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2017-02 20 Important News

[Event]2017 Graduation Ceremony at HYU

Before spring approaches, Hanyang University (HYU) students from Seoul and ERICA Campus are getting ready to take a big step outside of Hanyang. In Seoul Campus, total number of students who graduated were 2644, and that of the ERICA Campus were 1688. The 2017 winter graduation ceremony was held at the ERICA Campus on 15th February, and at the Seoul Campus on 16th and 17th. Goodbye Hanyang On the first day of this year's first graduation ceremony, there were a lot of soon-to-be-graduates of HYU along with their family members and friends in front of Aejeemun (Hanyang Station Exit #2) and the Administration Building. Even before the graduation ceremony started, students were taking pictures, celebrating their last day at school. Students pose for pictures with their mates. At 10:30 a.m., graduation ceremonies were held in different colleges, including the College of Engineering, Music, Economics and Finance, and several others. Among all the other colleges in the Seoul Campus, the number of graduates were the highest in the College of Engineering. To accommodate a rough figure of 1100 students, their ceremony was held in the Olympic Gymnasium. On the way to the Olympic Gymnasium, Seoul Campus, there were many witty banners hung around school, congratulating friends. The Olympic Gymnasium was filled with graduates from the College of Engineering. Grand ceremony held on the both campuses At the ERICA Campus, the graduation ceremony of the College of Engineering Sciences was held in the Conference Hall. The lobby was full of graduates and their friends and families. There were juniors from clubs who came along to celebrate the seniors’ graduation. “It's sad to think that I can't see them anymore on campus. We will definitely miss them while we do our club activities,” said Cho Su-min (English Language & Culture, ERICA, 4th year). As the ceremony officially began, graduates all sat in the front row, wearing a blue gown and a graduation cap. Parents, relatives, friends, anyone who came to celebrate students' graduation set at the back. The ceremony began with an opening speech, soon followed by a message given by the President of HYU, Lee Young-moo. President Lee is delivering a speech at the Student Union, ERICA Campus. President Lee first sent greetings to all the people who participated in the ceremony and left advice to graduates who will now head into the wider world. “I want to thank all the professors and parents who have supported students to come all this way to graduation. I am also greatly proud of graduates who endured years of studying. I hope students remain passionate, practice the school motto "Love In Deed", and live their own lives, not that of others." After the words of encouragement, there were award ceremonies on the both campuses, to students with high GPAs and those who set an example, allowing Hanyang's name to shine. “I don't think I deserve this award but I'm glad I got it. My average GPA was 3.75. I tried to not miss class often, which I think allowed me to get this award,” said Yu Hyung-Jae (Composition, ’17). Kim Hun (Architecture, '17), said, “I was taken aback in receiving such a big award. I think that the two years of work as a president of the HYU Chinese students association was taken as a noteworthy achievement." Lee is handing the diploma to a graduating student. After years of being a student After all the ceremonies and the official events ended, more graduates appeared available for interviews. “Among all the years, I remember that sense of isolation I felt when I had just transferred to a new department. It was rough to adjust to the new classes and to get along with new people,” said Jung Yi-jun (Economics and Finance, ’17). Byun Hee-su (Electronic Engineering, '17), added, “I feel much relieved that I am finally graduating and moving on to start a new career outside of school. I am currently working on getting a job and will be concentrating on that." Professor Park Jong-won (Journalism & Mass Communication) said students whom he remembers better are those who didn't actually study very hard. “Not being committed to one's studies isn't necessarily a bad thing. I believe that the students who don't take studying seriously are those who pursue what they truly like. I hope students could form a wider perspective, without being too confined to the rituals of studying.” Byun Hee-su and her family takes a picture after the ceremony with bright smiles on their faces. Parents of graduates seemed proud to see their child finally graduate. The university graduation of sons and daughters must stand as a big event in the parents' lives, too. After taking hundreds of photos, students gradually left the school campus. Now being official graduates of HYU, News H sincerely encourages all graduates to realize their potential in society to the full. Graduates throw their graduation caps high in the air. Yun Ji-hyun uni27@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Moon Hana, Kim Youn-soo, Yun Ji-hyun

2017-02 14

[Academics]Transition of PDA Crystals

In the 21st century, nanoscience is coming into the limelight, as more sophisticated technologies are urgently in need to solve crimes or enhance the quality of life. Here is the leader of the Institute of Nano Science and Technology (INST) of Hanyang University- Kim Jong-man, professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering, who is currently leading the field of nanoscience. In the paper “Photoinduced reversible phase transition of azobenzene-containing polydiacetylene crystals,” Kim revealed how an azobenzene-containing supramolecular polydiacetylene (PDA) crystal undergoes a photo-induced reversible red-to-blue phase transition accompanied by crystal tearing. Kim reveals the reversible phase transition that azobenzene-containing PDA crystals undergo. Polydiacetylene, also called as PDA, is an organic polymer that conducts electricity, which is created by the polymerization of substituted diacetylene. PDA is a commonly used compound in the scientific field, considering its multiple applications- from development of organic films to immobilizations of other molecules. Recently, Kim and his research team have found out that when azobenzene, a synthetic crystalline organic compound, is incorporated to PDAs, it showed grand responsiveness to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. “The ultimate goal of this research was to find out what kind of changes the azobenzene-containing PDA crystal undergoes when exposed to UV rays. The result was phenomenal, as crystal tearing was detected in the vulnerable areas of its crystalline structure,” said Kim. Photo-isomerization of azobenzene is a form of light-induced molecular motion, which simply means the compound is capable of absorbing light. When azobenzene is incorporated into PDA crystals, crystal tearing occurred, along with red-to-blue color phase transition between frail crystal structures. These measured up to about 25 degrees in angle. When the UV exposure was removed, the crystalline structure returned to its original state. The video above shows the reversible phase transition of azobenzene-containing PDA crystal, and its crystalline tearing, along with red-blue transition. (Video courtesy of Kim) The graph above shows the angle of crystal tearings when the UV is turned on and off. (Photo courtesy of Kim) “This crystal-tearing phenomenon was a startling finding, because in the beginning, our team only expected color changes, not alternations in the structure. This six month-long experiment proved that light, such as UV rays, can be used as remote controls to regulate nano-compounds,” mentioned Kim. A remote control of nano-particles using lights is called an ‘actuator’, and Kim is hoping to enhance the sophistication of its design based on this experiment. PDA is an intriguing compound, due to its scientifically academic characteristic and practicality. PDAs can bear several colors, mostly red and blue, which is a rare phenomenon found in an organic compound. When certain physical or chemical pressure is applied to PDAs, they usually change their color from red to blue. When the pressure is removed, the color will change back from blue to red, which is called the reversible transition phase. Using this reversibility, Kim discovered various practical applications of PDAs, such as the ‘Forged Gasoline Identification Kit’ or the 'Pore Map', which identifies inherent pore structures. Kim explains various applications of polydiacetylenes. “It is my ultimate goal to develop sensitive sensors using PDAs that can be applied to carbon nanotubes or lung cancer detectors,” added Kim. Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon that are useful in a lot of areas, such as nanotechnology, optics, electronics and material sciences. The lung cancer detector that Kim desires to formulate is designed based on the fact that human breaths consist of about 40 kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Among the VOCs, there is a compound called toluene, which lung cancer patients possess three times more than normal people in their breaths. Based on this, Kim longs to create a kit that can verify whether a test taker is ill or not, just by breathing into the kit. “These practical applications do have restrictions, since the area they are used for are sensitive- economically and security-wise. As a professor, I'm more interested in enhancing the academic foundation of material science, especially PDAs, for the future of nanotechnology,” said Kim. “I want my students and trainees to become scientists, not technicians. While technicians do what they are told to do, scientists ponder upon new ideas and move forward creatively. This approach will allow the futures of our students - including science - to shine.” "Becoming a questioning scientist, instead of a passive technician, is key to the bright future of science." Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-02 06

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Al-FCG Ready for Action

Professor Sun Yang-guk of the Department of Energy Engineering is February’s Researcher of the Month for his active role in exploring the field of energy engineering. In his paper, “Compositionally Graded Cathode Material with Long-Term Cycling Stability for Electric Vehicles Application”, Sun explains how adding aluminum into the cathode makes batteries last longer and become more stable compared to other rates of composition. The Al-FCG61 that Sun has developed has shown a high rate of energy efficiency even at 100% depth of discharge (DOD), which draws attention in the field. Sun explains his research with assisted diagrams. As the supply and demand of the electric vehicle is on the rise, most of the batteries in the market last from 150km to 400km, meaning that once the battery is fully charged, the car would move between the distance within. What accounts for the difference is the capacity as to how much cathode can hold up. In order for cars to go beyond 300km at least, the capacity of the cathode would have to be over 200A/h. The only problem to this is that it gets difficult to make it stable and it could blow up. There are various prototypes ranging from generation 1 to generation 4 and the study carried out in Sun's paper is on generation 3. Gradients of different components from inner to outer parts of nickel particle. (Photo courtesy of Sun) Capacity retention, which is the lifespan of a battery, would rise with 61% of nickel with FCG full concentration gradient, which is what Sun has developed in order to create a more stable and long-lasting battery that would hold a larger capacity. Within the mold, Sun has created a two-way particle that contains a high percentage of nickel inside with lower percentage of nickel on the outside. This concentration gradient is created due to the fact that nickel has its advantage of being able to increase the capacity of the battery while it makes the battery more unstable with exothermic reaction. Along with the nickel, Sun has increased the percentage of the manganese inside the particle since it has the advantage of making the cathode more stable. Depth of discharge (DOD) is the rate at which battery is either charged 60% or 100%, and this is tested before electric vehicles are sold for inspection. The average usage of an electric vehicle is at around 2,500 cycles for 10 years, and the Al-FCG has proven to be more energy efficient even at 100%. Most of the batteries do not last long at DOD100 due to the expansion of volume inside the battery. This means that the battery would lose its efficiency as time goes. Al-FCG has shown its Coulombic efficiency rate of 84.5% even at DOD100, while batteries currently in the market show an average of 50% at 2000 cycles. This new battery devised by Sun is not only more energy efficient, but more cost efficient as well. Sun wishes to make more efficient batteries. Sun is continuously researching to keep the DOD level at 100% even after 2000 cycles. With his findings, the electric vehicle industry would definitely benefit hugely in terms of cost and energy efficiency. With different materials, Sun wishes to develop other types of batteries that would bring more comfort to society. Kim Seung-jun nzdave94@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-01 23 Important News

[Academics]How the Spiral of Science Affects Global Opinion (1)

Professor Sohn Dong-young of the Department of Media & Communication is an expert in the field of Computational Social Science, Social Network and Collective Action, Media Psychology, and Persuasive Communication. He also actively introduces his papers in academic journals including the Journal of Communication, New Media & Society, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Journal of Advertising, and Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. This week, News H met with Sohn to discuss about his recent paper, “Collective Dynamics of the Spiral of Silence: the Role of Ego-Network Size”, which explains how the local spiral of silence phenomenon can influence global opinion, and how the social media affect people’s formation of opinion. Sohn is explaining about his paper. In the past when internet connection hadn't been well-established, groups of people with various opinions couldn't be conjoined. However, thanks to the Internet, people can now freely share their opinions with one another through various media platforms like social networking sites (SNS). “This paper mainly explains how more networking formed between individuals increases the possibilities of a phenomenon called ‘the spiral of silence’,” said Sohn. According to 'spiral of silence’ theory, which is used as a major explanatory mechanism in the field of public opinion, an individual is less likely to assert one’s opinion if one is aware of the fact that that opinion is non-mainstream. “To give an example, let’s assume that more people in a certain region think abortion should be deemed illegal, and such opinion is more publicly accepted and widespread. This leads another group of people, who think it should be legal, hesitate to express their thoughts out loud. It is due to the fear that one could be isolated from the rest of the society," said Sohn. What Sohn researched on is how this well-known theory can be proved to exist in a certain environment. Sohn used computer simulations to test and prove his theories. “We made a computer simulation program composed of 1000 people. We set the program on each individual to increase the credibility on others' opinions, and we found out that an individual gives more credit to opinions that are more popular and supported. "On the other hand, opinions from minorities received much less credits from an individual,” Sohn explained. The program also widened the scope of the networking environment for each individual in order to see when one would be more willing to raise their voice. “After the examination, we found that the spiral of silence phenomenon occurs differently according to the size of a network each individual is in." When an individual is within a small-sized network, having a lesser chance to acknowledge others’ opinions, that person cannot tell if his or her opinion is that of the mass or of the minority. Opinions will consequently be polarized. But as the scope of a network grows, the individual has the chance to see and hear opinions of others better, being able to self-check which side they belong to. This directly leads to the spiral of silence phenomenon. “While social science research has a rather big gap formed between theories and practical research, I believe we can develop more sophisticated theories with computer simulations. This will further shorten the distance between speculative research and practical data, allowing research like mine become more useful in our society,” posited Sohn. Sohn said it is more important for students to ask 'why' than merely struggling to obtain an answer. Yun Ji-hyun uni27@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-01 19

[General]New Head Coaches at Hanyang

Hanyang University recently announced the appointment of Yang Jin-woong, former player of Korean national team, and Kim Ki-duk, former player of Ssangbangwool Raiders, to volleyball and a baseball head coach respectively on 19th. Yang graduated from the Department of Physical Education of Hanyang University, and had been a key player on Korean national team for 8 years since 1983. He served as a senior coach of Hyundai Capital · Woori Card Volleyball Team, and a head coach of Korean national team. Kim was also a pitcher of Hanyang University and started his career as a professional athlete by joining Ssangbangwool Raiders. He has served as a head coach of SK Wyverns and Hanyang University since 2003. ▲Yang Jin-woong ▲Kim Ki-duk

2017-01 16 Important News

[Student]Hanbok Beloved Worldwide

From 4th of January to 9th of January, hanbok making class was held in Human Ecology Building by Won Young. She has studied about hanbok and designing at Hanyang University (HYU) while attending Department of Clothing and Textile. The classes were held two hours everyday excluding the weekends, for four times. How it all started Won Young is Malaysian Chinese and also a Korean gyopo. While she was living in China, she says that there used to be a lot of tribes wearing different types of traditional clothes which is when she first encountered hanbok. “I have seen hanbok a lot on the television but once I came to Korea, I couldn’t see anyone wearing it in real life,” Won said. In order to make up for the discomfort of the hanbok, she started studying about life hanbok and became interested in the designs. Won (right) teaches Helene (left) how to use the sewing machine. She has created a startup team called TS (Time and Space) which consists of two people at the moment. Since she has studied in the field of fashion, Won thought of creating a brand of her own or creating a platform. Although there used to be websites where flower printings were available, it seemed to be a waste to cut out the pieces while designing her own patterns. This is how Won came up with the idea of DIY fabric in which she designs her own patterns and inserts the prints within the patterns. While attending at HYU, Won has participated in diverse programs created for international students but she felt that something was missing. “It seems like I was just looking around rather than doing something at the complete experiencing level. I think there are a lot of foreigners who would think like me,” said Won. This is how she came up with the idea of hanbok making class. Reactions towards the program A total number of fourteen students from diverse countries have participated in this program. Cho Yu-jin (faculty at Department of Clothing and Textile) and Lee Ye-jin (acquaintance of Won) have helped out with this event. Cho has helped out with the over lock while Lee has helped with the translation with the foreign students. Since the students participating in this program did not have any experiences or were not related major to fashion or designing, they had a hard time putting this together and one of them had to do all the sewing all over again from the sketch. Renu (left) and Azira (right) enjoys the program. Most of the students who have participated in the program had a similar idea in a sense that they were not aware of hanbok and how it could be utilized in daily life as well. Hwang An-ki (Media Communication, 2nd yr) said, “I was not well aware of Hanbok in the first place but as I was making it, it came to me as a beautiful traditional clothing.” Since foreign students who do not return to their home countries have not much to experience, they all claim that it has been a great experience for them. “I think it’s quite interesting that some people still wear traditional clothes since we don’t have them in Denmark. I think hanbok is very beautiful costume,” claimed Helene (Korean Studies, Master’s program). Although it has been a short period of time, all the students were able to finish their hanboks. After the session has finished, participants have matched their casual clothes along with hanbok and had photo session afterwards. “Through making the hanbok, foreign students would have been able to have the sense of achievement and feel the traditional culture of Korean costume. Also, by being able to have felt a new type of experience of making clothes, some people would have found a new hobby as well,” added Won. The students who have participated will keep in contact with each other and exchange information on hanbok flea markets or Korean culture experiences. Through this program, foreign students now understand Korean culture a little more. Since it has been a greatly developed program where it has been a talent donation of Won, students from diverse countries were able to experience the beauty of hanbok. Won hopes that she could carry out more programs related to hanbok in the future as well and provide lessons as part of the Korean wave towards foreigners. Kim Seung-jun nzdave94@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Kim Sang-yeon Photo by Moon Hana

2017-01 16 Important News

[Academics]Regulating Carbon Dioxide Emission from Automobiles

Tremendous amounts of carbon dioxide is released into air everyday, engendering chains of environmental and health problems. Human activities are profoundly culpable for such phenomenon, citing industrial processes, combustion of fossil fuels, and operation of power plants. Among a variety of sources of CO2, automobiles are responsible for 20% of the total emission. Further narrowing down the scope and focusing on light duty vehicles, Professor Park Sung-wook of the Department of Mechanical Engineering has researched and analyzed data about CO2 emissions and predicted possible decrease in the rate. In his paper “Development strategies to satisfy corporate average CO2 emission regulations of light duty vehicles (LDVs) in Korea,” Park elaborated on strategies to abate the enormity of CO2 emissions in the long run. Blueprint of possible consequences An international protocol demands each country to cut down its pollutant emission by a certain percentage, otherwise charging it with a fine. A country then assigns its corporates with a set reduction goal, as an attempt to attain its mission more efficiently. In his paper, Park predicted and analyzed the possible decreases in the rate of CO2 emission in terms of different categories of automobiles: electronic, hybrid, and diesel vehicles. He collected data from each automobile manufacture company about the number of sales of each type and calculated an estimation of how many of each type of vehicle must be sold and what portion of production of each type must be maintained in order to reach a set curtailment target. If the majority of drivers switch their cars to electronic vehicles, the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air will shrink substantially, thereby contributing to the fulfillment of the set goal. As for current situation, however, the supply of electronic cars is scanty. Therefore, aiming to reduce CO2 emission by encouraging the use of electronic cars is virtually futile. On top of this inefficient pace of progress, production of electricity augments the rate of CO2 emission not in the domain of transportation but in industrial manufacturing. Park explains that electric cars are not the ultimate solution in the long run. Consequently, excluding electronic cars, Park was left with diesel and hybrid cars. “There is a general misunderstanding that any type of cars that is not electronic is environmentally-harmful. Of course, when the vehicle is in operation, an electric car emits zero carbon dioxide. Yet, if you take a look at its fuel, electricity, power stations altogether expel about the equal amount of pollutant,” elucidated Park. Taking into consideration that diesel fuels contain more energy per liter than petroleum and hybrid cars burn less gas to cover the same distance than petroleum-run cars, the two models look ideal when it comes to seeing a positive effect in the long run. Shift in the perspective It has always been the politician’s task to place regulations on corporates in regard to cutting down the CO2 emission. Park took this issue and viewed it from the perspective of an engineer. “Environmental problems are not as simple as those with only superficial knowledge think. If one problem is solved, it has got to make another way to reproduce itself through other forms,” stated Park. “For instance, supposing that the world has adopted a policy to supply electronic cars and has stopped using diesel or other fuel-combustion-demanding cars, the situation will beget another problem. Production of electricity to fuel all the electronic cars will require just as much CO2 emission as running fuel cars, not to mention the vast discharge from factories for producing the cars themselves,” elaborated Park. In other words, in lieu of directly belching CO2 from the automobile itself, electric cars will indirectly lead to hatch of another problematic concern, which is the release of massive CO2 from electricity factories. Through his studies, Park realized that electric cars alone cannot solve the CO2 struggle, hinting more efficient engines in the future. Park strongly thinks that engineers, who possess the fundamental and indispensable information about technology and its impact on nature, should hold more influential authority in making environmental laws. “The essential difference between engineering and science is their practicality. Products of engineering could be measured easily with technology but that of science is not. Nevertheless, engineering has not been so influential in areas other than its own. I hope to see the outcomes of engineering research `reflected more in policies,” delivered Park. Park is planning to carry his research onto larger auotomobiles for future solutions. Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Moon Ha-na

2017-01 12

[General]2017 New Year's address

Hanyang Family Members! The New Year has come. We wish all of you and your family a harmonious year full of hope and happiness. Last year, Hanyang was breathless with the variety of activities that kept us busy. It was an eventful time for our school both in Korea and abroad, where effort was made to find Hanyang’s identity through creative challenges. In the process, much adversity was met but bigger achievements different from previous years were tasted. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all those who shared in those difficult times last year. As we ring in the new year, we bring in new hope. Not all wishes and expectations we have at the beginning of the year can come true, but I believe that hope in our hearts will be the greatest force that will enable us to endure. I hope everyone be more healthy and achieve the wishes you made. Hanyang Family Members! When I became the president, I mentioned that two keywords: creativity and sharing. We pondered over how to best express “sharing” in expressing our founding philosophy: ‘Love In Deed.’ If it has been a period of preparation and planning till now, this year is when the idea of "sharing" will be realized more concretely. Prestigious universities around the world do not simply produce intellects with superb brains, but warm-hearted human talent. Therefore, this year will focus on the fostering the ‘sharing’ program to the fullest degree. Last year, we achieved outstanding evaluations both among national and foreign universities. Joonang Ilbo’s University Evaluation reported on Hanyang Seoul Campus stepping up from 3rd to 2nd, and ERICA Campus retaining 8th place. In QS World University Rankings, Hanyang University was ranked the 171th university in the world, showing a huge increase from 193th last year. From the result of such evaluation, it is clear that Hanyang University is being recognized as a globally respected university. This year, all of us will continue to do our best to keep this upward trend going. In 2017, Hanyang will continue to improve the research capacity for each department and equip students with a system that can provide bona fide learning. We call this ‘True Education’ which means not only teaching well but also helping to develop each student’s capabilities. We will increase the number of multi-majors and fused majors programs that will open doors between departments and allow students to study their desired majors. As well as strengthening our basic and applied research, focus will be on fostering students’ entrepreneurship spirit through cultivating creativity, development and cooperation that will continually help them to pursue their goals of enterprise. Hanyang Family Members! All around the world we face turbulent times of uncertainty. In addition to the political turmoil domestically and overseas, the decline of school-age population, difficulty of financial expansion, and the imminent era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, change and unpredictability surround us all. This year will be a turning point for Korea as it will determine whether Korea will be thrown off or join the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In order to actively cope with these unpredictable environmental changes, we must lay the foundation for sustainable development based on the core values of Hanyang by remaining faithful to the fundamentals with a longer outlook. I look forward to your dedication and cooperation again. 19th-century Swiss philospher and lawyer Carl Hilty said, "The most unbearable time in life is when the bad weather does not last, but the days when there are no clouds." We do not know what kind of waves will come before us in 2017. However, bad weather and strong waves can make us stronger and wiser than calm weather. This year, despite any waves that stand in our way, with the help of each other, we can weather any storm. In addition, I am grateful for the united strength of the Hanyang family. That tenacity will give us the courage to leap forward in 2017 as we had last year. May all members of the Hanyang family have health and happiness. Thank you. Happy new year. ▲ New Year's card by President Lee Young-moo

2017-01 09

[Academics]Treating Aftereffects of Brain-Related Diseases

Professor Koh Seong-ho of the Department of Neurology is a doctor and a researcher who is interested in treating the aftereffects of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral infarction. He received his doctorate degree from Hanyang University and used to work at Harvard University as a research fellow. Koh is general affairs manager of the Korean Dementia Association, and associate managing editor of the Journal of Clinical Neurology. His recent paper, “Neuroprotective Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neural Stem Cell Death”, focuses on acetyl-L-carnitine’s function of protecting and enhancing the regeneration of neural stem cells. Koh explains the neuroprotective function of acetyl-L-carnitine. Acetyl-L-carnitine, or ALCAR for short, is a source of energy. It is an ingredient for mitochondria inside stem cells as well as other cells. When cerebral infarction occurs, which is when arteries in the brain get clogged, oxygen and glucose become deprived as blood circulation is blocked. In this situation, when oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) occurs, mitochondria receive damage as well. The coenzyme inside the mitochondria, which makes energy for the stem cells, is pushed out, resulting in cell death. There are three well-known types of cell death, which are necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Koh’s research is focused on apoptosis where cell death occurs gradually, unlike necrosis. ALCAR can assist apoptosis in preserving and reviving the cells. Koh conducted an experiment using neural stem cells extracted from rats, and exposed the cells to an OGD environment similar to cerebral infarction. By increasing the concentration levels of ALCAR to that of stem cells that died of OGD, Koh found that they could be revived owing to ALCAR. “What we found out from our study is that ALCAR is not only a supporting material for mitochondria’s metabolism, but it also protects and regenerates stem cells,” Koh said. Neural stem cells of rats. Nestin, Ki67, and DAPI are markers that show that these are neural stem cells. (Photo coutesy of Koh) “When a cell dies, free oxygen radicals are created. Free oxygen radicals can be emerged as a response to stress caused by diseases. Too much free oxygen radicals may stop proteins from functioning, induce inflammation, cause even more cell death and increase pathogens,“ described Koh. ALCAR can help reserve some cells to proliferate when cell death occurs. This can be done by passing on energy, and reducing free oxygen radicals and oxidative stress caused by the radicals. “Through the research, we found out that in an OGD environment where the survival rate of the cell was only 40%, the cells regenerated up to 80% with ALCAR- twice as much,” Koh explained. The bar graph shows the cell survival rate and the line graph shows the cell death rate. The black bar shows an OGD state where ALCAR does not exist. From this graph, we can clearly see that ALCAR revives the dead cells. (Photo courtesy of Koh) The distinct contrast between cell population (purple dots) and the second and third petri dishes shows ALCAR'S capacity for regenerating cells. The graph below it shows the population of cells before and after ALCAR exposure. (Photos courtesy of Koh) “What we discovered is ALCAR’s function of manipulating survival-related proteins and death-related proteins, which reduces apoptosis,” Koh reiterated. Cells are immensely complicated systems, and one of those receive various signals sent by proteins with regard to their types and locations in the human body. The study concentrated on the signals that PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) send which are significant to the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of cells. ALCAR activates PI3K, thereby controlling the survival and death of related proteins. “We examined protein levels and then used a blocker that obstruct the signal path of PI3K. We could see that the effects of ALCAR was impeded as well due to the blockage, proving that ALCAR is associated with PI3K and its pathway,” Koh elaborated. "Bad results could turn out to be a trigger for another good research." According to Koh, there isn't much treatment for the aftereffects of brain-related diseases such as cerebral infarction and Alzheimer’s disease, even though a lot of patients suffer from them. However, if Koh’s research continues and neural stem cells can be conserved and recovered, those aftereffects could see improvement. Currently there are many projects in line with his study, funded by Korea's Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Koh is also participating in a joint study with Harvard University, which centers on the connection and networks between cells and neural cells in a pathologic condition, and whether that would lead to a recovery or not. “When doing research, it is nice to get the results you desire, but this isn’t easy in most cases. I try to think positively though, because I believe that even bad results could turn out to be a trigger for another good research,” remarked Koh with a smile. The ultimate goal of Koh’s study is developing treatment for patients who are already diagnosed with brain-related diseases, by studying the proliferation and regeneration of neural stem cells. Koh added that he is also interested in researching how to enhance patients' memory and their cognitive functions. “It's regrettably sad how lot of research has been done, but there is no specific treatment for neural diseases. As a doctor responsible for curing patients, I want to try my best to help them by improving their conditions through my research, also contributing to the development of science as I go,” said Koh. Koh continues to seek methods to enhance patients' conditions who are already diagnosed with cerebral infarction and Alzheimer's disease. Jang Soo-hyun luxkari@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Moon Ha-na

2017-01 09

[Event]2016 Hanyang Year-end Party

<2016 Hanyang end-year party> was celebrated with 150 foreign students and 30 staff members from Office of International Affairs. Students from various countries gathered in one place to express their joy, and took photographs together in the photo zone. ▲Hanyang celebrated year-end party with international students ▲students performiong opening ceremony of the event ▲foriegn students performing traditional dance of Malaysia ▲foriegn students performing traditional dance of Malaysia ▲students taking photos together to celebrate the event ▲students participating in cake cutting event