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2018-05 28

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Efficient and Aesthetic Hybrid Solar Cells

Professor Ko Min-jae recently made the cover article of Advanced Energy Materials with “Room-Temperature Vapor Deposition of Cobalt Nitride Nanofilms for Mesoscopic and Perovskite Solar Cells.” The research Ko has been conducting since 2008 deals with the hybrid solar cell, which is more flexible, lighter and more versatile than conventional silicon solar panels. The article focuses on Ko and his research team's development of a power conversion efficient nanofilm made of cobalt nitride (CoN). As it can be dye-sensitized and bent freely, Ko proposes that this material can be applied on flexible and wearable devices in the future, at an affordable cost. “If we use CoN nanofilms, electricity can be generated from everyday devices and objects, not only from thermoelectric or nuclear power plants. By utilizing natural renewable energy, the human race can develop sustainably, and that is very important,” Ko mentioned in the interview. The new finding can also generate power from weak lights such as the sun on a cloudy day or even from indoor fluorescent lights. The reason behind the reduced cost is the simple production process. Conventional silicon solar panels require special devices to assemble, which are big and expensive. Finding the right combination of substances that induce stable synergy is the hardest part and the reason Ko’s lab is one of the leaders in the solar power field. Ko mentioned, “Idea is the key, and it is wonderful that I can see if the idea works or not in two days.” It is predicted that the CoN nanofilm will be commercialized in five years. "Fighting!" Ko and his students are posing and assuring their will to work hard. From the left, Yoo Yong-suk (Chemical Engineering, Master's program), Ko Min-jae and Kim Dong-hwan (Chemical Engineering, 4th year). Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-04 23

[Academics]Flexible Cell Phones Possible Through Silver Nanowire on Graphene on a PET

Imagine your smartphone expanding up to twice its size if you unfold it. Wouldn’t it be wonderful? There is a researcher and a professor at Hanyang University who brought this world a step closer to such technology. Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering)’s recent paper “UV-assisted flashlight welding process to fabricate silver nanowire/graphene on a PET substrate for transparent electrodes” revealed a new progress in technology to weld silver nanowire onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate, a thermoplastic polymer) substrates. When asked about his future academic plans, Kim answered it was to follow his interest and have fun. “I had this ‘idea storm’ while studying for my doctorate degree. At that time, I bought three monitors and wrote three articles simultaneously. I lamented at the fact that I have only two hands,” laughed Kim. In order to actualize a foldable smartphone and commercialize it, the flexible part must be both transparent and durable. Although there has been a decade of research in the field to discover such technology, one has yet to be found. The two main obstacles were, first, to keep the wires laid in a knit-like organization without raising the electronic resistance through time. The issue here was while the flexible display is folded and unfolded repeatedly, mechanically placed silver nanowires are slowly detached from the substrate. A substrate is a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs. This leads to bigger resistance, as the road of a same amount of electricity can move is technically reduced. If resistance increases more than a certain level, the display malfunctions, making the entire device useless. Another obstacle was not being able to weld the nanowires to the substrate. This is because silver nanowire melts at 300 degrees Celsius while the PET substrate melts at 150 degrees. “Not even experts in the fields believed me when I told them I could weld silver nanowire onto the PET substrate,” chuckled Kim. Using PET substrate is also the key to manufacturing cheap and flexible displays, as a thin ceramic substrate, no matter how thin they are, inevitably cracks after repeated use. Welding silver nanowire and graphene on PET substrate. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim solved both dilemmas by welding silver nanowires onto PET substrate, using flashlight sintering. Flashlight sintering uses a lamp filled with Xenon gas, a highly inert gas due to its structure. Kim drew this idea from skin care technology called Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) where they use a flashlight instead of a laser to burn moles or wrinkles without damaging the skin. “I wondered, Can the polymer substrate and the nanowire work as the skin and the mole?” mentioned Kim. With academic interest, Kim researched further during his post-doctorate degree at UCLA. By welding the silver nanowire instantly with the light, it reduces tech-time and therefore reduces the manufacturing price. Moreover, Kim added a layer of graphene to the network of wires to further enhance the conductivity. Graphene is a form of carbon, consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice. Although it is a form of carbon, the thickness being one atom makes it look transparent. Welded silver nanowire with a layer of graphene prevents the resistance from raising even more, extending the lifetime of the display. Kim emphasized that students in Hanyang are better than most students in other schools. “I was in the so called "elite" group, so I can tell our students are much better!” said Kim. The hardest part of wielding such results was the skepticism. “Because the IPL technology did not exist in Korea, I was often scoffed at by others. So, I had to make my own devices as there were no research funds,” reminisced Kim. For about two years after Kim started making progress and received a big government project, not a lot of people believed that silver nanowire welding was even possible. Now, thanks to Kim, we will soon be able to see foldable smartphones. Kim So-yun dash070@naver.com Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-03 26

[Academics]The Beauty of Dynamic Tensions

A. S. Byatt is the famous British writer known in Korea for winning the Park Kyong-ni Prize last year. Peter Mathews (English Language & Literature), who has been interested in her work for more than 15 years, recently wrote an analytical article "Dynamic tensions in A. S. Byatt’s 'A Lamia in the Cevennese'" which focuses on the pattern she often uses. “I came to Hanyang 8 years ago to balance my research and teaching,” smiled Mathews. "A Lamia in the Cevennese" (1998) is part of a short story collection named Elementals: Stories of Fire and Ice (1998). In this collection, A. S. Byatt challenges the traditionally associated negativity in "cold philosophy" or "intellect." Therefore, she creates dynamic tensions between logic and emotion, reality and myth, and so on. In many works of literature and art, passion is often referred to as the birthplace of art and motivation, while logic and intellectuality are perceived as things that deter such beauty. Byatt writes against the conventional assumptions and expectations of the readers. Specifically, in the story "A Lamia in the Cevennese" (1998), the main character, an artist named Bernard Lyccet-Kean, moves to southern France to find a lamia in his pool. Lamia here refers to a mythical creature that is half women and half snake. She tries to seduce Bernard when he shows no interest in romance but in art. In this way, Byatt associates Bernard with both "cold" and "hot," creating the dynamic tension. She uses various measures to bring such tension throughout the story. For instance, Byatt creates tension between myth and reality by portraying lamia, a mythical creature, threatening to but eventually failing to enter Bernard’s reality. Such tension persists throughout the collection. "I think of writing simply in terms of pleasure. It's the most important thing in my life, making things. Much as I love my husband and my children, I love them only because I am the person who makes these things." From the interview with The Guardians, A. S. Byatt. (Photo courtesy of British Council) Mathews aimed to “try and find a key and pattern in understanding her work.” He used Byatt’s other works at the beginning of the Elementals to build a structure that applies to the story about the lamia and Bernard, which is in the latter part of his essay. Taking the relatively short time of only four weeks to write, as he was on his sabbatical last year, he had to read all of the articles that were written on A. S. Byatt and re-read some of her writings to put this essay together. “When you are working in this field, you draw a lot from what you read along the way,” mentioned Mathews. The piles of books that filled his library-like office silently supported his statement. Mathews was inspired to become a professor in English Literature in a class that he took in his second year of university. “That was the first time I was inspired to study something in depth. From there, I followed my inclinations,” smiled the professor. Now, he is getting a step closer to his teenage dream of becoming a writer. “I just finished a story, my first serious adult story, as of this morning,” said Mathews. The title is 'Patrick White Square' , and it imagines a world where his home country of Australia is a world power, such that all British kids have to read Patrick White (a renowned Australian writer), like how in reality Australian kids currently have to read British novels. With his academic interest in literary theory, Mathews plans to keep on writing articles and essays in the field. Art collections, endless shelves of books, and guitars in his office seem to tell a lot about who Peter Mathews is: a delightful and dedicated scholar. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-02 28

[Academics]What Makes People Prosocial

Have you ever wondered what makes some people particularly social and not others? Kim, Sanghag (Department of Sociology) tried to identify the relationship among empathy, attachment to parents, and prosociality. Prosociality refers to behaviors that are intended to benefit others. Kim mentioned that there was not a lot of research done to figure the relations among the aforementioned three aspects of human psychology. To make matters worse, research on empathy predominantly focused on older children from around 11 to 15 years of age, as morality was conceived as a cognitive process. Kim is enthusiastically explaining about his work. That focus has recently shifted to younger children – as young as just a few months old – and the findings in the differences in emotional empathy at such an early stage have emphasized the importance in the influence of nurture on empathy and the prosociality of a person. Kim stressed that one of the strengths of his recent paper titled, ‘Relational Antecedents and Social Implications of the Emotion of Empathy: Evidence from Three Studies’ is the quality of data that the team has collected over the course of 12 years. In order to discern the link among empathy, attachment, and prosociality, the research team had used three forms of studies: family study, play study, and the parent-child study. In the studies, a child’s empathy for either the mother or father was elicited under a scripted, stimulated distress paradigm, where the parents acted upon a detailed script to see the child’s reaction. The entire process was recorded for later coding, capturing the child’s expressions of emotion through facial, verbal, and behavioral means. The child’s attachment security was measured under the Strange Situation Paradigm (SSP) and the Attachment Q-Set. In the former measure, the child was left with a stranger and the action was analyzed through coding; while in the latter measure, the parents were asked about the attachment security. The last and probably the most important measure, the child’s prosociality was measured in a peer context in order to determine whether the child took turns when playing, askings for things nicely, and so on. The solid line represents a significant effect, and the dashed line represents a nonsignificant effect. Graph A represents the mother– child dyads and B for the father– child dyads. Further explanation is below. Photo courtesy of Kim Through such vigorous research from middle class families with various educational and ethnic backgrounds to high risk families with financial issues, Kim and the research team were able to draw lines between the factors. Attachment here turned out to be a moderated mediation. Moderated mediation is a statistical term where the effect of an independent variable A on an outcome variable C via a mediator variable B differs depending on the levels of a moderator variable D. In this context, the effect of ‘empathy’ on the outcomes ‘prosociality’ depends on the level of the moderator's ‘attachment security’, as you can see in the graph. There is an arrow pointing to the solid line between empathy and prosociality. What is surprising about the finding is the impact of empathy on prosociality, which is stronger when the attachment level is lower. This goes against the common perception that the better the relationship between the parents and a child, the better the child behaves in society. However, this does not necessarily mean that children are more prosocial when they have a bad relationship with their parents, but that the impact of empathy is noticeably stronger under an undesirable context. “This research will provide supporting evidence that prosocial behavior and empathy is at least partially due to the environment, as infants are a good subject to see the effects of nature and nurture. They do not have any other contaminating factors that the researchers have to take into account,” said Kim. "Don't be afraid to take the path that nobody else chooses. With the know-hows acquired from the deserted place, you will be able to succeed in the well known fields too," encouraged Kim. Kim, unlike most social science researchers, is highly interested in what induces positive aspects from people such as happiness, morality, and identity. “Social science and social psychology to be specific, are great tools in explaining to me and the people around me. What we feel, acknowledge, and learn is what makes this area so fascinating for me,” smiled Kim. He plans to continue his research further on the three key words both in Korea and in the United States. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-01 03

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Calculating the Effects of the English Rule and American Rule

Have you ever lost a lawsuit? There are two ways to resolve the financial issues concerning legal costs after the resolution. The first method is called the English Rule, where the loser of a lawsuit pays the winner’s legal fees. The other one is the American Rule, where each party handles their own legal cost. Since the 1990s, there has been a general consensus among economists that the former improves the quality of a lawsuit and reduces trial costs. Yoon Jung-mo (Professor, Department of Economics & Finance) was the one to propose the question, ‘is it really?’ in his recent article, ‘Estimating the Effects of the English Rule on Litigation Outcomes.’ When asked if he has anything to tell his pupils, Yoon said, "you are all doing excellent, so I wish you can stop worrying," with a warm smile on his face. Every government aims to reduce the number of lawsuits, especially Korea and the United States. The increased number of court cases lead to increased government and societal spending on legal institutions and its personnel. The key to amend such issues is to reduce the real number of law suits to alleviate the burden of the court and increase the case quality, which is determined by the chance of a plaintiff winning the case and the amount of the settlement. Therefore, according to the long research in the economics field that concluded the English Rule, a lot of people argue for the rule. Currently, Korea is running based on the American Rule, but the law limits the amount of money that can be covered by the loser of the case. The prevalent textbook conclusion is mostly derived from the comparison of the Florida case, where they switched from the American Rule to the English Rule in 1980 and then flipped back in 1985. Because measuring the economic impact of a legal system can sometimes look like comparing apples to oranges, the case of Florida provided the perfect background for legal economists to analyze the impact. Yoon mentioned that there are two main significances that the paper proposes. First is that there are more proofs accumulated after the 1990s when the consensus was initially made. The initial paper studies the cases before 1980 and cases between 1980 to 1985. However, it neglected the cases after the second change of the rule, which could have critical impact to the interpretation. Also, Yoon and his co-author implemented a new way of making a conclusion. Traditionally, the economic impact is measured and reported as a fixed number. However, this cannot entail all the complex probabilities behind the result. Using the bound analysis method, researchers can predict the best and worse case scenarios and give a range of possible influences. The second significance is that Yoon and his co-author took the cases that were settled during the process into account. As only a few litigations continue to the very end of the judicial process, it is very important to consider the changed behavior of people according to the increased or decreased amount of pressure resulting from the verdict. Yoon is enthusiastically giving an explanation about his paper. Yoon’s scrutinized analysis, however, contradicts what has been believed for a long time. When it comes to the trial outcomes, the range derived from the bound analysis does not signify any relevance between the change of legal system and the trial cost. It does increase the amount of settlement, while decreasing the number of settled cases. “The hardest part of continuing such rigorous research was to overcome the constant skepticism,” said Yoon. According to him, it takes a long time for a researcher to complete a paper and for the paper to be accepted in a journal or presented in a conference. Believing in himself and moving forward regardless of the incredulity, Yoon will continue further to conduct research. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2017-11 28

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Inventing Eyes for Robots

Augmented Reality, self-driving cars, and facial recognition are no longer a technology of future. Such advanced technologies are deep in our daily lives. In order for machines to properly function as they are meant to, they need something called ‘machine vision’. Machine vision (MV) is the technology and method used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry. And the field that encompasses the subject is Computer Vision, which Lim majors. For December’s Researcher of the Month, News H interviewed Lim Jong-woo (Professor, Department of Computer Science) who recently won a major government project to acquire the source technology for such field. Lim is enthusiastically explaining how the technology can be applied in real lives. For example, with the structure modeling, calculating the altitude of a person's eye level (when wearing an AR/VR glasses) would be possble. The final goal of this four-year project is to develop a high-level video situation recognition technology based on structural modeling and geometrical analysis of images acquired in extremely congested situations such as the real environment. Structural modeling of a video means to draw lines and actually structure the surrounding environment within the video, either in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional form. Up to current technology, a system can process a single object in the video or occasionally multiple objects. However, it is not yet developed for computers to recognize and analyze a ‘congested’ video with dozens of moving objects, which is often the case in real life footage. “If developed further enough, a computer would be able to track irregular paths taken by a suspect from CCTV video and alert us,” mentioned Lim. (Left) Estimation of the structure of a space through existing technology (Right) Provisioned result of structure estimation (Photo courtesy of Lim) One of the ultimate goals of the project is to also integrate multi-object detection and tracking with the environment. “There are a lot of people trying to integrate detection and tracking technology,” said Lim. Because it is highly improbable for researchers to set a model human face for the computer to detect all human faces, integrating such technology with tracking a moving person is even more intricate and difficult. Nevertheless, if it does become reality, computers will be able to read the context of a specific video. For instance, because they can recognize each person, it would be able to write a storyline and understand relationships between characters in a show or a movie. As mentioned in the earlier part of the article, computer vision is a crucial part of augmented reality and autonomous cars. In the case of AR, the computer must be able to structure its environment to decide where to put the virtual object. Also, by such mapping, the machine can change its perspective in accordance with the user’s change of perspective. Furthermore, autonomous cars require even higher accuracy of computer vision in order to detect obstacles and prevent unwanted accidents. Unlike the facial detection of a camera app on our cellphone which is not really a matter of life and death, technology related to transportation has higher standards for that reason. "I aim to research for use, rather than a reasearch for research." Another surprising aspect of this research project plan is that the team will upload their findings on the web, free of charge as an open-source. When asked why not commercialize it, Lim answered “It is mutually beneficial for us to have the crowd test our algorithm and give feedback to us, as we cannot test it in every environment. Also, it is a trend to release algorithms open-source, because most of them fall short to be commercialized yet.” The research has begun this August and will be continued until the end of 2020. News H is looking forward to observing Lim’s progress and the social impact his team will bring. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-10 23

[Academics]Wastewater Treatment Facility to a Potential Power Plant

"Biomass is the only replacement for fossil fuels," said Jeon with certainty. Biomass is defined as living or recently dead organisms and any byproducts of those organisms, plant or animal. It can be used to produce renewable electricity, thermal energy, or transportation fuels (biofuels). In his recent review article, "Recent progress in microalgal biomass production coupled with wastewater treatment for biofuel generation," Jeon reviewed the technologies required to successfully integrate the two seemingly different areas: wastewater treatment and cultivation of microalgae. Jeon is enthusiastically explaining his recent article and progress of related fields. In order to generate biofuel, a substantial amount of biomass is required. Biomass is found in the natural world, such as in food crops. However, and often times, they are rare and have a low energy yield. Microalgae overcome all of the stated shortcomings. Known as one of the fastest growing life forms on earth, microalgae are found in fresh water or marine systems but can also survive versatile environmental conditions. In other words, microalgae have optimal conditions to be converted into energy. This potential energy source requires abundant Nitrogen and Phosphorus along with diverse minerals, and surprisingly enough, wastewater is a source of such nutrients. With the adequate pre-treatment of wastewater, a sewage disposal plant can turn into a ground for the mass cultivation of microalgae. This particular review article written by Jeon and his colleagues discourse on the advantages and disadvantages of recent progress and research around the world on such point. The reason why Jeon's research team can write such a review article concentrated on the relationship between microalgae and wastewater treatment is because the very research team discovered that wastewater can be used as a type of microalgae farm. "I personally dream to change such disposal plants into energy plants," said Jeon. He mentioned that 0.5% of the national electricity is spent on the wastewater treatment facilities. What if that facility can generate the amount of resource they use? Or even better, utilize the infrastructure to produce even more energy? "Sewage plant is located in every other neighborhood, unlike other power plants such as nuclear or coal plants. If sewage plants can create energy, the town will be a self-sufficient town." A chart explaining the relations among microalgae cultivation facilities, microalgal biomass and how water is purified while generating biofuels. (Photo courtesy of Jeon) In becoming one of the leading labs in the field, Jeon emphasizes looking through the keywords. As a college student, Jeon believed that ‘environment' and ‘energy' are going to be one of the most conversed topics in the future. Environmental engineering and eco-friendly energy came naturally into his pathway, which led Jeon to where he is now. Mentioning the fact that Korea can produce only ca. 0.3% of biogas than that of Germany's, Jeon suggested that the environmental engineering field in Korea still needs further research and development. "The field is very future-oriented," said Jeon. "Among the many topics that are and going to be significant in the coming days, renewable and environmentally friendly energy are some of the areas that engineers can contribute to." Jeon plans to keep working on his dream to convert wastewater facilities into energy-independent, and energy-creating social infrastructure. Jeon is holding a cylinder with microalgae in his lab. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-08 31

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] What Makes People Pro-Environment?

“Whenever I go on a trip or big festivals, I always worry about all the trashes people throw away. It’s just too much.” Professor Hyun Sung-hyup of the Division of Tourism recently published his paper, "Fostering customers’ pro-environmental behavior at museum". The paper thoroughly investigates the affective and cognitive factors of individuals visiting museums and analyzes which factor has the most impact on their pro-environmental intentions. Hyun emphasized that most people are very environmentally friendly in their house. They recycle well, try not to waste food or water. However, the point is that the very same people behave entirely differently from the moment they leave their house. Trashes are disposed not separately, which then has to be combusted, letting carbon into the air. Tissues, water, food and all kinds of resources are wasted. Hyun wondered what is behind the people’s paradoxical behavior. He also wanted to figure out what needs to be triggered in order to resolve such paradox and to motivate eco-friendly behavior from the general public. A table showing relations of each factor and their effects (Photo courtesy of Hyun) Over the course of a year, Hyun went to a broad range of museums which deal with themes like art, war, and tradition to interview, survey and observe the visitors. From the data collected from 321 tourists, he ran statistical analysis simulation program to construct a conceptual framework that can predict people’s behavior in public spaces. He also sought for professional advice from other fields such as environmental specialists or professors in engineering for further insight. Based on his field research with dozens and hundreds of related papers he studied, Hyun found out that ‘Environmental Knowledge (EK)’ out of five cognitive factors, was the most significant factor in determining one’s environmentally responsible decision-making process. Hyun is explaining the process of his research. Hyun asserted that environmental education on a regular basis is essential. People with more professional knowledge on the vulnerability of the environment or the impact of their action is more inclined to show consistent behavior both in and outside of their home. "It seems like a lot of people lack education regarding the environment in both public and private sectors," said Hyun. Lamenting at such reality, Hyun wishes environmental education to be part of the public education curriculum in the near future. When asked what inspired him to become a researcher in Tourism, Hyun smiled and answered that his professors during college years influenced him a lot. “Hanyang University offers the best curriculum on Tourism, with respectful professors. I always looked up to them.” Hyun said he decided to study further because there are so much intriguing topics to research in the field of Tourism. He encourages future researchers in the field to boldly try out, because tourism is very future oriented, interdisciplinary and economically significant field of study. Hyun himself plans to vigorously research further on issues related with environment and tourism. “Researching while lecturing, mentoring and living personal life is tough but I still enjoy it,” said Hyun, with affection to his work. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-08 22

[Academics]Beyond the Matter of Life and Death

Most people do not enjoy postoperative scars, especially on the visible parts of their body. Professor Tae Kyung of Department of Medicine recently reported the outcomes of newly developed operation method in his paper “Functional and cosmetic outcomes of robot-assisted neck dissection by a postauricular facelift approach for head and neck cancer”. As from the title Tae’s research compared surgical outcomes of both conventional neck dissection and his new facelift approach, which takes cosmetic aspects of the patients into account. “Nowadays, it is more than just life and death. Quality of life after the operation is also important.” (Photo courtesy of Tae) In the case of patients with head and neck cancer, cancer cell often spreads to the lymph node of cervical (neck) area. The conventional surgical method to treat the lymph node metastasis is to give vertical and transverse cervical incision (cut), which leaves permanent mark in the patient’s neck. As always having interest in plastic surgery – which is part of Otolaryngology (Head and Neck Surgery) – Tae concerned for postoperative quality of life. Therefore, he took the facelift approach which is still mostly used for cosmetic purposes, especially to unwrinkle one’s face. This way, the scar is left in the back side of the patient’s ear alongside the hairline, which is significantly less visible. The paper “Functional and cosmetic outcomes of robot-assisted neck dissection by a postauricular facelift approach for head and neck cancer” specifically reports the postoperative outcomes of the revolutionary implication as short as one day after the surgery to as long as 12 months. From 2013 Tae and his co-researchers collected data of 113 patients who underwent unilateral neck dissection both through the particular approach and the conventional approach. As a result, the team led by Tae was able to compare the functional and cosmetic outcomes which proved that Tae’s method is advantageous. Namely, patients suffered from less neck edema (swelling of neck) and sensory loss. Cosmetically patients reported significantly lower satisfaction scores. (Note that the higher the satisfaction is, the lower the scores are.) Both neck edema and sensory loss is lower in the robotic procedure, as shown in the tables. (Photo courtesy of Tae) Another specialty of Tae’s method of operation is that it requires robotic assist called Da Vinci robot because the operation makes a very thin tunnel inside the neck, making it physically impossible for the surgeons otherwise. Tae, as one of the first person in the world to conduct robotic neck dissection wanted to further develop the method and evaluate it. This report is one of his efforts trying to keep evaluating and improving his new surgical method. “It is still early to report the cure rate of cancer through this method, but now we know about the postoperative sensory loss, motion limitations, and the satisfaction of patients through this research,” said Tae. Tae also struggles to improve Otolaryngology in Korea and Asia. He mentioned that he chose to become head and neck surgeon because the area was less developed and researched at that time, and that challenged him. Now he is a general secretary of Asia Pacific Society of Thyroid Surgery which he founded, wishing well for the future of the field. “I wish my students to improve Korea as much to be the leading country in Otolaryngology and become global leaders.” Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju