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2018-06 26

[Faculty]Increasing the Efficiency of Solar Batteries

Global warming is a clear threat to the human race. After long disputes over the validity of the phenomenon for nearly a quarter of a century, it has been revealed after an investigation of the fossil fuel industry that global warming is a real threat. The past scientific disputes had in fact been a result of interventions by the industry to protect their business. So what now? Aside from bringing justice to these corporations, one of the biggest assignments facing humanity is the creation of sustainable energy. For this task, the recent finding by Professor Park Jea-gun (Department of Electronic Engineering) has shed a new light of hope. Park Jea-gun (Department of Electronic Engineering) explains global warming. Simply put, Professor Park found a new way to improve the power conversion efficiency of our standard solar batteries. However, the process had been far from simple, and many complications had confronted Park on his journey. Solar power is among the few established sources of sustainable energy, which include tidal, wind, and hydraulic power. However, despite the research and development of solar batteries over the past 20 years, the highest power conversion efficiency, meaning the rate of the electrical energy that is converted from its original form, remained a staggering two percent. Park’s research had raised this rate to 4.11 percent. To give a brief explanation on the mechanics of solar energy, sunlight includes three types of rays: ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, and visible rays. These rays are projected in a form of waves, which are essentially energy. Currently, our solar batteries convert only visible rays, which is where Park began questioning a possible improvement. What Park did was to install quantum dots, a core semiconductor that is capped by an outer cell, on the silicone surface of the standard solar battery. A size smaller than 10 nanometers, quantum dots convert UV rays into visible rays, a process referred to as ‘energy-down-shift’. With this conversion, solar batteries could begin to convert a proportion of UV rays. An illustration of how a quantum dot converts UV rays for solar batteries (Photo courtesy of Park) This initial finding, published in 2014, improved the power conversion efficiency of solar batteries to three percent. Park was yet to be satisfied. Building on the scientific fact that the yield of energy from visible rays are greatest in the colors red and green, Park quickly moved to improve the new model. The problem was that the standard quantum dots converted UV rays to blue visible rays. Park resorted another process of quantum mechanics called ‘energy tuning’, which allowed the standard quantum dot to finally convert UV rays in a yellowish light, well between the rays of red and green. His new finding improved the power conversion efficiency to four percent. Now comes the final stage of Parks recent journey. Although his improvements to the standard solar battery was immensely significant, one flaw of his model was that it was composed of cadmium, a heavily regulated material. To make his model feasible for commercialized use, Park had to find a replacement for cadmium, which he found in a material called gallium. With his new improvement, Park’s research had been recognized and published in one of the most internationally renowned scientific journal, Advanced Energy Materials. Park’s research had been recognized and published in Advanced Energy Materials. As a word of advice to students aspiring to follow a scientific career, Park emphasized the importance of attitude. According to Park, the rate of development of scientific technology has grown exponentially within the past few decades. Students need to be aware of this, and needs to make an effort to follow recent discoveries and trending methods as opposed to focusing on traditional learning through textbooks. He also advised students to be well studied in software technologies, as they have grown much more significant in all domains of engineering. “The key is fundamental base, and a prepared attitude,” commented Park. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Park Geun-hyung

2018-06 18

[Faculty]Professor Kim Ki-hyun, Laureate of the Science Technology And Researcher (STAR) Award

Over the course of the past few years, public awareness and concern for the level of air pollution has increased rapidly. More people have begun to monitor the level of fine dust concentration on a regular basis, and sanitary masks have become an indispensable daily item. In addition, air purifiers have become a key home appliance, now that opening the window brings in polluted air. In the midst of this growing awareness, the research achievements of Professor Kim Ki-hyun (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) is more illuminated than ever. Having been recognized for his significant contribution to air preservation, Kim received the Science Technology And Researcher (STAR) award in June. The STAR award is a prestigious award presented monthly to scientists in the fields of education, research, and industry. It was created in 1997 to promote the scientific and technological minds to the public, while boosting the morale of scientists in various sectors of the country. Kim was recognized by the committee for his creation of a nano-material that enables the assessment and control of pollutants in the air at a more effective rate. Through his research achievements, Kim Ki-hyun (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering), the recipient of the Science Technology And Researcher (STAR) Award, has become internationally recognized as a prominent researcher in his field. To delve into the details of the research, Kim created the Metal Organic Framework (MOF), essentially a web of metals connected by an organic substance. This new material was created to act as a nano-level filter that could reduce pollutants in the air at a more effective rate. Furthermore, he made improvements in the standard environmental analysis system, making it more efficient to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOC) and odor-causing substances in the air. “The current level of air purification technology is quite effective. However, there is a limit to the ability to detect and eliminate VOC,” explained Kim. Unlike dust, which is a solid form of pollutant, VOC includes substances such as benzene and formaldehyde, which are in the form of gas. As byproducts of household activities like cooking, these materials are highly toxic; unfortunately, only 40 to 50 percent of them can be eliminated by a standard air purifier. When considering that people spend 80 percent of their time indoors on average, the damage from these substances could be significant. Kim is hopeful about the prospects of his research and predicts that he will someday find a method to eliminate gas pollutants all together. When asked for a comment on receiving the award, Kim answered that it was the result of hard work. As a researcher devoted to the interface between human activities and the environment, Kim has spent his life attempting to raise the public's awareness and interest in environmental issues. After working on the discovery and monitoring of pollution levels, Kim set out on a path to reduce them. “I feel fortunate and grateful," answered Kim, who felt that his devotion to the field had been recognized. Kim offering a tour around his laboratory on the 13th of June. Kim's current goal is to break down the limitations of reducing VOC in the air. Although it is currently possible under the condition of the air being stagnant, the dynamic nature of air necessitates the creation of a technology that will make it possible under all conditions. In the long run, Kim hopes to create a road map that stipulates the various hazards created under different conditions, and how to address them. In his last comment, Kim raised his concerns of the public's discretion in accepting environmental facts. Although he recognizes the increase in public awareness, he pointed out that we should be more critical of what we consider facts, as well as our actions.“Nothing strikes me as more ignorant than a smoker who puts on air filter masks,” added Kim. Though our hearts may be in the right place, there is a need for the public to critically review their life patterns in making efforts to combat pollution. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-06 04

[Faculty]Look Far, and Take Steady Steps

Looking back on his long career which includes serving as the vice minister of the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy as well as the president of the Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency (KOTRA), Kim Jae-hong (Department of Public Administration) summarizes the lessons that he had learned over the years into one phrase: “As a large bird flies over great distance.” Taken from an ancient Chinese teaching, it is a phrase that emphasizes the importance of looking far and taking steady steps. “The large bird in the phrase is a massive mythical creature, with immeasurable wing span and size. The point is that once this bird takes off, it won't land in the middle of its flight for anything without great value,” explained Kim. In the same sense, it teaches us not to be swayed by immediate, marginal profits and to look at the long picture. Kim Jae-hong (Department of Public Administration) recalled during the interview on the 31st that the lesson, "look far and take steady steps" was first taught to him by his middle school teacher. This phrase also happens to be the title of the book that Kim published recently, covering his life career as well as his insights into the industry that he has committed his life to. The first part of his career was as a public servant, eventually rising to take the role of the vice-minister of the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy. Kim had specialized in the industry and trade throughout his 31 years of service. According to Kim, the most difficult part of leading in a public role is maintaining the values of objectivity and fairness. “In all public policies, there tends to be people who benefit, and those who face a loss. Sometimes people facing a loss take drastic measures to oppose certain policies, and it takes a great deal of consideration and negotiation to satisfy all parties involved,” recounted Kim. Furthermore, as the position entails great influence, Kim was sometimes approached by interested parties, often times in very subtle ways. To maintain objectivity in these situations also required great effort. Kim also devoted a large portion of his book to explaining how the our trade patterns and domestic industries should change to create a sustainable economic environment. The second part of his career was his three years as the president of KOTRA. After decades of creating public policies on trade and industries, this was his time to actually see through the practical practice. According to Kim, he was able to see and experience various processes that he had not been able to witness as a policy maker. Even the marginal exhibits required complicated regulations and detailed preparations, and it was a great experience for him to gain further expertise in the field. Finally, Kim concludes his book by explaining the life lessons that he has learned through his career. Returning again to the old teaching, "to look far and take steady steps," Kim explained that this principle should be adopted by all domains. Public policies need to be made with significant long-term vision, and the national trade pattern needs to brush aside immediate surpluses and establish deeper trade relationships. Kim refers to this principle in his advice to students of Hanyang. He was most concerned with students’ tendency to seek "stable" jobs. According to Kim, this goes against the value of youth, where challenges and adventures should take place. He advised students to come up with bigger dreams and to work hard for them. “In the course of my life, I have witnessed that if you have a dream, and work hard for it, you eventually get there. One way or another. So take great breaths and look far. Don’t remain short sighted,” encouraged Kim. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Lee Jin-myung

2018-04 03

[Faculty]A Dancer and an Educator

In the words of the cherished German philosopher Friedrich von Schlegel, “Every art should become science, and every science should become art.” This is the very belief that College of Performing Arts and Sports Dean Kim Un-mi holds true for dance and education. Constantly emphasizing the importance of connectivity between educational theory and practice, Kim shared with News H some of her thoughts on being awarded the Korea Dance Association Art Award. Kim was recognized for having contributed to the field of Korean Dance, especially for having established the Research Institute of Korea Traditional Dance. The Korea Dance Association Art Award Dating back to 1961, the Korea Dance Association is the largest and most deeply rooted organization in the domestic field of dance. Every year, people who have made great advancements, not just in the field of dance but in regional developments and education as well, have been recognized and awarded by the organization. Nevertheless, with the awardees of the Art Award traditionally having been dancers, Kim answered that it was a great honor for her to have received the honor as an educator. Kim was highly praised in contributing to the preservation and advancement of Korean traditional dance through the Research Institute of Korea Traditional Dance. It was clear that Kim held immense passion for Korean dance as she talked about the background of its establishment. In addition to researching and teaching the theories of dancing, Kim stated that she still dances to this day. (Photo courtesy of Kim) According to Kim, it all began with a performance in Australia. It was a composition dance, where the choreography was built around the theme of a Korean traditional wedding. From stage editing to costumes and music, the Korean traditional style had been adapted. Even more important was the choreography. Kim desired to deliver the very essence of the traditional ceremony, with an emphasis on the emotions of the bride. “The traditionally long event had to be compressed into a 30-minute sequence, which was a challenge for me.” From anxiety to excitement, joy, and happiness, Kim directed the performance in a manner through which the emotions of the bride on the day of the wedding could be felt by the audience. Eventually accruing great praise and recognition for the performance, Kim was offered support to expand her activities and research, which was when she proposed the idea of the research institute. Established well before the currently ubiquitous concept of convergence research, the Research Institute of Korea Traditional Dance utilized the two separate fields of Korean dance and engineering for one purpose: the preservation and advancement of Korean traditional dance. Not only does the institute conduct historical research, digging deeper into the roots of Korean dance, but it also analyzes the virtue and spirit that is contained in it. Various concepts are devised to capture abstract meanings in the dance. Furthermore, methods to install these values and ultimately design them into choreography are studied there. A photo of Kim instructing her students (Photo courtesy of Kim) Born to dance “My first memories are that of dancing.” With her mother also a dancer and an educator, Kim stated that she had always danced. However, that does not mean that it was only out of external influence. According to Kim, she had always been captivated by the stage, and there was always an exhilarating emotion that arose seconds after she started dancing. As a student, she was also very studious. Determined to prove to herself that the Korean stereotype of dancers and musicians being academically underachieved is wrong, she always set aside time to study. In fact, Kim graduated from the Department of Dance at the top of her class. “It was, however, never for the sake of coming in first." As an educator, Kim wishes to teach her students how to endow meaning to their dance. “Our students are very passionate. Having such passion to move, dance, and train the body for dancing requires just as much time and effort as studying.” However, deeply influenced by the Korean system of college preparation, Kim worries that most students dance out of instruction. According to Kim, there should always be a motive for each movement, and as dancers, students need to think profusely about how they move and dance. This is the very core of her idea in emphasizing the importance of theoretical aspects of dancing. “The theoretical foundations of dancing could result in profound changes in their movements.” Kim is very keen on communicating with her students, which was quite evident by the array of letters that she had received in her office. As a word of wisdom for the students of Hanyang, Kim refers to the Hanyang motto, "Love in deed." “What I want to stress is the "deed" part. By that I mean that all studying must be followed with some practical actions.” According to Kim, whether it is dancing, studying, or even breathing for the sake of living, things must have meaning. For that, we must engage in theoretical and cognitive research, and follow with some appropriate actions. She believes that this will create results deeper in meaning and satisfaction. “People must move. And to move, people must think. One does not carry meaning without the other.” Kim stated that she hopes to see more students able to think and act for themselves, and pursue achievements as proud students of Hanyang. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@naver.com Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-10 31

[Faculty]Celebrating the “Beautiful Foundation”

“I happened to be” was a phrase often referred to by Professor Ye Jong-seok (Business Administration) in his effort to remain humble when asked about his long list of achievements. Nevertheless, the array of awards and appreciation plaques that filled the shelves of his office gave more than a hint of just how valued he was by countless people and organizations. One of his most distinguished achievements is the co-establishment and nurturing of the “Beautiful Foundation.” The foundation, with its purpose of being the development and proliferation of a charity culture, was founded in 2000. The once small organization with nothing but a calling for charity has now grown to a massive institution that spends 3.1 billion won a year on public projects. Ye was a part of the foundation since its establishment and has been serving as the chairman of the board from 2012 to this day. Ye attending a ceremony of "The Beautiful Foundation" (Photo courtesy of Dong-hwa) Re-establishing the Korean charity culture Ye picked out Dale Carnegie as the epitome of American charity culture. Deeply drawn to his philosophy and legacy, Ye described how Carnegie practiced what he preached, spending his lifetime fortune to give back to society by building 2500 libraries, countless foundations, and a university. Inspired by Carnegie, entrepreneurs such as John Rockefeller, Henry Ford, and George Soros followed in his footsteps to bring about the height of American charity. Ye desired to reenact this kind of culture in Korea. The concept of donations in Korea is in strict contrast to that of the United States in many ways. For example, most of the donations in Korea are made through corporate donations, whereas most donations are made privately in the US. Furthermore, these promises of donations from domestic conglomerates are rarely carried out. This a fundamental flaw in terms of the Korean charity culture. Thus, Ye sought to change the sources of donation from a small number of large donors to a large number of small donors. The structure of the Beautiful Foundation was designed by benchmarking the community foundations in the US. At the time, the concept of foundation had a negative image in Korean society, seen as a means of tax evasion during the chaebols inheritance process. Needless to say, the Beautiful Foundation had to start from rock bottom. Not only have they had a negative perception, but people were also hesitant to donate to an infant organization with no credentials. A turning point for the initial hardship of the foundation was the donation from an elderly lady named Kim Boon-ja. Kim was a victim of sexual slavery in the era of Japanese imperialism and had donated her 50 million won worth of compensation money that she had received as a form of indemnification to the Beautiful Foundation. This donation of immense value served as a seed capital to establish a foundation that has collected over 50 billion won during the past 17 years. Another obstacle that the foundation had to overcome was the underlying conflict between charity organizations and conglomerates when it came to donation. In such circumstances, Ye utilized his experiences and acquaintances in both of these areas to facilitate an atmosphere of cooperation. Ye expressed deep passion for the desire to change the Korean charity culture. (Photo courtesy of The Hankyoreh) Personal philosophy and drive Aside from his hardships in restructuring the Beautiful Foundation to rely less on a small number of large conglomerate donations, Ye had faced numerous obstacles during his years of studying abroad and contemplation on his career path. After having served in over 100 corporate and non-profit organization, Ye claims with full confidence that the key to success is doing what you love: “I enjoy doing things I love. Obviously, I avoid taking roles that I dislike. Taking up a job that you hate will literally make you ill.” As if to prove his point, Ye, well into mid-sixties, seems robust and full of energy. Genuinely interested in liberal arts, he takes his free time to devote himself to an array of fields, such as cuisines, art, and even sports. One example would be his affection for skiing. Having been a devoted fan for the past 50 years, his involvement in skiing to “take a break” has led him to become a key member of the upcoming Winter Olympics. Upon his retirement in the coming year, he plans to lead a “new life” devoted to his pursuit of full-time writing. The shelves on Ye's office were stacked with photos depicting a variety of activities. Advice Ye expressed concerns for the next generation. The Fourth Industrial Revolution, said to bring about rapid and fundamental changes, surpasses the total impact of change seen in the society for the past two decades. About 65 percent of existing jobs are expected to disappear. In this approaching era of unprecedented change, Ye underlined the importance of students’ discretion in choosing a career path. At the request for advice to students, Ye bluntly answered, “Choose a goal, and work extremely hard.” Above all, he emphasized the importance of choosing the right goal. His definition of a “right” goal was something that can provide joy. “It’s hard to lead a healthy life doing something you dislike. Find something you can commit your life to,” expressed Ye. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Chae Guen-baek