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2017-09 25

[Academics]A Tactile Sensor for Texture Recognition

With computers today, auditory and visual senses can be materialized—through sound and screens. The other three of the five senses, on the other hand, have not yet been on the platform of materialization because they require a somewhat more delicate mechanism and are harder to deliver with technology. Professor Park Wan-jun (Department of Electronic Engineering), in his paper, “A tactile sensor using single layer graphene for surface texture recognition”, presented and elaborated on a tactile sensor that could distinguish different materials, which opens many doors for future technology. It is hard to imagine the sense of touch being delivered with a machine because it is usually perceived as something only humans are capable of. But why can sound and sight be materialized by computers but not touch? The answer is, electronic signals for sound and vision are made possible in the aspect of engineering, while that of touch is not. What Park presented in his paper is a small chip-like device that enables perception of touch for surface texture recognition. The output of Park's research, which is a chip-like electronic device. (Photo courtesy of Park) The first thing he had to do, according to Park, was to turn the sense into electronic signals. Only then can the machine read what is being conveyed. Once the signal of touch is conveyed to the device, it will analyze the signal and distinguish what kind of texture it is. The subtle and clear differences in terms of texture between various kinds of surfaces can be perceived and distinguished by the tactile sensor, detecting the microscopic scale of differences. There is a single layer of graphene embedded in the device, which creates a different resistance variation each time a surface comes to interaction. It is what functions as the main player in telling apart different surfaces because it is what creates the different signals. The signal is then sent to the computer by the chip, which is to be analyzed and categorized into different kinds of textures. “Just as there is virtual reality (VR) for sight, a touch-version will be possible with this device,” anticipated Park. “A tactile display is also possible with this device, as the signal for touch is now readable by the computer. If you put your hand on the tactile display device, you can actually feel whatever the object or texture input in the computer is,” envisaged Park. This technology is also applicable in the medical field. Those who lost their sense of touch in certain parts of their body by burns, for example, will be able to regain their sense by implanting this small device in the portion of injury. Now that the signals of touch can be read by the device and since senses can be transmitted in the form of signals, delivery of the sense of touch is made possible. The inserted chip will send signals to the brain and this will enable the patient to feel what is being touched. “In recap, this research of mine has provided a human-sensorlike device that will enable transmission of the sense of touch in terms of engineering. Now I’m currently working on machine learning by categorizing and classifying different textures into groups and making the device absorb the data. The ultimate goal of my research is to complete materializing the sense of touch from the perspective of engineering so that further technologies could be developed based on my research,” planned Park. Park's further research is set on mechanizing the sense touch. Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-08 15

[Academics]Upgrading Transcriptome Map

Incredible amount of transcriptomes encoded by eukaryotic genomes has been produced as RNA-sequencing reads are published in piles. The transcriptome is the sum of all RNA information contained in a body’s cells, which is an indispensable data when creating the transcriptome map of the body. The current map, however, is not its apotheosis since it was constructed based on RNA-seq reads that lack their orientations and certain boundary information. In his paper “High-confidence coding and noncoding transcriptome,” Professor Nam Jin-wu of Department of Life Science has presented the transcriptome map with RNA-seq reads with high accuracy and efficiency. “What makes this research valuable is its contribution to the scientific community. It will function as an indispensable infrastructure.” RNA and the map In the past 10 years, with the technology of next generation sequencing (NGO), data of individual’s genome and transcriptome has been developing at a rapid pace. Genetic information of both healthy and diseased individuals aggregates to approximately 10 peta bytes from all over the world, from which Nam focused specifically on analyzing the transcriptome, disregarding the genome for the moment. A critical difference between the two is that genome has orientation while transcriptome lacks it. This indicates that it would be extremely difficult and inconvenient to arrange the little pieces of information to form the whole genetic map of transcriptome. “What it means by ‘lack of orientation’ is, simply picture this situation: putting batteries in a remote control which has no plus or minus indicators. You would have to find the right direction by just trying. It is also like jigsaw puzzles where you have to search thoroughly the scattered pieces and find and put the right ones together until you get the whole picture,” explained Nam. Constructing a genetic map with orderless pieces of information could be an arduous task, since the massive bio-big data offers a tremendous amount of genetic information and they lack orientation. What Nam has created through his research is an algorithm that predetermines the orientation and boundaries of transcripts and genetic information. This will not only lessen the work of constructing the transcriptome map by assembling RNA-seq reads that lack orientation but also increase the accuracy and quality of the resulting maps. The outcome of his research, in a word, orients the directionless RNA-seq reads and locate them where they belong. Now with the more accurate and systematic transcriptome map, the amount and structure of RNA in a cell in the body could be figured. Nam first started this research three years ago, spending the first two years constructing the algorithm and spending the last year producing data using NGS. He is currently researching on the noncoding RNA (RNA that does not produce protein), which is highly related with various types of cancer and other rare diseases. The ultimate goal of Nam’s studies is to solve the mystery of unexplored RNA. 98% of RNA in human body belongs to the noncoding category, so how exactly do they affect the way a human being is and how do they account for different anomalies? “A good question begets a good study.” Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-07 18

[Academics]Developing and Improving MRI Contrast Agent

Contrast agents are the substances injected inside or outside of the digestive tract or blood vessels in order to show tissue or blood vessels more clearly during radio graphic examinations such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Its role is crucial as it improves the diagnostic value by artificially increasing the X-ray absorption of each tissue, which makes it more easy to distinguish the biomechanical structure or the lesion from the surroundings. Professor Lee Dong-yun (Department of Biotechnology), through his paper “MRI-sensitive contrast agent with anticoagulant activity for surface camouflage of transplanted pancreatic islets,” has presented an inventive contrast agent that kills two birds with one stone. “When I was conducting this research regarding treatment of diabetes, my biggest concern was whether the outcome would be useful in the medical field or not. Even if the research is flawless, it is of no use if it cannot be put into real uses.” A contrast agent could evoke two main issues: the issue of MRI detection and of blood coagulation. Lee’s research, however, has overcome the two problems. In hopes of creating medical technologies that are valuable and pragmatic, specifically concerning contrast agents in this research, Lee has gone through detailed research and experiments. “The cell therapy products can be said to be ‘coated’ with contrast agents.” The contrast agent Lee has formulated approaches the body in a different manner. Instead of directly injecting the contrast agent into the patient’s body, Lee attached them on the cell therapy products through chemical reaction and then instill the contrast-agent-dissolved cell therapy products into the body. This not only makes detection of cells through MRI or CT imaging possible but also enables controlling of blood coagulation and prevent fibering clot. In Lee’s research, which specifically deals with patients of diabetes, a technology to transplant insulin-secreting cell has been devised for the sufferer. As shown in the diagram, islets (clusters of cells) are implanted into the blood vessels of the liver through catheter, which leads to the problem of accumulation of blood platelets on the surface of the newly implanted cells. This would eventually result in blood coagulation, creating thick fibering clots, further resulting in destruction of the cells. This means the cell therapy products lose their original function and go into nullity. However, with Lee’s research, as the contrast agents are acting as a layer to prevent accumulation of blood platelets and prevent blood coagulation and allow MRI detection at the same time, the use of the newly developed contrast agent is expected to be put in various uses. ' Lee's contrast agents allow MRI detection and prevent blood coagulation. (Photo courtesy of Lee) Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-04 26

[Academics]Interrogating History

History, by definition, chronicles and recounts past events of people, countries, and the world at large. It may answer the wh-questions concerning a particular event, reporting from time and place of an event to who and what were involved. However, it does not always perform an excellent job in informing us why an event occurred. Professor Carl Joergen Saxer (Division of International Studies), whose primary interest lies in political science, wanted to shed light on the unexplored domain of history, the big question of why. Saxer unfolded his curiosity about why the Nordic countries participated in the Korean War. The Big Question, Why History books state that in the 1950s, just five years after the World War 2, the Nordic countries—Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—had participated in the Korean War in the form of medical aid. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Nazi Germany and Sweden remained neutral. Additionally, until recently, those countries had very limited knowledge about Korea, had no diplomatic relations and was located on the other side of the globe. Yet, they decided to participate in the war by supporting the country with medical supplies. At this point, a question should arise: what led the three countries to participate in a war that went on in a remote, unrecognized land that most Nordic people had never heard about? Delving into the state archives of the Nordic countries, Saxer disclosed the answer to the question. He accessed to documentations related to decision making process and examined the thought process of what led governments in the first place to participate and what led them to the decision of how to participate. As it turned out, for diplomatic reasons, the Nordic government have always emphasized on humanitarian intervention, out of moral concerns. This means their participation in the Korean War should be on account of the North Korean invasion in South Korea. However, the documents showed otherwise: it was much more of a political matter. "The national archives allowed me to access to documents that showed the decision-making process" The emphasis on the Nordic countries when it came to participating in the war was actually to do as little as possible, signifying an outside factor that urged its decision: the America. Norway and Denmark had just become members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and were under American pressure to defend Korea under the United Nations flag—perchance this was the reason they only joined the war by supporting the medical supplies and not combat materials. In other words, the concerns of politicians when they came to participate in the war was not so much about what was going on in the Korean peninsula but rather about the potential of the war to result in another big issue: World War 3. It was very much influenced by the Cold War in European countries that the fear arose in relation to the possible outbreak of another global disaster. Coming down to a summary, moral element intermingled with their international stance in a context of fear of potential World War 3 and insecurity of the Cold War led the Nordic countries to participate in the Korean War in the least aggressive manner. “I usually don’t research much on history as my interest is more on democracy in politics. But with this research, I was very interested in looking into the documents. I do empirical research, meaning I don’t speculate about how things should or would be in the future but rather how things were or have been. I was very interested in finding out why people act the way they do and how certain decisions are reached,” explained Saxer on his motivation of this research. "I intend to write a book on the linkage between foreign policy making and domestic politics in middle powers." Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-03 06 Important News

[Academics]Spin-Orbit Interaction and Holographic Theory

Physics is an indispensable domain to invest in as it generates fundamental knowledge for technological infrastructure and future advancements. Accentuating the importance of the field, Professor Sin Sang-jin (Department of Physics) puts strenuous effort into enlightening unresolved physical phenomena. In his paper "Character Of Matter in Holography: Spin-orbit Interaction," Sin elaborated the relationship between holographic theory and spin-orbit interaction using graphite to decode the enigma. String theory and spin-orbit interaction Physical phenomena relating to the notion of gravity can be explained through Einstein’s general theory of relativity at a macroscopic level. However, narrowing down the matter and studying at a microscopic level, the so-called quantum gravity theory must enter the picture. Among other quantum gravity theories, the prime candidate that is attracting much interest is string theory, which states that the smallest particle of matter is not a point molecule but a vibrating string, which cannot be decomposed further. String theory focuses on holographic duality (also known as gauge/gravity duality) as a novel method of approaching and connecting a range of subjects, including quantum gravity. The movement and interaction between the electronic system are not holistically mastered by physicists, rendering the strongly correlated electronic system cryptic. By employing the holographic theory, which states that the description volume of space could be encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region, can explain not only electron-to-electron interaction but also lattice-electron interaction. Of the interactions of electrons, spin-orbit interaction is what Sin sheds light on. Sin describes the complexity of the relationships between several theories. Spin-orbit interaction is a type of particle interation which causes shifts in an electron’s energy level caused by the electromagnetic interaction between the electron’s spin and the magnetic field. This field is generated by the electron’s orbit around the nucleus. The big question here was to figure out how to fit this interaction into the holographic theory, which connects to another phenomenon called anomalous hall effect. This effect is the traversing of electric current in the magnetic field perpendicular to the current, with no electromagnetic force applied. What is peculiar is the aberration; perpendicular traversing would happen only when electromagnetic force is applied. To find the answer to this puzzle, Sin applied the magnetization curve of graphite to the spin-orbit interaction, which fitted suitably. This was because the magnetization curve of graphite was well-depicted by the strong interaction between electrons. Uncountable layers of graphene make up graphite, corresponding to the strongly interacting temperature and density. The ultimate goal of Sin’s research is to construct a solid theory of physics for novel materials. In the process, string theory and holographic theory are incorporated to the core concept. “This particular research paper at hand merely managed to link the notion with spin-orbit interaction, which could be compared to just one tree out of an entire forest. I aim to theorize the strongly-correlated electronic system,” noted Sin. “Many say there aren't any phenomena which can’t be explained with theories formed 100 years ago. This isn't true in my view. Physicists today still cannot explain matters with the strongly correlated electronic system. There is no end to physics and its exploration,” added Sin. Sin asserts that physics is the base of all phenomena. Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-02 28 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Blue Ocean of Materials Science

Conspicuous or not, our surroundings play a crucial role in navigating our health, holding accountability for small and big degenerations for mankind’s physical wellbeing. Among all, two indispensable elements in our life, air and water, have slow and accumulative effect on the health of the population. Professor Kim Ki-hyun (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering), whose studies focus on environmental pollution, delineated the means of applying advanced materials in his review paper “Carbon nanotubes: a novel material for multifaceted applications in human healthcare.” Carbon nanotubes in biotechnology As modern material technology has been advancing considerably, its application seems ever-expanding in diverse fields, with nanomaterials as the convenient and indispensable companion. Based on a research paper conducted by other scholars, Kim wrote another, centralizing on the uses of carbon nanotubes (CNT), an emerging nanomaterial that is seeing the light in the biomedical and environmental fields. Its application is versatile: drug delivery, sensing, water purification, composite materials, and bone scaffolds. More specifically, CNTs could be used to alleviate myocardial infarction by enlarging clogged blood vessels, expediting drug delivery, and organizing bone structures in needed parts. Kim outlines his review paper on the application of carbon nanotubes in the biomedical field. Despite all the medical benefits, advanced materials including CNT also have the potential to bring adverse effects. As alien substances could disturb immune or antibody responses, the body functions to react against them. Especially, in case of new materials, unprecedented resistance could occur, and thus their potential impacts must be taken into consideration through attentive examination for possible toxicity. Nonetheless, as long as the criteria are met, CNT and other materials could spark revolutionary breakthroughs that would change the future of mankind. “I think that endless developments are yet to come in the field of materials science to help other research fields like environment and human health flourish. Better materials in terms of cost efficiency and functional effectiveness would be improved while there is yet no limits to such developments. Materials science and nanomaterials would not only be fruitful in biomedical fields but also environmentally,” commented Kim. His interest in new materials are extended toward environmental progress, starting with the sensing of pollutants and purifying polluted medium. The blue ocean Materials science could often be referred to as the 'blue ocean' since there are more to be discovered than what has been excavated so far. On top of this, collaboration with environmental issues is not conventional. Kim is involved in research for integrated environmental monitoring technology, digitizing and managing air, water, and soil pollution. He is looking forward to fuse newly unveiled materials in his research, hoping to bring a constructive result to lay a bridge between materials science and environmental engineering. To set an example, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could be used to mitigate environment pollution: volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the air spawns odor while propagating carcinogens if transferred into the human body through the respiratory system. As the material for sensing or removing such hazardous pollutants, MOFs are regarded as one of the highly promising solutions. What is to be underscored here is the infinite possibility of combination of the materials, which are not only capable of being used alone but also of being employed in cooperation with other materials. Kim's research will continue to be centered around mitigating environmental pollution with newly excavated materials. Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-01 16 Important News

[Academics]Regulating Carbon Dioxide Emission from Automobiles

Tremendous amounts of carbon dioxide is released into air everyday, engendering chains of environmental and health problems. Human activities are profoundly culpable for such phenomenon, citing industrial processes, combustion of fossil fuels, and operation of power plants. Among a variety of sources of CO2, automobiles are responsible for 20% of the total emission. Further narrowing down the scope and focusing on light duty vehicles, Professor Park Sung-wook of the Department of Mechanical Engineering has researched and analyzed data about CO2 emissions and predicted possible decrease in the rate. In his paper “Development strategies to satisfy corporate average CO2 emission regulations of light duty vehicles (LDVs) in Korea,” Park elaborated on strategies to abate the enormity of CO2 emissions in the long run. Blueprint of possible consequences An international protocol demands each country to cut down its pollutant emission by a certain percentage, otherwise charging it with a fine. A country then assigns its corporates with a set reduction goal, as an attempt to attain its mission more efficiently. In his paper, Park predicted and analyzed the possible decreases in the rate of CO2 emission in terms of different categories of automobiles: electronic, hybrid, and diesel vehicles. He collected data from each automobile manufacture company about the number of sales of each type and calculated an estimation of how many of each type of vehicle must be sold and what portion of production of each type must be maintained in order to reach a set curtailment target. If the majority of drivers switch their cars to electronic vehicles, the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air will shrink substantially, thereby contributing to the fulfillment of the set goal. As for current situation, however, the supply of electronic cars is scanty. Therefore, aiming to reduce CO2 emission by encouraging the use of electronic cars is virtually futile. On top of this inefficient pace of progress, production of electricity augments the rate of CO2 emission not in the domain of transportation but in industrial manufacturing. Park explains that electric cars are not the ultimate solution in the long run. Consequently, excluding electronic cars, Park was left with diesel and hybrid cars. “There is a general misunderstanding that any type of cars that is not electronic is environmentally-harmful. Of course, when the vehicle is in operation, an electric car emits zero carbon dioxide. Yet, if you take a look at its fuel, electricity, power stations altogether expel about the equal amount of pollutant,” elucidated Park. Taking into consideration that diesel fuels contain more energy per liter than petroleum and hybrid cars burn less gas to cover the same distance than petroleum-run cars, the two models look ideal when it comes to seeing a positive effect in the long run. Shift in the perspective It has always been the politician’s task to place regulations on corporates in regard to cutting down the CO2 emission. Park took this issue and viewed it from the perspective of an engineer. “Environmental problems are not as simple as those with only superficial knowledge think. If one problem is solved, it has got to make another way to reproduce itself through other forms,” stated Park. “For instance, supposing that the world has adopted a policy to supply electronic cars and has stopped using diesel or other fuel-combustion-demanding cars, the situation will beget another problem. Production of electricity to fuel all the electronic cars will require just as much CO2 emission as running fuel cars, not to mention the vast discharge from factories for producing the cars themselves,” elaborated Park. In other words, in lieu of directly belching CO2 from the automobile itself, electric cars will indirectly lead to hatch of another problematic concern, which is the release of massive CO2 from electricity factories. Through his studies, Park realized that electric cars alone cannot solve the CO2 struggle, hinting more efficient engines in the future. Park strongly thinks that engineers, who possess the fundamental and indispensable information about technology and its impact on nature, should hold more influential authority in making environmental laws. “The essential difference between engineering and science is their practicality. Products of engineering could be measured easily with technology but that of science is not. Nevertheless, engineering has not been so influential in areas other than its own. I hope to see the outcomes of engineering research `reflected more in policies,” delivered Park. Park is planning to carry his research onto larger auotomobiles for future solutions. Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Moon Ha-na

2016-12 18 Important News

[Academics]Improving the Bioavailability of Fruit Wastes

Professor Jeon Byong-hun of the Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering has been studying and experimenting with the objective of increasing the bioavailability of food wastes through the process of biomass pretreatment, which is a part of the process of biofuel production. Specifically centralizing on the energy recovery of fruit peels and wastes, Jeon has successfully managed to increase the rate in which he derived the energy recovery from micro-algae to 46%. Considering that the record of deriving energy recovery from any types of biomass was 41%, he regards this result as a significant progress in increasing the bioavailability of biomass. Biomass and pretreatment Humans can take in food freely and absorb the nutrients through digestion, but microorganisms have a different means of doing so. Microorganisms must utilize organic matters and generate energy from them, which corresponds to the process of producing biofuel. In an aqueous solution, microorganisms make contact with organic matters and drag them inwards, meaning that the finer and more dispersed the organic matters are, the easier and more efficient a microorganism can derive energy from them. This gives rise to the concept of bioavailability, which plays an influential role in determining how much biofuel can be converted from organic matter to energy recovery. In other words, the form in which the organic matter is structured determines the bioavailability. In this context, the pretreatment of biomass can be a decisive step. Jeon explains that pretreatment of biomass plays a significant role. The form previously mentioned does not only come in the size of the organic matter but also in the type of the biomass. The three big categories of usable biomass are carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. “Consider this example. When trying to formulate alcohol, which comes from carbohydrates, it would be optimal if the carbohydrate is uncombined with any other biomasses. If it is, then the microorganism will have less convenience in deriving energy from it- thus, decreasing bioavailability. It is only when the biomass is in the desired form that the microorganism will convert the most energy from the organic matter,” explained Jeon. Jeon and his laboratory researchers have been ultimately seeking to turn a variety of different biomass into various forms of bioenergy. “Making use of biomass such as fruit wastes, micro-algae, and food rubbish to extract the maximum amount of bioenergy in forms of bio-gas, bio-alcohol, and biodiesel has been our goal,” remarked Jeon. In a broader sense, his research includes turning the three big categories of biomass—carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins—into the most productive and accessible bioenergy. Jeon hopes to increase the bioavailability of biomass and convert them into sustainable, eco-friendly energy. Bioenergy and its advantages Jeon also shed light on the flexible versatility of bioenergy, putting emphasis on its convenience and portability. Unlike other forms of energy such as solar power, wind power or electricity, bioenergy is portable and storable. In the case of solar or wind power, the energy must be converted into forms of electricity and be put in a battery for storage and transportation. Electricity always necessitates cables, wires, and power transmission systems, whereas bioenergy is free from all these requirements. On the same note, petroleum, gas, and diesel could also be the most convenient forms of energy—satisfying both portability and storability—which is why it is being used worldwide. Nonetheless, the reason Jeon still argues for bioenergy is because of its eco-friendly aspect. “Research and development of bioenergy is an indispensable task for humans. Our perpetual goal is to devise the method of producing bioenergy with stability, drawing the most from the limited, given biomass. We must find a way to obtain bioenergy with sustainability, converting carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins into sustainable biofuels,” concluded Jeon. Microalgae being converted into biofuel in storable form. Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Moon Ha-na

2016-11 14

[Academics]Architecture Over the Centuries

Professor Nam Sung-taek of the Department of Architecture holds his prime interest in the comprehensive theory of symphonizing diverse scales of artificial environmental design from a small-scaled objet—a French word meaning object, material, or thing—to a large-scaled city. In his paper, 'The Effect of Everyday Objects on Indoor Remodeling: Loos and Le Corbusier, 'Housing Professors' ', Nam minutely elucidated the relationship between objets and space, which all together contribute to the principles of architecture. He also accounted for the change of the roles of architects and the definition of architecture design as a result of the shift in production of goods from artisan’s craftsmanship to mass production in factories as industrialization took place in the 20th century. Shift in the Role of Architects ▲ Nam explains that an architect is not a form master but a housing professor. Up until the early 20th century, the idea of total art was dominant in the field of architecture. It is a system in which an architect designs not only the architecture itself but also what is contained within and stands around that construction, from the objets that relate to everyday life including spoons and chairs to the entire city at large. In other words, an architect used to design everything from an objet to the whole city, becoming a “form master” who created and designed small objets, spaces, and architectures that eventually expanded and came together to form a city. It was not only the buildings themselves that portray the architect’s work but also what is in the building and how the objets were put in place as well. This convention often emphasized the artistic work that regarded the whole city as one architect’s art work, giving rise to the concept of total art again. The architects who sought the ideals of total art were tossed with an insurmountable dilemma—whether to reject or accept the shift—as the industrialized city began producing things that could not be hand-made and that which were more readily accessible, suggesting an alternative option for the residents to design their own homes instead of entrusting the experts. In the face of such confusion, two architects who proposed a new notion at the time were Adolf Loos of Austria and Le Corbusier of Switzerland. The two architects embraced the on-going change and adjusted the principles of architecture accordingly, pioneering a concept called 'housing professor', which pointed out that architects are no longer form masters but teachers who educate people on residence and living: that is, training them how to select the appropriate objets for individual’s houses, rather than designing every little piece in a work. Their proposition allowed the residents to scheme their own houses by choosing objets that suited their taste and personality, creating what is like a personal 'museum' or 'gallery'. “I admire the two outstanding architects in many aspects. They did not simply encage themselves within the traditional boundaries of architecture and rejected external factors such as changes or surrounding environments but attentively examined all the potential influences around them that might have an impact on their work. Embracing and incorporating the on-going circumstance candidly was the key to permitting further improvements to breakthrough. To create every piece of a complete architecture from an objet at small to a city at large, the two architects observed and applied the outside forces into their architecture and did not hesitate to change their views if necessary,” noted Nam. Contemporary Architecture It was not so strange in the past for an individual to seek the help of an architect to design the doors and tables to be placed in their houses. However, industrialization pivoted this perspective, by letting individuals to freely choose and customize the designs of their houses. Consequently, the opposite is true today. people seldom desire guidance of architects and prefer to independently pick the objets and sketch their own rooms when it comes to architecture. On this note, with people having much interest in designing their residences, Nam hopes those interests connect to the study of architecture, which became too cultural to be solely considered as an academic branch nowadays. He hopes that architecture will mean something more than just a part of industry and highlight its cultural aspect which can be a crucial part in our history. ▲ Nam pinpointed that architecture is part of our culture and history. Jeon Chae-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju