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2017-02 20 Important News

[Faculty]Insight from a Literature Critic

There's a saying that you see as much as you know. From this logic, it could be deduced that when reading a book, one can understand only as much as one has learned. Doubtlessly, in order to be an expert of a field, one manifestly needs extensive reading and the acquirement of boundless knowledge. On this, Professor Yoo Sung-ho (Department of Korean Language and Literature) shared his insight and understanding as a literature critic. Definition of a literature critic “Criticizing is a cordial cooperation between the literary work and the critic,” remarked Yoo. This is how he usually defines literary criticism. It is the act of pinpointing appreciable and admirable facets of the work, sometimes including inevitable reproaches. Yoo clarified that criticizing and condemning each possess distinct characteristics, thereby separating them in their essence. What lies at the center of criticism is the accurate interpretation of the literature, accompanied by the competence in constructing one’s own sentences. Finding the true values of a literary work and animating it into one's own words of criticism for others to read and relate to, is what critics do, as Yoo explained. Moreover, Yoo thinks self-consciousness is also important when it comes to reviewing a literary piece. Asking oneself the reason for analyzing a piece of work and deliberating what contributions the criticism could give to the world is attributable to a distinguished critic. Yoo believes reading with the sole objective to write could never widen a critic’s analytical perspective. Reading should be something that's done consistently, without intention. “I was deeply touched by a book and tried to express that feeling with words. That is how I came to submerge myself in reading and literature analysis.” Formula for criticism “It's often next to impossible to distinguish whether one idea comes from one’s value or taste,” said Yoo. Taste acts as the chief driving force in establishing one’s value. When analyzing a literary text, one’s taste inevitably functions as the judge, with existing values and philosophy added after it. Although taste is a personal and subjective factor, it is indispensable for critics, for every critic has their own style and preference that ultimately define their individuality. A critic should possess knowledge of the text, author, and general trend of the literary field. Knowing the author’s style such as writing techniques, philosophy, and taste will help the critic interpret the written work better. Literature tends to contain more than what is just written superficially in words, therefore necessitating critics to apprehend the core message beyond the visible text. The most important skill a critic should poseess, Yoo hinted, is the ability to express one’s interpretation in fluency. “No matter how outstanding your comprehension and analyses are, mediocre wordings could ruin your criticism. The power of words cannot be ignored,” commented Yoo. On top of everything, when reviewing a literary work, critics often feel tempted to stand on the same platform as the authors, drinking in only the perspective of the original writer. This enables critics to break the boundary of merely interpreting texts, letting them be “authors” themselves and write sentences of idiosyncrasy that exquisitely convey their own analysis. “Extensive reading begets great critics.” Above are two critism books that Yoo wrote. (Photos courtesy of Ridibooks and Yes24 respectively) Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Moon Hana

2017-01 09

[Faculty]Developing Art Materials With 3D Printer

Of the 170 teams that participated in the 2016 Student Research Program, 17 were selected as outstanding teams that submitted remarkable reports. Teams from various schools partook in this program, each comprising of several students and one supervising professor. Among the 17 teams stands the group from Hanyang University: Jang Jin-ho (Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2nd year), Choi Ki-bong (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, 3rd year), Kim Jung-hyun (Department of Applied Art, 2nd year), Kim Hee-ryung (Department of Applied Art, 2nd year), Song Si-young (Department of Applied Art, 2nd year), and Yoon Yeo-jin (Department of Industrial Design, 3rd year) from Sungshin Women’s University. They were under supervision of Professor Hyun Eun-ryung of the Department of Applied Art. The six students and the professor shared their glorious moment with News H. From left to right: Hee-ryung, Si-young, Professor Hyun, Jin-ho, and Ki-bong. 3D printer and art material Children with visual impairment need special support and adjustment for educational content, materials, the environment, and teaching methods owing to visual disability. Art materials were created with a 3D printer, enablling children with total blindness or low vision to feel and get familiarized with space and shapes intimately and graphically. This is expected to aid their education and improve day-to-day life in applying the senses they acquired. As for children attending a school for the visually impaired, auditory-oriented teaching methods are implemented. The new teaching material made with 3D printers proved to be more effective, as students are asking questions that are deeper and more relevant to what they are learning. Students were notably engaged in the new equipment. Overall, the newly designed material attributed in promoting students’ better understanding of learning content. Image of Mona Lisa printed graphically for sensory comprehension. (Photo courtesy of the team's research report) Students sketching images by sensing 3D material. (Photo courtesy of the team's research report) Alliance of three majors The main objective of the team was to develop art appreciation teaching materials for visually impaired children by facilitating specialmodes of perception with a 3D printer. Specifically aiming to increase the sense of space by letting students touch 3D materials, the ultimate goal is set on providing the children with more choices for their lives—by building a connection between what they know and what they can do. Their background research included comprehending the current state of affairs regarding education for the visually impaired to navigate further research. This project could be interpreted as a significant confluence of engineering, art, and education, as students from these majors collaborated to carry out the mission. The successful result encourages further collaborative work of the three fields, as Hyun remarked, “Although we had a lot of difficulties adjusting schedules and gathering together, every task we carried as a team meant a lot, because we were all from different majors. The department of engineering and art are considerably distinct from one another, yet the convergence of the three brought a remarkable result. We learned that such fusion of dissimilar fields could produce valuable outcomes.” The team members are planning to participate in additional student research programs, extending their studies on the same topic at hand. As their background research indicated, they realized that education for the handicapped or impaired children is not well instituted, and is meagerly funded. Without funds from the government or corporates, the quality of education for the minority will remain low and primitive. Today's high-end technology enable people to do anything with intention. With this, Hyun and the students are planning to develop their project in order to upgrade education for visually impaired children. Hyun and the students are looking forward to participating in more student research programs. Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Moon Ha-na

2016-12 26 Important News

[Faculty]New Leader of the Hanlim Academy

In the 21st century where science is becoming the touchstone of indicating the future, there are 38 National Academies of Engineering around the world, putting in their endeavors to vitalize scientific development. Out of the 38 academies, only 28 are officially authorized National Academies. Among them, the National Academy of Engineering of Korea (NAEK), also called the Hanlim Academy, is in the lead of scientific development. Professor Kwon O-kyung of the Department of Electronic Engineering has been newly appointed as the president of NAEK and is envisioning the bright future of science in South Korea. Professor Kwon is explaining about the significance of developing the engineering field. The Hanlim Academy and the promising future The NAEK, or the Hanlim Academy, is composed of 291 industrial CEOs and professors with authorities in the engineernig academia. Due to the popularity of engineering field and people's desire to enter the academy, there are 260 more candidate members other than 291 regular members. The official role of the Hanlim Academy is to map out the future of South Korea in regards to the engineering science field. Representative work of the NAEK is consulting and giving advice to the government about engineering and scientific policies. “The Hanlim Academy prepares the draft for policy plans every five years when the new government is ready to be established,” said Kwon. The main concerns of the Academy are increasing the possibility for job creation and augmenting the rate of economic growth from the current 4.5% to 9%. Kwon expects that the engineering field will contribute the most to augmentating the of economic growth of South Korea in the next few years. Also, the unification of the two Koreas is a major interest of the Academy, since ample resources and radical development in science will meet along with the unification in due course. Thus, the NAEK is currently researching North Korea's social overhead capital (SOC) in order to correctly identify how the two Koreas’ capitals are being established, and how the North Korean economy can be succored through engineering and scientific aid. “If South Korea is not knowledgeable enough about North Korea before the unification, it will incur disasters such as the spread of infectious diseases through North Korea’s peculiar living accommodations and ongoing chemical research. Thus researching about North Korea in advance with regards to unification is extremely vital,” emphasized Kwon. Key to a successful life Professor Kwon also accentuated the importance of living a well-regulated life and the willpower to achieve the goal of one’s life. Until this moment, of having become the president of the NAEK, Kwon has crossed many paths. Once he graduated from Hanyang University in electronic engineering, Kwon attended Stanford University for his Master's and Ph.D. degrees. He subsequently joined Texas Instruments, a semiconductor manufacturing company, at the process and design center. In 1992, many professors at Hanyang University solicited for Kwon's return for him to contribute as an educator and a scientist. However, when Kwon submitted his resignation, Texas Instrument turned it down every year. Even when Kwon came to Hanyang University to pursue his academic career as a professor, Texas Instrument did not accept his resignation for 10 years. Kwon has also successfully filled various posts in the engineering academia, including the president of Korean Information Display Society and the vice-president of the Engineering Department at Hanyang University. To the question of how he maintains such a successful life, Kwon answer was the "maintenance of a busy life and willpower". “When I decided to enroll in the doctoral program at Stanford University, I slept three hours a day and spent the rest of my time to study,” said Kwon. Even though this sort of commitment was hard to keep up, after about six months, he was able to maintain such a lifestyle for 40 years up until now. According to Kwon, a steady lifestyle is the key to success, and the will to study and learn more about the field is the most critical attribute to securing a rewarding life. ▲Kwon attends the NAEK forum (third from the right). (Photo courtesy of NAEK) Kwon's ultimate goal is to make Korea a country that is full of chances and competence. “I have always pondered about the Korean education system since I was a university student. South Korea tries to inject too many subjects into students' heads, and this will only result in lining them into a ragged line of test scores. Korea needs to become a nation where everyone can be the leader of each specific field, meaning that everyone deserves to discover what they are intelligent in, instead of studying a lot of uninterested subjects at once,” said Kwon. He is currently looking to achieving this objective at the National Academy of Engineering of Korea by reforming the education system in the field of science. Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Choi Min-ju

2016-12 11

[Faculty]Expert in Public Administration Law

Diverse fields of specialization in law exist, ranging from administration law, civil law, penal law, commercial law to constitutional law. Professor Lee Ho-yong of the Department of Public Administration at Hanyang University (HYU) is an expert in the field. Lee had attended HYU as a student, receiving his Ph.D. in Law in 2001. Although he does have experiences teaching different types of laws such as police law or social security acts, he has found public administration the most fascinating. Lee has been a member of the examination board for diverse national examinations such as the bar exam. Q1. Why did you choose Public Administration despite having majored in law? Lee: “Public administration law deals with the intentions of a country. It regulates a country so that it isn't perceptible to unlawful acts. Administration itself is the action taken by a country while public administration law is what enforces administration in the way that law functions. I believe that public administration law meaningful in that it propells the country in the right direction. Through it, people can be compensated for what they have been wrongfully dealt with. For instance, let’s say that my driver’s license was revoked due to an insignificant reason, not under the appropriate grounds for such a revocation. Then I can claim for a restoration through this law.” Lee explains about his experiences of being a national examiner. Q2. You seem to have a lot of experience in being a bar examiner. Tell us more about it. Lee: “I became an examiner through the recommendations of other professors in 2002. There are diverse types of tests ranging from the bar exam, to civil service examinations. I have probably been an examiner in more than hundreds of tests counting the small tests as well. We used to have a system where examiners are grouped and stay together for seven to ten days with no connections with the outside world. We would hand in our cell phones and communication would be limited. Out of the question banks, we pick out a few question cards and make sure that the questions have no ambiguity. This takes as long as making questions ourselves. Then we would compare certain questions with other professors to make sure that the questions and answers are correct.” Q3. Do the examiners become acquainted with each other as well? Lee: “Out of the professors that do not belong in the same majors, we do hold meetings from time to time. Since professors from the same majors often meet frequently in conferences and societies, the meetings don't really mean much to us but as for examiners with different occupations, such as a judge, we sometimes get to meet and talk.” Q4. Can you tell us about the law school preparation class? What could be the pros and cons for the elimination of national bar exams and turning it into a law school system? Lee: “Around 100 to 130 students from HYU usually enter law schools, and their achievements are starting to gain more light. A lot of students go to better law schools compared to when I first started this law school preparation class. As for the bar exams, it's quite a sensitive issue. As of next year, bar exam would be out of use and law schools would completely replace the exams. "As for entering law school, there are three things to prepare for: LEET, GPA and English. Personally, it seems unfair to only have a law school system since a lot more people could have seized the chance to become a lawyer, prosecutor, or judge, but now there is only one way to become a national judicial officer- by getting into and graduating from law schools. The biggest problem is that this imposes a huge limit to those who obtained low GPAs during their university years. LEET or English proficiency tests could improve through a lot of practice, but as for GPA, students cannot recover from it unless they return to school for retakes. Although the intention of the law school is for the good of many, it seems to me that other alternative options should be left open as well.” "I have always dreamed of becoming a professor, and it took a lot of effort to bring myself to this place." Q5. Was it your dream to become a professor? What motivates you to lecture students? Lee: “Yes, I have always dreamed of becoming a professor and it took me a lot of effort to bring me to this place. I worked hard anywhere I went, since I wanted to be recognized as a hard-working person so that universities would ask me to teach at their place. Once you set your dream too late, it just makes you fall behind. Some students come to me after watching a few of my lectures on YouTube. They either send e-mails thanking me for the lecture or come and visit my office for advice as well. Close acquaintances with my students is what makes me feel proud. I talk to the students a lot and they come asking for help quite often. This is what keeps reminding me to be a good professor.” Q6. Any last comments for the readers? Lee: “You should never be afraid to reach for your dreams. Put your mind to it, as well as a lot of effort, into the things that you would like to do- not what others tell you to. People get to reach a certain status socially, but what determines your status is how much you have worked for it, not where you have started off from. Dream for what you would like to do and pour the passion and effort into it. That's what I think success is.” Kim Seung-jun nzdave94@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2016-10 19

[Faculty]Bionano Technology Leading the Medical Industry

Professor Choo Jae-beom of the Department of Bionano Engineering is a researcher who studies bionano microfluidics, a study which practical applications to systems in which small volumes of fluids are handled, and develops models that help diagnose different diseases such as respiratory tract infection, and cancer. As shown through his research, “Wash-free magnetic immunoassay of the PSA cancer marker using SERS and droplet microfluidics,” the significance of his research is that it will allow doctors to detect such diseases in patients within a short period of time. The previous study that Choo had worked on was using pregnancy diagnostic apparatus and the strips to discover different types of diseases. The diagnoses took about 5 weeks, which is usually how long it takes for expectant mothers to find out whether they are pregnant or not. Diagnoses using the microfluidic chips instead of pregnancy diagnostic apparatus will now only take about one week. What is more important is that it will give much more accurate results compared to the last model. When diseases such as MERS or Zika suddenly appears, there are two things to be taken care of. First, there must be a vaccine to cure the disease and second, the diagnosis of the disease should be quick to discover the new virus. If such diseases hadn’t been known to humankind, there would be no medicine available in the first place. This is why Choo’s research is so important. Shortening the time to analyze the DNA structures of the disease taken from a patient’s blood sample, then decoding it to suggest a cure for the illness will help save many more lives. ▲ Professor Choo is holding the silicon mold Professor Choo’s research points toward methods in detecting prostate cancer at an early stage using microfluidic chips instead of strips. Using strips used to have the method of developing the pregnancy diagnostic apparatus to detect different types of viruses but the new research has taken the equipment to a whole different level. The new hypersensitive protein diagnosis platform technology is carried out through a semiconductor process to build a silicon mold. Nanoparticles with the microfluidic chips are added inside a mold to hold the samples altogether so that when blood sample is mixed together, the nanoparticles will decidedly combine with the viruses. Once the particles are hit with laser beams, the concentration rate of the virus will be revealed. Knowing the concentration of such viruses is important since all diseases have cut-off points to determine whether the patient is actually contaminated with the virus or not. The goal of Choo and his research team is to develop an early diagnosis system for infectious diseases using the microfluidic system and through that, developing the vaccine that can just eliminate the viruses. Since the old methods of analyzing the DNA results in a higher percentage of error and takes much longer, Choo is trying to develop his model to be more sensitive, accurate and fast in terms of detecting the viruses. Microfluidic chips and an optical measuring system combined allows the blood sample to become naturally absorbed within the channel. By measuring the strength of the signals, the virus concentration can be detected. There are different types of nanoparticles, involving elements such as gold (Au) or silver (Ag) and a combination of other elements as well. This is because certain signals are captured when hit with laser beams, and the specific types of disease-provoking protein and DNAs are washed out and the leftover particles within the mold will result in a higher concentration of virus. ▲ Professor Choo explains about the microfluidic chip Myocardial infarction, cancer, or hormone disorders used to be what Choo focused on in the present studies along with the help of several doctors. Because new, unknown infectious diseases like MERS will become such an issue in the future, he will be working to develop a method to diagnose them in a short period of time. The technique being used now takes a whole lot of time since it requires a certain amount of blood sample from the patient, with particles needing to be separated using a centrifuge. More procedural steps follow. Strip methods are convenient but with the low sensitivity detection, it is hard to be sure whether the patient is infected with a certain virus or not. This is why decoding blood samples using the microchip reading method, which is fast, precise, and does not require much processes compared to the other analysis methods, is the future study that Choo will be focusing on. Kim Seung-jun nzdave94@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Moon Ha-na

2016-10 19

[Faculty]Leader of Korean Civil Law

Korea went through massive economic development since the 1970s. Various aspects of Koreans’ lives also greatly shifted along with it. Life expectency increased alongside quality of life. With the efforts of numerous citizens, democracy and human rights are now more settled in Korean society than it has ever been. To reflect new changes in society, it was essential for civil law, which adheres most closely to the lives of individuals, to develop as well. One former Supreme Court judge, Yang Chang soo, contributed highly to the development of Korean civil law. He is now a professor at Hanyang University’s School of Law. Yang majored in law at university and passed the Korean judicial examination in 1974, the year when he graduated. He first started his career as a judge for the Seoul Central District Court, and then later spent 20 years teaching law at a university. Then, in 2008, he was nominated as a Supreme Court judge, a position he held until 2014. After his retirement from the Court, Yang chose HYU and started teaching law here. It has now been two years since Yang started teaching at HYU. One of the reasons behind choosing HYU derived from the fact that HYU puts in a lot of effort in improving the quality of law education as an institution. “I appreciate that I am now back where I belong. I regard myself more as an educator than a jurist,” said Yang. Even when Yang worked diligently as a jurist, he also paid good amount of attention in setting the right direction of Korean law and how to educate it properly to students who are preparing to be a jurist. ▲ Yang was a jurist in the Seoul Central District Court and the Supreme Court. In between, he worked as a law professor. One of Yang’s most remarkable achievements was to write the ‘Study of Civil Law’ series in nine volumes. “While I was working as a judge at the Seoul Central District Court, I realized there weren’t many detailed researches or papers done on civil conflicts that are actually occurring within Korea,” said Yang. To supplement existing civil law and to suggest a new perspective to it, Yang started to write the law series from 2004. It was a great hit after a while it was published, being acknowledged by courts in Korea. Regional courts bought hundreds of Yang’s books to designate them as a new material to educate judges working in the court. Even until today, Yang’s publications are reputed to be one of the best that built fundamental frames of Korean civil law while upgrading it to the next level. After 20 years of working as a law professor, Yang reached the highest authority of law- serving as a judge for the Korean Supreme Court from 2008 to 2014. As the magnitude of the position implies, there were tremendous amounts of tasks to be done on a daily basis. “Every judge at the Supreme Court has to deal with more than 3000 cases a year, which made my life quite hectic at the time,” recalled Yang. Even though there was a considerable amount of duties he had to bear, Yang mentioned how his years of being a Supreme Court judge was a very momentous time in his life. “I was glad to have participated in the Korea’s top judiciary during the years when the country was reforming its laws based on different social economic circumstances,” commented Yang. Yang always tries to deliver to students what is important in law. “When we look into the Korean Constitution, there are 10 rules that state the basic rights of an individual to pursue his or her happiness, including the responsibility of the state to ensure a citizen’s basic rights. Korea was a society with a huge Confucian influence in the past, which emphasizes the duty of an individual to a group, society, and a state. I think law shows which path the nation should take in the future- that is to put more priority in protecting and supporting every citizen’s rights, which will naturally lead to a country where democracy and the economy flourishes.” ▲ Yang emphasized to students to develop an insight to deal with different situations flexibly. Yang left advice for HYU students, including those who dream to work in the field of law. “Of course, it is important to understand and study facts in textbooks, improving one’s ability in thinking and analyzing logically. However, I believe that what more important is to emotionally understand and imagine in different circumstantial cases in courts. I don’t think this should be confined to certain fields of jobs. It encompasses other field of studies or jobs that HYU students will strive for with passion,” said Yang. Yun Ji-hyun uni27@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2016-10 09

[Faculty]Switching and Upgrading Mobile Device Circuits

Professor Yoo Chang-shik of the Department of Electronic Engineering is a researcher who studies the layouts of integrated, analog and digital circuits at Hanyang University (HYU). For the past year, as shown through his paper, “Switching Battery Charger Integrated Circuit for Mobile Devices in a 130-nm BCD MOSBCDMOS Process,” Yoo has been researching on developing an upgraded integrated circuit for mobile devices that could stand a higher voltage of electric current when charging. His research also encloses data on lengthening the lifespan of mobile phone batteries by retaining the right 'profile' shape when plugged in, which is the key determinant of long-lasting batteries. Battery Charging and Charging Profile According to Yoo’s research, a battery, when charging, must formulate and maintain the proper shape of the charging profile. That is, the time of charging and the battery voltage must meet at the right point, as shown in the diagram below- otherwise, the battery will be short-lived in the long run. When an application is in process, BCDMOS (Bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) is activated. BCDMOS is an intricate type of an integrated circuit that can tolerate high currencies of electric voltage. Circuits of mobile devices, however, are incapable of enduring such high current and manifest a considerable rate of power consumption. To improve this aspect, Yoo saw the need for a stronger PMIC (Power Management Integrated Circuit) so that the BCDMOS would prevent the high electric voltage from damaging the device itself. PMICs are integrated circuits that handle and manage electric power. Charging profile for a lithium-ion battery. Photo courtesy of Professor Yoo's research paper Additionally, if the mobile device is used when it is being charged, not only the speed of charging slows down but also the amount of power consumed doubles. While this happens, the function of dividing the power for the phone to be used and charged at the same time is crucial. It was essential that Yoo managed both functions in harmony so that the final outcome would be progressive. Possible configurations for a mobile system where a battery charger supplies power (a) only to battery and (b) to both battery and system. Photo courtesy of Professor Yoo's research paper Yoo’s Research and its Meaning Yoo's academic principle as an engineer is not to be a scientist, but to be a practical engineer. Yoo places significance on the fact that his paper is the first to be academically published on the subject material, despite numerous others that virtually cover the necessity of his own research. He puts meaning to his work of systematically putting into an organized research paper what has already been created, in support of the fact that research done at a university can actually be utilized in real life. In this sense, Yoo does not expect a dramatic change or improvement in the field of electronic engineering and mobile devices, since there are plenty that have been put in use already. Nonetheless, he is proud to have turned the import-oriented item PMIC into a domestic product that can be manufactured here in Korea- a necessary development in the powerful semiconductor-producing country. Yoo is currently investing his time in developing a better PMIC. He is working on a project that goes by the name of “Designing an Innovative Analog”. Analogs are systems of displaying the successive changes in electric current or voltage, which is completely different from the digital system, which is required to operate visible and audible functions. He believes in the significance of analogs' roles as humans interact with their devices through touch screens, sound, and vision. With these functions falling behind, digital products will be met by critical hindrance on their way towards advancement. In this sense, improving the sound quality, screen definition, and manual systems of a device is indispensable. “We engineers are not scientists; we are not striving to create what is best. We’re simply making attempts to create what is moderately good at an adequate timing by appropriately applying already-existent principles and theories unveiled by scientists. That’s what engineers do,” remarked Yoo. He wanted the students of his department to invent and present to the world what they themselves need and benefit from. "In order to create something that the world needs, they have got to see the necessity of it first." Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Kim Youn-soo

2016-09 25 Important News

[Faculty]Protecting Our Water Sources

Professor Han Myung-soo of the Department of Life Science is a researcher whose interests lie in algal phenomena such as red and green tides. Recently, he revealed the reason behind the unusual red tide caused by a sudden growth of planktons, frequenting the Korean waters in his paper titled “A mutualistic interaction between the bacterium Pseudomonas asplenii and the harmful algal species Chattonella marina (Raphidophyceae),” which was selected as the paper of the week. You may have heard that one of the side effects of global warming is red and green tides, or ‘algal bloom’ where algae suddenly flourish and cover vast areas of waters. The rise in ocean temperature, as well as in lakes, rivers and other types of freshwater causes the algae to flourish, threatening organisms as well as to people who equate freshwater as drinking water. Water pollution is another cause, with eutrophication creating excellent conditions for these photosynthetic unicellulates. ▲Cochlodinium causes red tides, which have a detrimental effect on water biology as well as humans. Photos courtesy of Shinhanilbo and CIMT Not only does red and green tides affect physical health biology and people, the perishing of fish in fish farms impacts fisherman economically, adding to the fact that this is aesthetically displeasing. The unicellular algae have evolved to protect themselves from possible predators, by producing harmful toxins that may cause diarrhea, amnesia, or even paralysis. "There have actually been cases where people have died, tens at a time due to drinking water or consuming shellfish affected by harmful algae. The fact that these toxins cannot be destroyed in boiling water makes it an even bigger danger," mentioned Han. However, the rise in water temperature and eutrophication alone cannot explain the cause of harmful algae suddenly 'blooming' in certain conditions. "Yes, these algae being plants, they thrive in warm, nutritious conditions with lots of light. It is usual for red and green tides to last for one or two weeks. However, in the last couple of decades, we have seen a single type of algae dominate all three adjacent waters of the Korean peninsula from late August into the end of November. This is the most unusual phenomenon, and have puzzled many scientists," commented Han. Thus, Han and his lab set up a theory that a third biological factor must be contributing to the abnormal blooming of algae. Focusing on Cochlodinium, the algae that are affecting the Korean waters the most, Han looked into bacteria that may be interacting with the algae. “We came to recognize that a type of bacteria called pseudomonas asplenii may be the biological factor we were looking for. It has already been revealed by other researchers that this bacteria produces minerals, that allows algae to flourish even in adverse conditions,” Han said. He and his lab gathered field samples from nearby waters twice a week, monitoring how the algae was blooming, as well as the activity of the bacteria. “It was a long-term project. The monitoring process spans months, not to mention that algal bloom didn’t always occur where we wanted it to. If we couldn’t get field samples, we would have to wait until the next red tide, which could occur the next year for all we know,” Han explained. Han applied the field of molecular biology to his research. “We used something called ‘next generation sequencing,’ which allowed us to conduct a quantitative and qualitative analysis on the bacteria. We found out that the bacteria grew in number and thrived at the same rate and time as the algae.” Now that a new mechanism has been revealed, this new development may lead to forecasting technologies that may prevent damages caused by algal tides. He added, “We think that there may be mutualistic interaction and coexistence between the algae and bacteria, but we haven’t figured out exactly what the algae provides for the bacteria. Our next goal is to reveal that part, as well as studying the cause of green tides which occur in fresh water. I’m glad that we have experts in diverse fields to conduct combined researches between fields.” ▲Han takes pride in his work, saying that the ability to collaborate with different fields is the strength and tradition of his lab. Nam-Hyung Kim lucipucy@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Younsoo Kim

2016-09 21

[Faculty]Collaborative Work of 12 Oriental Scholars

Classics, just like any other subject, is a field that requires a lot of in-depth knowledge to decipher and comprehend. Those with little or no familiarity with the subject might feel daunted with its contents and stay well away. Being aware of this commonly-mistaken perception of non-classicists, the 12 scholars including Professor Kim Tae-yong (Department of Philosophy) of Hanyang University, devoted their time and effort in publishing ‘The Four Books.’ They paved the road for the Oriental Classics to become an easy read. First starting as a small group in 1992 that discussed desirable paths in which our society should take after Oriental philosophy, it eventually became what is now called the Research Institute of Oriental Classics, consisting of Chinese and Korean philosophy experts. Joining the crew in 2009 from the invitation of professor Kim Byung-chae, the former vice-president of Hanyang University, Kim has been with the crew for eight years until the ultimate accomplishment—the translation of the ‘Four Books’ from Chinese into Korean. The Four Books There are lots of other Oriental philosophy books that deal with the same lessons but the ‘Four Books’ distinguish themselves by not writing any of the old words in Chinese, but putting them into easy-reading translations. The ‘Four Books’ are translated versions of Confucian classics in the archaic Chinese language into the modern Korean language, which are divided into four series: The Analects of Confucius, Mencius, Moderation, and University. Professor Kim said that translations of the metaphorically-illegible classics should be available so that more people could approach them without being troubled. Non-experts could feel less tortured to study them as well. In this sense, he hopes that the completion and publication of the ‘Four Books’ will lay a bridge to melting down the preconception that Oriental Classics is infinitely challenging. He also holds the view that Oriental philosophy is not necessarily more strange or difficult than Western philosophy. ▲The completion of the Four Books can be witnessed with these hard copies, published by Minumsa publishing company in August 2016. In brief, The Analects of Confucius is composed of dialogues of Confucius’s disciples about his teachings and lessons that were gathered after his death. Mencius handles the thoughts and perspectives of Mencius, who succeeded Confucius and tried to expand and intensify his teachings. Finally, Moderation and University delivers the scriptures of Confucianist roots that helps an individual to elevate to a higher spiritual place by governing one’s mind. “If you take a moment to think about it, Oriental philosophy is embedded in our day-to-day speech and behavior. Such common notions include practicing filial piety, respecting the elderlies, and stressing emphasis on love among siblings. These concepts may feel new to the head but they’re blended in our culture,” commented Kim. The society that we live in today is faced with globalization and multi-culturalism. “In such a condition,” the professor adds, “the acceptance and promulgation of Western philosophy and its culture into our own without any filtering have a great impact on our people’s perspective towards Oriental philosophy-simply fearing it.” ▲Professor Kim thinks Oriental philosophy is just as familiar to us as Western philosophy. Maintaining Unity When he was first introduced to the work, Kim hesitated whether to take on the task because his main area of study was slightly digressive from the primary concern of the books. Nonetheless, after the publication of the books, he came to realize that his decision was worthy and began to view ‘Lao-tzu,’ his primary concern of studying, more objectively, which he plans to research further on. In the process of translating the books, combining different ideas and coming to an agreement among the 12 scholars had been a fastidious task. Translating the books from archaic Chinese words was unquestionably laborious but finding the middle ground of different interpretations and translations among the scholars was also a big trouble. Despite many disputes over the matter of compromising, the driving force that bound the scholars together was their sense of responsibility. They felt responsible for contriving the most appropriate translation for the future generation, as they will be seeking for a good start-up material to begin Oriental studies with. Thus, in a sense, the books were produced to become a guide in the field. The Books as Teachers Just as first impression matters by having a long-lasting impact on a person, when studying a subject, the first teacher can determine how the study will go forth in subsequent times. Professor Kim hopes that the ‘Four Books’ serve as the first teacher to those who want to study Oriental philosophy and open the door for them to go further into the discipline. ▲ Professor Kim and the 11 scholars worked on the Four Books in hopes of connecting Oriental philosophy with our daily lives. In the book University, the four-character idiom (‘格物致知’) –each character meaning formality, material, achieving, and knowing—that holds the meaning ‘gaining knowledge by the study of things’ exemplifies the professor’s assertion that Oriental philosophy dwells nearby in our daily lives. The idiom employs the concept found in a university, where knowledge is accumulated through years of studying. The knowledge acquired could be the foundation of both good and bad deeds, depending on the will of the learner. This also gives rise to the thought that straightening out one’s mindset and earnestly taking into account the true meanings of knowledge are one of the highlights of Oriental philosophy. The completion of the books, as the professor hopes, will do its job in its mission as a teacher for all. Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Moon Hana