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2018-06 25 Headline News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Finding a Cure Through Direct Intranasal Delivery

Flaviviruses like the West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), and Zika are neurotropic, causing neurological complications or death to those with low immune systems. There is now a cure in development called the siRNA approach which has demonstrated promising results in treating viral infections in animal models. However, several complications exist when it comes to treating humans. Lee Sang-kyung (Department of Bioengineering), along with his fellow researchers, has come up with a solution in his paper "Small Interfering RNA-Mediated Control of Virus Replication in the CNS is Therapeutic and Enables Natural Immunity to West Nile Virus." Lee Sang-kyung (Department of Bioengineering) explains the direct intranasal delivery process on June 22nd. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a therapeutic strategy targeting illnesses such as cancer, inflammation, and genetic disorders. This strategy was proven to be successful in treating various viral infections including encephalitis-induced morbidity and mortality, in animal subjects. However, there have been several complications regarding its application to human brains. One of the challenges was due to human anatomy being quite different from that of animal test subjects like mice. After the long research process, it was clear that direct delivery of siRNA to the brain was the best method of treatment. However, not only was finding the right treatment of viral encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) challenging, but the direct delivery of siRNA effectively across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was a huge block as well. The blood-brain barrier is a filtering mechanism of the capillaries that carries blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue, blocking the passage of certain substances. This basically means that intruding substances are blocked so nothing goes in, and nothing goes out. This makes it harder for the research to continue. The intranasal delivery device that allows mice to be seated in a natural "Mecca" position. (Photo courtesy of Lee) To overcome this problem, Lee and his fellow researchers came up with the intranasal delivery method that allows a substance's direct delivery to the brain while circumventing the challenges associated with the blood-brain barrier. This method was based on the unique connection in human anatomy between the brain and the outer world through the olfactory nerve. Lee was able to invent an intranasal delivery device for WNV-infected mice at late stages of the neuroinvasive disease in hopes of demonstrating that the treatment would bring results in recovery. The mice seated on the platform were naturally placed into the "Mecca" position, which is the best angle for proper direct drug delivery. The siRNA delivered through this route revealed a remarkable therapeutic effect in reducing brain viral load, neuropathology, and mortality even when the treatment was initiated at late stages of WNV infection. Furthermore, the treatment allowed the natural protective immune responses to be triggered outside of the brain that would result in prevention after recovery. This discovery will allow active studies to be conducted in brain research and therapy in the future. Lee explaining the difference in human and animal nasal cavities in his lab, June 22nd. However, there are still more challenges to overcome. Animal subjects used in the experiments such as mice, have the anatomical difference of having a nasal cavity that is six times larger than that of a human being's. This means that the amount of the substance that can be absorbed through a human nasal epithelium (a type of animal tissue) is reduced. The "Mecca" position is a crucial discovery in the steps to overcoming such challenge, but further research is needed. Lee hopes that through the use of the intranasal drug delivery device, they will be able to discover the optimized method of delivery which will be suitable to human anatomy, thus preventing thousands from suffering and death. Lee's research and discovery can be read in detail in the Cell Host & Microbe scientific journal as well as on Signet Biotech's website (signetbiotech.com). Park Joo-hyun julia1114@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-06 18

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Multi Layers

Barrier films that have the ability to block moisture and aerial gas have long been a concern of the packaging industry, especially in the display business. The penetration of such substances leads to a degradation of display materials to protect, which is the main reason why barrier films are utilized. Song Tae-seob (Department of Energy Engineering) has provided a solution to this troublesome dilemma, by proposing the use of using organic-inorganic hybrid multi layers. The use of inorganic materials when making a barrier film is highly effective in blocking the penetration of other substances, but the heat treatment and the use of the equipment comes with a high price tag. On the other hand, organic materials have an easier production process, yet are relatively more vulnerable to penetration by moisture and air. Thus, Song has converged these two materials, which would result in a barrier film higher in both ability and cost efficiency. Song Tae-seob (Department of Energy Engineering) explained how converging organic and inorganic materials can result in the production of a barrier with higher abilities and improved cost efficiency. According to Song, there have been techniques to combine the two materials, but they have not yet been applied to the production of barrier films. Thus, the remaining task for Song was to focus upon making a convergence of the two materials and managing to evenly spread and disperse the inorganic material within the organic solution. "Inorganic materials have a tendency to crumple down within an organic solution. Therefore, finding a way to alleviate this mass and allow them to spread evenly within the solution is a key factor to our research," explained Song. Being a professor in the Department of Energy Engineering and primarily studying batteries, Song has had hardships in this relatively unfamiliar field of research. As it is applying an already existing technique, Song and his laboratory members have focused on developing their technologies while avoiding existing patents. Having the need to develop a product from a new perspective with a novel concept, while diverting from current technologies, Song had another barrier to overcome. However, once such hardships are overcome and the current research is fully conducted, the outcomes will be significant. By localizing the novel barrier film technique, the domestic industry will prosper economically. “The domestic display business will benefit from being supplied with products that are more efficient in both cost and capacity. Furthermore, the barriers can also be extended to various businesses such as solar cells, which have also been troubled with moisture and air penetration," commented Song. Song and his students showing their strong will to develop an organic-inorganic hybrid material barrier. From the left, Lee Kang-chun (Energy Engineering, PhD Degree), Song, Jo Seong-han, Kim Gae-un, and Park Sang-woo (Energy Engineering, Master's program). Choi Seo-yong tjdyd1@daum.net Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-05 28

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Efficient and Aesthetic Hybrid Solar Cells

Professor Ko Min-jae recently made the cover article of Advanced Energy Materials with “Room-Temperature Vapor Deposition of Cobalt Nitride Nanofilms for Mesoscopic and Perovskite Solar Cells.” The research Ko has been conducting since 2008 deals with the hybrid solar cell, which is more flexible, lighter and more versatile than conventional silicon solar panels. The article focuses on Ko and his research team's development of a power conversion efficient nanofilm made of cobalt nitride (CoN). As it can be dye-sensitized and bent freely, Ko proposes that this material can be applied on flexible and wearable devices in the future, at an affordable cost. “If we use CoN nanofilms, electricity can be generated from everyday devices and objects, not only from thermoelectric or nuclear power plants. By utilizing natural renewable energy, the human race can develop sustainably, and that is very important,” Ko mentioned in the interview. The new finding can also generate power from weak lights such as the sun on a cloudy day or even from indoor fluorescent lights. The reason behind the reduced cost is the simple production process. Conventional silicon solar panels require special devices to assemble, which are big and expensive. Finding the right combination of substances that induce stable synergy is the hardest part and the reason Ko’s lab is one of the leaders in the solar power field. Ko mentioned, “Idea is the key, and it is wonderful that I can see if the idea works or not in two days.” It is predicted that the CoN nanofilm will be commercialized in five years. "Fighting!" Ko and his students are posing and assuring their will to work hard. From the left, Yoo Yong-suk (Chemical Engineering, Master's program), Ko Min-jae and Kim Dong-hwan (Chemical Engineering, 4th year). Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-05 21

[Academics]The Effects of Representation Tool (Visible-Annotation) Types to Support Knowledge Building in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

South Korea has the reputation of having a competitive educational environment for students. Korean students are constantly either in school or in private educational institutions, spending about 15 hours a week just studying. However, the Korean educational model is always described as a very stressful, authoritarian, brutally competitive, and unidirectional educational method. The unidirectional, teacher-centered model has always been criticized as it hinders students from formulating their own thoughts. That is why Kim Dong-sik, professor of the Department of Educational Technology, and his two students Shin Yoon-hee and Jung Jae-won, collaborated in writing the paper, “The Effects of Representation Tool (Visible-Annotation) Types to Support Knowledge Building in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.” Process of collaborative knowledge construction (Photo courtesy of Kim) The adoption of technology as a learning mechanism has led to the wide use of online platforms such as knowledge forums and concept maps. Such online education platforms help to maximize the efficiency of learning and the cultivation of high-quality information through active discussions. Kim, Shin, and Jung emphasize that communication activities that include sharing professional knowledge and different perspectives can enhance the level of learning performance. However, being in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment in the absence of appropriate discussion tools can lead to ineffective learning processes and unsuccessful learning performance, due to a lack of accuracy during the knowledge-sharing stage and failure of fostering higher-quality knowledge construction for online discussion. Kim explains the importance of collaborative learning in his office on May 16th. To overcome the limitations, Kim, Shin, and Jung came up with a new tool of visible annotations, adopting the linking annotation method. This method basically links a participant’s contributions with the entire related text provided by the other participants or the instructor. It plays a significant role in forming a shared frame of reference from which to draw higher-level solutions through meaningful conversations. Kim, Shin, and Jung’s visible annotations can be seen as a developed version of the shared frame of reference which attempts to overcoming limitations of linked annotations, as it had no influence on promoting interactions aimed at clarification and interpretation. “Collaboration is crucial. There is collaboration everywhere in our society. We collaborate wherever we are, except at school. Education is unidirectional, and we want to change that,” said Kim. Structure of visible annotations (TLL type) (Photo courtesy of Kim) To investigate which representative tool type would enhance the accuracy of shared knowledge and foster a high level of constructed knowledge in the CSCL environment, Kim, Shin, and Jung came up with three types of visible annotations to test out on college students. They are TL type (content-understanding learning phase and content-understanding), TLL type (concept-understanding for key concepts, content-understanding, then problem-solving learning phase for completing the lesson) and C type (controlled content-understanding learning phase). The concept-understanding type of learning phase focuses on defining the meaning and explaining the pros and cons of key terms; the content-understanding learning phase focuses on asking, explaining, and commenting on the sentence-based learning content; and the problem-solving learning phase focuses on negotiating various opinions and deriving solutions for completing the lesson task. Shin is a very talented student, soon to receive her doctorate in educational technology. After weeks of experimenting, Kim, Shin, and Jung were able to conclude that the TLL type of visible annotation was the most effective in enhancing the accuracy of shared knowledge. “The conventional representation tool has limitations, as it cannot help shared knowledge reach a higher-quality cognitive domain as processes leading to problem awareness, opinion sharing, and collaborative troubleshooting have not been fully considered,” said Shin. Kim added, “TLL specifically divides the stage for the users to first understand the concept key words, then move on to the next step of understanding specific content, and then lastly create active discussions to help individuals consolidate their opinions based on accurate shared knowledge. That’s the true meaning of collaborative education." Park Joo-hyun julia1114@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-05 14

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Heading for the World of New Physics

The field of physics is largely divided into three categories: particle, optics, and condensed matter physics. Especially in the field of particle physics, the Standard Model is a theory that explains almost every phenomenon in the universe. However, how would you feel if something that you’ve been trusting for the last 50 years turned out to be wrong? Professor Cheon Byung-gu (Department of Physics), is trying to solve this question through his new research project titled "Study of Heavy Flavor Physics using e+ e- Collision." News H met Cheon Byung-gu (Department of Physics) to hear more about New Physics. The Standard Model is a theory describing three of the four fundamental forces in the universe, which are the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, not including the gravitational force, along with classifying all known elementary particles This has been believed to be consistent due to successfully providing all experimental predictions, but leaves certain phenomena, such as dark matter and dark energy, unexplained. Therefore, this signifies there is a certain particle that has not yet been discovered and yet must be in existence. Cheon, therefore, is developing and planning to proceed with research through a Belle Ⅱ experiment, to search for this very particle. Cheon proceeds with his experiment through colliding an electron and a positron together to uncover a new particle through rare decay events. They are so extremely small that making these two particles collide is extremely difficult; therefore, it can only be done using special vehicles, the SuperKEKB collider and the Belle Ⅱ detector, which is a kind of microscope capable of seeing objects smaller than a nucleus. Once these new particles are discovered, they could provide the foundation for a novel theory named New Physics, beyond the Standard Model. An image of an electron and a positron colliding, making an occurance of new particles seen as blue lines. (Photo courtesy of Cheon) The Super KEKB shoots countless electrons from one side and positrons from the other side, providing an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than that of the previous KEKB collider. Then the Belle Ⅱ detector identifies the particles, using seven kinds of sub-detector systems, including a calorimeter trigger system, that selects events that are valuable enough to investigate further. The researchers could have better sorted sets of events to analyze through this detector at real time operation, which Hanyang University group is leading its own independent line. Cheon’s final goal is to find a New Physics phenomenon beyond the current Standard Model through the Belle Ⅱ. These physical studies might not look like something that could directly be connected to everyday life. However, much of our abundant technology in our life has its foundation in physics. “Medical technological skills such as X-ray, CT, and PET detectors all started with knowledge of physics. In the field of physics, new discoveries and new acknowledgements contribute to the mental wealth of humankind,” said Cheon. "Don't be afraid to show your abilities as a world leader!" Cheon is currently working not only as a researcher, but also continues his lectures and manages academic affairs as the dean of the Department of Physics. He has online meetings with researchers in Japan every week to continue his research, trying to let his students improve to be talented people who can contribute to society. “I wish to provide my students with an environment where they can work with foreign researchers. I hope all Hanyangians in the 21st century will also be willing to look not only at Korea, but to the whole world.” On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-05 10

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Weaving Technology into the Fibers of Our Lives

The development of smart technology has brought forth a spectacular display of new products in recent years. Under the common label "smart," smartphones, smartwatches, smart homes and other technology used to gather, process, and analyze massive amounts of data have now seeped into some of the most critical parts of our daily lives. In fact, the only limit on the ways of utilizing this technology is our imaginations. In this sense, Professor Bae Ji-hyun (Department of Clothing and Textiles) has made a new attempt to tear down another wall between smart technology and an essential component of our lives: clothing. Introducing the clothes of the future In essence, Bae’s research is an adaptation of wearable devices. Specifically, she aims to introduce electronic devices to our everyday clothing. Among a diverse array of available options, this research targets the field of healthcare. The idea is that by planting electronic devices in our clothes, we can codify data such as bio-signals, physical movements, or even environmental changes to monitor our health status. Generally speaking, clothing and electronic devices intuitively dawn on us as two very disparate domains. This probably has to do with the nature of clothing, which necessitates regular washing, as well as the imaginable discomfort of having metallic devices attached to our clothes. So how does Bae plan to overcome this fixation? The secret is in the fabric. Bae Ji-hyun (Department of Clothing and Textiles) uses a prototype glove to give an explanation of her research. The functional fibers in the glove allow movements to be detected and transmitted in the form of electrical signals. In the big picture of introducing electronic devices to clothing, Bae’s specific area of research is the development of functional fibers that can act as sensors. Furthermore, she has to design the textile organization in a way that allows it to be woven into a wearable form. By endowing fiber, the most basic unit of clothing, with the ability to react to stimuli such as light, movement, and temperature, we could use clothing to transmit, store, and analyze a variety of changes. According to Bae, the most prominent method to enable this function is by mixing conductive macromolecule particles or nano-particles in the process of weaving the fiber strands. Another common method is to coat ordinary thread, such as nylon or silk, with functional substances. Although Bae’s research is only in its initial stage, the projected benefits of the study raise great anticipation. For one, it will bring an immense improvement to the quality of healthcare for the elderly. This is especially timely considering the growth of the elderly population in our society. Not only will smart clothes reduce the cost of healthcare for retired citizens, it will provide higher efficiency by constantly monitoring and diagnosing the state of the wearer. It can also be used to service the disadvantaged such as the monitoring of infants or people with disabilities. Bae also expressed the hope of adapting this new technology to assist the activities of people working under dangerous conditions, such as soldiers or fire fighters, to improve their safety. As previously mentioned, the ways in which the technology can be used is only limited by our imaginations. (a) The sensor part of the glove woven with conductive fiber (b) The change of resistance value following the movement of the finger (c) Demonstration of a sign language detection system using the conductive-fiber based glove (Photo courtesy of Bae) The background story It has only been a year since Bae was recruited as a professor at Hanyang University. Prior to the position as a professor, she worked at an electronics company. Having earned her degree in textile engineering, Bae became immersed in the relationship between textiles and electronic technology while working at the firm. “Once I saw the connection, there were so many possibilities that became obvious to me," answered Bae. Through her previous firm, she was able to participate in a government project to develop wearable devices, providing her with an insight into the prospect of the technology. According to Bae, the hardest part of her research so far has been the novelty of the field. As is true in the case of most technologies these days, her research requires extensive collaboration with other fields. For the immediate research of smart clothes, the fields of electronic engineering and textiles are crucial. Furthermore, as the target of her research is the field of healthcare, some medical insight is also required. Other than that, convergence with a wide scope of academic fields is necessary in order to consider the subsidiary details of the research, such as the environmental impact of the product or the economic costs of commercializing the technology. However, a lack of public interest in the field makes it difficult for Bae to secure opportunities for cooperation with other fields. Although most of Bae's existing joint research projects are done through external networks, she hopes that internal convergence studies at Hanyang will also take place soon. Efforts as an educator Despite the difficulties of her research, Bae confessed that the hardest part of her job is teaching students. As she had no prior experience of interacting with pupils, she devotes a significant amount of her hours to understanding the needs of her students. “I believe that my current priority is to figure out how to be a good professor to my students,” added Bae. Bae wants to encourage students to maintain an open attitude when communicating with others. “Even in joint research, you need to have respect for others’ expertise in their respective fields, as well as an open mind to approach a common problem from diverse directions.” Bae argued that the same holds true for human interaction, which is an important lesson to take to heart when entering society. In the end, she believes that the synergy created from interactions and convergence is what provides us with the momentum to grow. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-04 30

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Applying Terahertz to Weld-Line Detection

The weld-line among moulding injected plastic products have long presented a challenge in the production of plastic. Destruction of a specific plastic product has been considered necessary in the process of examining any existing weld-lines within the material. However, based on his newly released paper "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of weld-line defects formed during an injection moulding process," Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering) has coined the concept of applying terahertz radiation in this examination process. Based upon the terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), Kim has introduced a novel method of detecting weld-lines among moulding injected plastic products in a nondestructive manner. The THz-TDS technique In order to understand the THz-TDS system, one must become familiar with the actual concept of terahertz. Terahertz refers to a frequency unit of electromagnetic waves, counting up to one trillion cycles per second. Its long microwaves and wavelengths provide it a high permeability which allows terahertz to surpass materials other than metal. This high permeability leads to the THz-TDS, a spectroscopic technique in which the properties of matter are examined through different phases of terahertz radiation. In short, when shot at a specific target, the phases of terahertz radiation differ while surpassing different materials. Professor Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering) explained the benefits of terahertz radiation and how it can be applied to more practical fields. Although THz-TDS was an already-existing technique, it was Kim who applied it to the more practical field of finding weld-lines among plastic products. Weld-lines are lines that occur around areas where two flow fronts meet, yet are unstably "welded" together in the moulding process. These weld-lines cause weak areas among the moulded part, which may lead to a breakage of the product when the part is under pressure. Until now, the inevitable destruction of the whole product has been regarded as the only method of scrutinizing the existence of weld-lines. However, Kim has introduced a new method, which allows the weld-lines to be detected without breakage. Applying THz-TDS to weld-line detection As mentioned above, different phases of terahertz radiation occur when surpassing different materials. This variation of phases allows one to determine the specific material that the terahertz radiation is currently transcending through. Thus, when shooting terahertz radiation at moulding injected plastic products, the distinctions that occur among phases would be the areas where weld-lines, different layers than other parts of the product, are detected. This would eliminate the necessity of the current destructive weld-line determination process, as simply shooting terahertz radiation at the plastic products enables the investigation method to be possible without any force input. The phases of terahertz radiation differ according to the existence of weld-lines, which allows the detection of such weld-lines within plastic products. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim implemented a scanning method when conducting experiments to prove his theory. While attaching a mirror to the terahertz radiation, he moved the specimens according to their reflections. In order to make the reflections happen, the mirror was given a metalized-coating, considering the fact that terahertz surpasses all materials but metal. He managed to make a reflective-equipment that made the reflections occur on a much faster period, which allowed him to gather more results in a shorter time. According to Kim, the equipment is in its initial stage, yet developments are still being made towards totally eliminating minor errors. Hardships and future plans Despite achieving striking results, Kim also had hardships while conducting his research. Kim is a professor in the department of mechanical engineering, whereas terahertz research is related to the field of electronic engineering. Conducting research in a totally different field irrelevant to his major resulted in Kim having to look into two completely distinctive areas. However, he continued his research with only his students, without engaging in any form of joint research with others from departments in more closely-related fields. Oh Gyung-hwan, one of Kim's student assistants and co-leaders of this research, and Kim (left and right) commented on the importance of one finding his or her own reasons for conducting research and remarked that they want to help students find such causes. Such thought may result from Kim’s belief that research must be conducted in a positive manner. Kim mentioned, “I want my students to find their own reasons of pursuing specific research, while being proud of their achievements at the same time." He also added that this research was also conducted worldwide, and hence, his students should be proud of the significant results their global research. As for his future plans, Kim declaimed, “Despite my hardships in this study, I would like to do more research in a variety of other fields, while maintaining a firm stance within my major of mechanical engineering.” Choi Seo-yong tjdyd1@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-04 23

[Academics]Flexible Cell Phones Possible Through Silver Nanowire on Graphene on a PET

Imagine your smartphone expanding up to twice its size if you unfold it. Wouldn’t it be wonderful? There is a researcher and a professor at Hanyang University who brought this world a step closer to such technology. Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering)’s recent paper “UV-assisted flashlight welding process to fabricate silver nanowire/graphene on a PET substrate for transparent electrodes” revealed a new progress in technology to weld silver nanowire onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate, a thermoplastic polymer) substrates. When asked about his future academic plans, Kim answered it was to follow his interest and have fun. “I had this ‘idea storm’ while studying for my doctorate degree. At that time, I bought three monitors and wrote three articles simultaneously. I lamented at the fact that I have only two hands,” laughed Kim. In order to actualize a foldable smartphone and commercialize it, the flexible part must be both transparent and durable. Although there has been a decade of research in the field to discover such technology, one has yet to be found. The two main obstacles were, first, to keep the wires laid in a knit-like organization without raising the electronic resistance through time. The issue here was while the flexible display is folded and unfolded repeatedly, mechanically placed silver nanowires are slowly detached from the substrate. A substrate is a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs. This leads to bigger resistance, as the road of a same amount of electricity can move is technically reduced. If resistance increases more than a certain level, the display malfunctions, making the entire device useless. Another obstacle was not being able to weld the nanowires to the substrate. This is because silver nanowire melts at 300 degrees Celsius while the PET substrate melts at 150 degrees. “Not even experts in the fields believed me when I told them I could weld silver nanowire onto the PET substrate,” chuckled Kim. Using PET substrate is also the key to manufacturing cheap and flexible displays, as a thin ceramic substrate, no matter how thin they are, inevitably cracks after repeated use. Welding silver nanowire and graphene on PET substrate. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim solved both dilemmas by welding silver nanowires onto PET substrate, using flashlight sintering. Flashlight sintering uses a lamp filled with Xenon gas, a highly inert gas due to its structure. Kim drew this idea from skin care technology called Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) where they use a flashlight instead of a laser to burn moles or wrinkles without damaging the skin. “I wondered, Can the polymer substrate and the nanowire work as the skin and the mole?” mentioned Kim. With academic interest, Kim researched further during his post-doctorate degree at UCLA. By welding the silver nanowire instantly with the light, it reduces tech-time and therefore reduces the manufacturing price. Moreover, Kim added a layer of graphene to the network of wires to further enhance the conductivity. Graphene is a form of carbon, consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice. Although it is a form of carbon, the thickness being one atom makes it look transparent. Welded silver nanowire with a layer of graphene prevents the resistance from raising even more, extending the lifetime of the display. Kim emphasized that students in Hanyang are better than most students in other schools. “I was in the so called "elite" group, so I can tell our students are much better!” said Kim. The hardest part of wielding such results was the skepticism. “Because the IPL technology did not exist in Korea, I was often scoffed at by others. So, I had to make my own devices as there were no research funds,” reminisced Kim. For about two years after Kim started making progress and received a big government project, not a lot of people believed that silver nanowire welding was even possible. Now, thanks to Kim, we will soon be able to see foldable smartphones. Kim So-yun dash070@naver.com Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-04 19

[Academics]Architecture as the Outcome of Thought Towards the Truth

As structures are among the chief artifacts that any civil society leaves behind, the history of architecture reflects the story of human civilizations in many different ways. Jeong Jin-kouk (Deparment of Architecture), who mainly deals with modern architecture, finds the understanding and study of architecture crucial as it is a way of enriching human lives. Greatly influenced by Hubert Damisch, Jeong began his study of modern architecture which led him to focus on the works of Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier is considered one of the pioneers of modern architecture, and 17 of his projects have become UNESCO World Heritage Sites. When Jeong encountered his first Le Corbusier building, he was overwhelmed with shock and awe, which intrigued him to the point of wanting to understand how the building alone could have left him in such an emotional state. Along with many other reasons, this was the beginning of his studies and the creation of his academic paper titled “The ‘New Type of Church’: From Le Corbusier’s Church at Firminy” which focuses on three significant religious building conceptualized by the renowned modern architect in 1950s and 1960s, particularly on the last one - the Church at Firminy, after Chapel of Ronchamp and Monastery of La Tourette. “Architectural promenade is the observer’s pathway through the built space and is the central element of Le Corbusier’s architectural and city planning designs. In short, it is the sequence of images that unfolds before the eyes of the observer as he or she gradually advances through the structure.” (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) One interesting fact about the paper is that the content is laid out following Jeong’s perspective as he takes his first few steps along the architectural promenade. In this way, Jeong tried to truly understand and match his flow of consciousness along with that of Le Corbusier’s by doing an in-depth analysis from the structure itself, rather than simply applying external theories to explain the new type of church. This flow is conveyed through different concepts of the church’s worship space, ecstasy, the site, box of miracles, and spontaneity. Worship space & ecstasy Shaped in the form of a truncated cone, the Church at Firminy is a structure that is only made out of concrete with four different, precisely calculated facades that change according to different orientations. The shape of the natural sunlight coming through the openings on the walls is manipulated both quantitatively and qualitatively to maximize special effect. The light reflection of the Orion constellation on one of the walls also adds to the visual delight, leaving its visitors lost in an indescribable mix of senses. Many have suggested that this comes from religious factors as it is a religious space, whereas Le Corbusier himself simply tried to explain it in terms of plastic arts by referring to it as an "ineffable space." An ineffable space is a space that cannot be explained with any verbal terms. In other words, an “ineffable space aims to reach a high emotional state, in which the spirit can develop feelings such as ‘the joy of getting outside myself.' ” According to Jeong, the concept of “the joy of getting outside of myself” “can be defined as an ecstatic state in terms of Sergei Eisenstein’s developed theory of Montage.” Here, ecstasy is based on geometry of vision, rather than any religious symbols or theological emblems. As Le Corbusier said, “The human head … is a box into which one can pour pell-mell the bits of a problem. Let it ‘float,’ ‘marinate,’ ‘ferment.’ Then one day, out of a spontaneous burst of inner being the click is produced. … It is born.” (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) The site & the box of miracles Another factor that contributes to the state of ecstasy is the “floating Box of Miracles.” Here, the Box of Miracles is an empty concrete square like the worship space of the Church at Firminy. Jeong simply added floating, because Le Corbusier, who emphasized the importance of the harmony and balance between structure and its surrounding environment, as well as the right angles of the two, “lifted up the Box of Miracles from the ground in order to make it to float for the religious building in Firminy.” “The Box of Miracles was originally invented at the beginning of 1950s as a Spontaneous Theatre, and was considered of equal value to the space of worship in a religious building.” In other words, the key point of a Box of Miracles is at spontaneity itself which, according to Le Corbusier, defines the nature of creativity. The Worship Space of the Church at Firminy (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) Spontaneity The term spontaneity here must be distinguished from improvisation, as the latter literally does not require any form of prior contemplation. The Spontaneous Theatre has meaning in the sense that it is an area where people can truly express their feelings through creative acts and inspiration. Le Corbusier’s conceptualism of spontaneity which is the core essence of creativity, is based on patient search for the maturity of an idea. “Once idea becomes fully mature and reaches its perfect point, the solution emerges ‘at one time’ and ‘at a stroke,’ so to speak, spontaneously.” Hence, without thought and patient search, spontaneity simply becomes meaningless. According to Jeong, the Box of Miracles, also known as the Spontaneous Theatre, works as both a common denominator and point of uniqueness for the Church at Firminy when comparing it to the other two final works of Le Corbusier. It is because although the Box of Miracles are present in all structures, the one at the Church at Firminy is floating, and the architect’s constant contemplation on how to integrate the structure into the site gives up different geometry of vision and system of expression, making it a "new type of church." Park Joo-hyun julia1114@hanyang.ac.kr

2018-04 02

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Controlling Hydrogen in a Chemical

During the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics, Hyundai allowed free trial rides of NEXO, their new fuel cell vehicle, to twenty thousand people, deriving huge attention and public interest on the new innovation of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. A total of 733 vehicles were reserved on the 19th of March which was the first day of sale by pre-order. This attention to fuel cell vehicles has also increased the interest in the methods the consumers can receive their fuel: hydrogen. Professor Suh Young-woong (Department of Chemical Engineering) introduced a novel method of the transfer of hydrogen through his research, "2- (N-Methylbenzyl) pyridine: A Potential Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier with Fast H2 Release and Stable Activity in Consecutive Cycles." Suh's research paper was published in the ChemSusChem journal. Hydrogen is the main fuel cars like NEXO require in order to run. However, researchers face an immense difficulty when working with this sensitive gas. Hydrogen is great when powering the car itself. However, the transport of this gas requires much pressure and delicacy. For example, if hydrogen is made in Ulsan, it needs to be transported to major cities such as Seoul, since people will need to charge their cars. In order to transport this hydrogen, the gas needs to be pressured under 700 bars (the unit of measuring pressure), with specially produced tanks. This presents the danger of enormous explosion as well as economic problems. Collaborating with three other universities to alleviate these current concerns, Suh helped introduce a new chemical substance that can store and release hydrogen safely. This new chemical material allows hydrogen to inflow and release within itself at a certain temperature. This results in a massive improvement over the current status as it can transport much more hydrogen in a single tank, with much more safety. Moreover, they can release hydrogen from the chemical at 230 degrees Celsius, while the present technology requires a temperature of 270 degrees Celsius. This chemical material can even be reused up to a hundred times, which even makes it more efficient. The image of the new chemical structure The two arrows are showing the inflow and the release of Hydrogen. (Photo courtesy of Suh) This research took each of the three teams one and a half years to finish. They had to go through endless trial and error procedures with seven different chemicals. “There wasn't any preliminary research we could have referenced. Some chemicals didn't work, and some chemicals would work but released hydrogen at the same 270 degrees Celsius,” reminisced Suh. As a result of their efforts, Suh was able to find a method that could inpour and discharge hydrogen from the chemical. This chemical is not yet fully developed in its validity. However, this is the closet chemical that is on the verge of commercialization. "Communicate with a lot of people and practice reading and writing!" Suh is currently researching not only the storage of hydrogen, but the creation of hydrogen itself. His research team is working on producing hydrogen from biomass, which is organic matter whose residual energy can be harvested to produce consumable energy. He is trying his best to develop technology related to hydrogen, an alternative fuel the whole world is anticipating. “As a professor, I want to produce a lot of outstanding researchers to conduct better research in society,” said Suh. “And to all Hanyangians, I wish for each and every one of you to find your own unique path and to fully dedicated yourself to it!” On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun