people nowadays are not restricted to work in offices; rather, they can work at home or a café thanks to technology. Based on such trends, Professor Cha Seung-hyun (Department of Interior Architecture Design) introduced his thesis "The trilateration-based BLE beacon system for analyzing user-identified space usage of New Ways of Working (NWW) office." According to professor Cha Seung-hyun (Department of Interior Architecture Design), using the beacon system, office designers can analyze the current trend of employees' working pattern. A beacon is a near field communication technology, and according to Cha’s thesis, the trilateration-based BLE (bluetooth low energy) beacon system, by using the beacon with the Bluetooth connection, can sense the existence and movement of people working in the office. With the accumulation of data, we can analyze individuals’ working patterns. As a result, it is possible to apply this pattern to design an appropriate working space. Cha notes, “Google and other IT companies have different working patterns. Traditionally, workers were provided with private space consisting of an individual desk and an additional room for piling documents. These days, due to the development of cloud servers, in which people can save their work on the Internet, there is no longer a need to provide physical space for documents and papers.” He added that the new trend of hot-desking – an office desk being shared by multiple office workers on different shifts as opposed to each staff member having their own personal desk – is becoming popular as more and more startups are emerging. When Cha was in the Netherlands in 2010, the system of office sharing was already common in Europe. He conducted research on these offices and figured out that the space utilization rate (an analysis that rates how optimized your workspace and its design is) was only 30 to 40 percent. Increasing the rate up to 70 percent would not only save energy, but also the cost of overall maintenance. If desk sharing is applied as the fundamental concept for analyzing new working patterns, then considering activity-based working environments as the factor for pattern analysis is more suitable for the space utilization rate, since each employee has their own unique working pattern and style. Considering the changing work atmosphere and environment, Cha wanted to design an office that reflects the current trends. Cha hopes to create realistic offices that reflect employees' overall preferences and patterns. As IoT sensors have significantly developed, it is possible to find out objective details about office usage and working patterns. In fact, when Finland's government branch conducted a survey on the space utilization rate, the result showed 60 to 70 percent. However, through the physical observation of offices, the actual rate was below 30 percent. This incident reveals that designing offices based on interviews and surveys causes errors, which confirms that activity-based data is more applicable. The three factors that enable distinction of human activities in each area (Photo courtesy of Cha) The three factors that are utilized through the usage of beacons that sophisticatedly sense people's movements, and which allow for the gathering of accurate data about workers’ behaviors are data coordinates, acceleration sensor, and voice recognition. With coordinates, researchers can figure out the workers’ patterns by noticing their traveling routes and the places where they spend the most time. In addition, they can also discover whom the employees encounter the most, and this enables office designers to make paths so that workers can easily meet the most-encountered people. With the combination of acceleration sensors that detect human movement such as running, sitting, and walking, and the voice recognition sensor, analysts can obtain objective data about where people are and what they are doing. Cha’s ultimate goal is to offer comfortable, satisfying, and highly productive office spaces for people. “In the past, design review was done by either physical modeling or 3D displays which both miss the micro perspective of the design process. However, thanks to significant technological developments, reviewing office designs through Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) permits discovering problems that were not previously noticed,” said Cha. He wishes to create realistic work spaces that reflect people’s overall preferences. Kim Min-jae Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon