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2018-05 01

[General]People of Seoul, How Well Do You Know Your City?

The Hanyang University Museum has always played a special role on campus. Established in 1980, it has made unceasing efforts to record and preserve the history of Hanyang University. Furthermore, it has fulfilled its original role as a museum, accepting contracts from the city for professional excavation of relics. Aside from the deployment of experts for excavations, it organizes, reports, and even preserves some of the artifacts for display. Moving forward in time, it now manages a number of exhibitions, celebrating not just the history of the school, but the achievements of its cherished members. For today’s students, it serves as a number of things; some take quick coffee breaks or occasional meals on its outdoor benches, some students take mandatory classes in the museum, and some genuinely visit for the exhibitions. The most recent project taken on by the museum is a program called the Hanyang Museum Academy, which began on April 12th. Providing a weekly combination of lectures, visual data, as well as field trips on a designated theme, its purpose is the instillation of knowledge about the humanities in all members of Hanyang University and local citizens. Profoundly inspired by the trending attention of humanities from the public, the academy’s first round of lectures revolved around the theme of architecture. Titled "People of Seoul, How Well Do You Know Your City?," the museum recruited a number of experts to provide a series of lectures that could help illuminate the city of Seoul through the perspective of architecture. Recounting the stories of various architects and their works that eventually formed modern day Seoul, the chief manager of the museum, Ahn Shin-won, invited participants to “see how the dreams and lusts of the people of Seoul changed the city." “People of Seoul, How Well Do You Know Your City?” lasts from April 12th to June 7th An interview behind the scenes For a better understanding of the background and purpose of the program, News H interviewed Hwang Na-young, the person in charge of the planning. A researcher at the museum’s liberal science laboratory, Hwang explained that this lecture was not the first of its kind. The Hanyang University Museum had organized a number of lectures in venues such as the Seongdong District Office, the Seongdong District Office of Education, the Humanities Department of Hanyang University, as well as at occasional exhibitions and events around the school. However, what made it possible for the museum to coordinate a program that provides a regular series of lectures was a donation made by a graduate of the school, Kang Sung-hee. With the support of Kang, the museum was able to remodel and refurbish the lecture room, which they had for some time, wished to utilize for regular lectures. Altogether with a nudge of encouragement from the Chairman of the University, the program was set in action. So why architecture? According to Hwang, the theme and direction of the Hanyang Museum Academy were a strict reaction to the public’s growing attention towards cultural art and the humanities. As it intended to be open for all people of Seoul, the theme had to grasp a wide audience, among them including the faculty, professors, and students. In the initial stage of planning, there was a discussion among three potential themes: architecture, museums, and food. Some of the reasons why architecture was decided was that it had been one of the initial departments of Hanyang, it is a recently trending field of interest, and it seemed an appropriate topic that could entertain different groups of people. However, even with the theme decided, there were a lot more decisions to make. “Seoul is a big city, and there were an endless number of people and stories involved in its architecture," answered Hwang. In an interview held at the Hanyang Museum with Hwang Na-young, she answered “Above all, I wanted the first theme of our lectures to grab the interests of the entire audience." The first step that Hwang took was to create a list of potential lecturers. After that, she consulted a number of professors, some included on the list, to come up with the best coordination of various experts in the field. Indeed, in spite of the common field of architecture, the activities of all the lecturers were quite distinct from one another. One of the professors wrote a book on the theme of architecture and humanities, whereas another worked directly in the field. There was also an expert who appeared on internet broadcasts, while another aired on television shows and worked with the press. There is even an architect who is expected to talk about the types of houses that a person could build in Seoul. Accordingly, each lecture was special in its own way, utilizing differences in style, topic, and tools to deliver its message. “The underlying goal was to provide a lecture that was comfortable to the public, yet with some academic depth,” answered Hwang. When asked how she felt about the progress of the project so far, Hwang expressed satisfaction. As with any new project, her biggest fear was about the number of people that would show up. Despite her personal efforts as well as those made on behalf of the museum, she was afraid that not a lot of people would know about the lectures. In all honesty, she still has a hard time grasping the extent of its publicity. Nevertheless, she felt grateful that the 50 seats open for registration had been fully booked. So far, about 20 percent of the audience has consisted of students, 50 percent has been outside visitors, and the rest are a mix of faculty and professors. Hwang expressed the ambitious desire to extend the seats to a maximum of 120. “It seems difficult at the moment, but there are a growing number of contacts from professors wishing to give a lecture, and a number of audiences began bringing acquaintances to the event." A photo taken of a lecture held on the 19th, discussing the history of the Cheonggye Stream As for future plans, the candidates for the next theme of lectures are alcohol and fate-orientation, which refers to the study of one’s fate. After the decision, which is bound to be made soon, the next round of lectures will begin around October. Aside from the Museum Academy, the Hanyang Museum itself has exciting plans laid out for next year as well. Marking the 80th year anniversary of the school’s establishment, and the 40th year of the museum’s establishment, the museum will undergo an extensive reconstruction of its exhibitions. Hwang expressed particular enthusiasm in the renewal of the archeological exhibition which has remained unchanged since 2003. She hopes that many students will look forward to the new and improved contents of the museum. As a last word to students, Hwang urges more students to make use of the museum’s facilities. “I feel that many of the students are thwarted off simply by the fact that it’s a museum, so we are constantly making efforts to make it more welcoming to the students. I do hope that it can become a more accessible place in the future." Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@naver.com Photo by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-04 30

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Applying Terahertz to Weld-Line Detection

The weld-line among moulding injected plastic products have long presented a challenge in the production of plastic. Destruction of a specific plastic product has been considered necessary in the process of examining any existing weld-lines within the material. However, based on his newly released paper "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of weld-line defects formed during an injection moulding process," Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering) has coined the concept of applying terahertz radiation in this examination process. Based upon the terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), Kim has introduced a novel method of detecting weld-lines among moulding injected plastic products in a nondestructive manner. The THz-TDS technique In order to understand the THz-TDS system, one must become familiar with the actual concept of terahertz. Terahertz refers to a frequency unit of electromagnetic waves, counting up to one trillion cycles per second. Its long microwaves and wavelengths provide it a high permeability which allows terahertz to surpass materials other than metal. This high permeability leads to the THz-TDS, a spectroscopic technique in which the properties of matter are examined through different phases of terahertz radiation. In short, when shot at a specific target, the phases of terahertz radiation differ while surpassing different materials. Professor Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering) explained the benefits of terahertz radiation and how it can be applied to more practical fields. Although THz-TDS was an already-existing technique, it was Kim who applied it to the more practical field of finding weld-lines among plastic products. Weld-lines are lines that occur around areas where two flow fronts meet, yet are unstably "welded" together in the moulding process. These weld-lines cause weak areas among the moulded part, which may lead to a breakage of the product when the part is under pressure. Until now, the inevitable destruction of the whole product has been regarded as the only method of scrutinizing the existence of weld-lines. However, Kim has introduced a new method, which allows the weld-lines to be detected without breakage. Applying THz-TDS to weld-line detection As mentioned above, different phases of terahertz radiation occur when surpassing different materials. This variation of phases allows one to determine the specific material that the terahertz radiation is currently transcending through. Thus, when shooting terahertz radiation at moulding injected plastic products, the distinctions that occur among phases would be the areas where weld-lines, different layers than other parts of the product, are detected. This would eliminate the necessity of the current destructive weld-line determination process, as simply shooting terahertz radiation at the plastic products enables the investigation method to be possible without any force input. The phases of terahertz radiation differ according to the existence of weld-lines, which allows the detection of such weld-lines within plastic products. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim implemented a scanning method when conducting experiments to prove his theory. While attaching a mirror to the terahertz radiation, he moved the specimens according to their reflections. In order to make the reflections happen, the mirror was given a metalized-coating, considering the fact that terahertz surpasses all materials but metal. He managed to make a reflective-equipment that made the reflections occur on a much faster period, which allowed him to gather more results in a shorter time. According to Kim, the equipment is in its initial stage, yet developments are still being made towards totally eliminating minor errors. Hardships and future plans Despite achieving striking results, Kim also had hardships while conducting his research. Kim is a professor in the department of mechanical engineering, whereas terahertz research is related to the field of electronic engineering. Conducting research in a totally different field irrelevant to his major resulted in Kim having to look into two completely distinctive areas. However, he continued his research with only his students, without engaging in any form of joint research with others from departments in more closely-related fields. Oh Gyung-hwan, one of Kim's student assistants and co-leaders of this research, and Kim (left and right) commented on the importance of one finding his or her own reasons for conducting research and remarked that they want to help students find such causes. Such thought may result from Kim’s belief that research must be conducted in a positive manner. Kim mentioned, “I want my students to find their own reasons of pursuing specific research, while being proud of their achievements at the same time." He also added that this research was also conducted worldwide, and hence, his students should be proud of the significant results their global research. As for his future plans, Kim declaimed, “Despite my hardships in this study, I would like to do more research in a variety of other fields, while maintaining a firm stance within my major of mechanical engineering.” Choi Seo-yong tjdyd1@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-04 26

[Campus]Hanyang Ranks 4th in Number of CEO Alumni in Top 100 Korean Companies

According to a survey conducted by the recruitment site Saramin, among 92 CEOs of the top 100 Korean companies (excluding financial institutions) four of them are Hanyang University graduates. Among 92 CEOs, 13 of them are from Seoul National University (14.1%), 11 from Korea and Yonsei University respectively (11.9%), 4 from Hanyang University (4.3%), 3 from KAIST and George Washington Univeristy (3.2%), 2 from Kyunghee ,Pusan National, Chung-Ang, Chungnam National, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, USC, Stanford , and Columbia University respectively (2.1%). By location, 50 CEOs are from universities in Seoul (54.3%), followed by 29 from foreign universities (31.5%), 11 from universities in provinces (11.9%), and 2 from universities in metropolitan areas (2.17%)

2018-04 23

[Event]The University Museum Opens 'Hanyang Museum Academy' under the Theme of 'Seoul'

In order to raise the literary culture of the school members and the citizens of Seoul, Hanyang University Museum will run the Hanyang Museum Academy nine times this year, every Thursday at 2:00 pm from April 12 to June 7. The first Hanyang Museum Academy of the 1st semester of 2018 is being held with the theme of "Seoulite, how much do you know about Seoul? – reading Seoul through architecture." It starts with the question of how much we know about Seoul, and then guides visitors to understand the city of Seoul through architecture. The Hanyang Museum Academy special lectures will be featured as follows: Prof. Seo Hyun of the Department of Architecture (April 12), Chung Boot-Sem, curatorial researcher in Seoul (April 19), Kim So-Yeon, writer (author of Architects of Old Seoul) (April 26), Yeo Hwan-jin, CEO of Tribico (May 3), Prof. Han Dong-soo of the Department of Architecture (May 10), Research Prof. Jeon Woo-yong of the East Asian Culture Research Institute (May 17), Hwang Doo-jin, head of an architectural firm (May 24), and Prof. An Gi-hyun of the Department of Architecture (May 31). In these lectures, you will see how the city of Seoul was formed during the modern era, learn how the people's dreams and desires changed Seoul, and then chase the story of the architects who made Seoul as we know it today. Additionally, visitors will take a walk along the streets of Myeong-dong while hearing its stories being told by Yeo Hwan-jin, the CEO of Tribico and a collector of modern postcards. Applications for registration can be completed on the homepage of Hanyang University Museum (https://museumuf.hanyang.ac.kr), and admission is free. For detailed inquiries, please contact the Hanyang Museum (02-2220-1394). ▼ Schedule and program No. Date Theme Imstructor 1 Apr 12 Where does Cheonggyecheon flow? Seo Hyun (Department of Architecture at Hanyang) 2 Apr 19 Look over Seoul - From the map of Old Seoul in late Joseon dynasty to an aerial view in Japnese colonial era Jung Boot-sem (Curatorial researcher in Seoul) 3 Apr 26 Architects of Ancient Seoul Kim So-yeon (Writer) 4 May 3 Story about Myeongdong by teacher Mo-bo Yeo Hwan-jin (CEO of Tribico) 5 May 10 Walk to Myeongdong with teacher Mo-bo Yeo Hwan-jin (CEO of Tribico) 6 May 17 Seoul and Beijing, cities in East Asia Han Dong-soo (Department of Architecture at Hanyang) 7 May 24 East Seoul Jeon Woo-yong (East Asian Culture Research Institute at Hanyang) 8 May 31 Architecture as rainbow rice cake Hwang Doo-jin (Head of an architectural firm) 9 June 7 Mongdang 夢堂 (Dream) - Dreaming house in Seoul An Gi-hyun (Department of Architecture at Hanyang) ▲Hanyang Museum Academy poster of "Seoulite, how much do you know about Seoul? - reading Seoul through its architecture"

2018-04 23

[Event]Opened 247 Start-Up Dome at Hanyang University

▲ Hanyang University opened its 247 Startup Dorm on April 17th, where young people who dream of starting a business can concentrate on their business all day long. Officials attending the opening ceremony are taking commemorative photos. Hanyang University opened the 247 Startup Dorm (Startup Dorm), an entrepreneurial dormitory for young people who want to start their own business. The name 247 is meant to help young people start their business 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The startup dorm is a space to support the discovery and development of outstanding student startup companies. Each year, it selects 30 students who have innovative ideas. It is Hanyang’s own differentiated platform to provide a year of dormitory housing, a private entrepreneurial activity space, and a dedicated mentor for the selected students. The startup dorm consists of 10 dorm rooms, a co-working space, a project room, a startup mentor room, and a startup professor room. They remodeled 638 square meters of one floor of the existing dormitory. For a more effective education, a group of business mentors (senior mentors, junior mentors, and dedicated professors) will closely manage the prospective entrepreneurs. Hanyang's President Lee Young-moo, the student founder, and related officials attended the opening ceremony of the startup dorm. Choi Mun-jo (Physics Department, 4th year), who started his career as the founder of the startup dorm, said, "When we work together on a regular basis, sometimes we can depend on each other.” He also added, “It is not only a place for business startups but also a regular training and exclusive mentor system that can be very helpful in growing the capabilities of startups. “ "The Startup Dorm is a part of Hanyang University 3S (Startup, Smart, Social Innovation) Innovation Strategy. We will nurture new entrepreneurs who will contribute to the nation's development," said President Lee Young-moo.

2018-04 23

[Faculty]Professor Yoon Young-june, Albert Nelson Lifetime Achievement Award

▲ Professor Yoon Young-june Yoon Young-joon, a professor at the Graduate School of Creative Convergence Education, won the Albert Nelson Lifetime Achievement Award from Marquis Who's Who. Marquis Who's Who selects achievers who have accomplished success in the fields of medicine, science, politics, economics, social science, and the arts every year. It gives lifetime achievement awards by selecting the most outstanding figures among them. Professor Yoon Young-joon has been recognized for his outstanding research, academic, and educational achievements in the field of theoretical biomechanics.

2018-04 23

[Academics]Flexible Cell Phones Possible Through Silver Nanowire on Graphene on a PET

Imagine your smartphone expanding up to twice its size if you unfold it. Wouldn’t it be wonderful? There is a researcher and a professor at Hanyang University who brought this world a step closer to such technology. Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering)’s recent paper “UV-assisted flashlight welding process to fabricate silver nanowire/graphene on a PET substrate for transparent electrodes” revealed a new progress in technology to weld silver nanowire onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate, a thermoplastic polymer) substrates. When asked about his future academic plans, Kim answered it was to follow his interest and have fun. “I had this ‘idea storm’ while studying for my doctorate degree. At that time, I bought three monitors and wrote three articles simultaneously. I lamented at the fact that I have only two hands,” laughed Kim. In order to actualize a foldable smartphone and commercialize it, the flexible part must be both transparent and durable. Although there has been a decade of research in the field to discover such technology, one has yet to be found. The two main obstacles were, first, to keep the wires laid in a knit-like organization without raising the electronic resistance through time. The issue here was while the flexible display is folded and unfolded repeatedly, mechanically placed silver nanowires are slowly detached from the substrate. A substrate is a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs. This leads to bigger resistance, as the road of a same amount of electricity can move is technically reduced. If resistance increases more than a certain level, the display malfunctions, making the entire device useless. Another obstacle was not being able to weld the nanowires to the substrate. This is because silver nanowire melts at 300 degrees Celsius while the PET substrate melts at 150 degrees. “Not even experts in the fields believed me when I told them I could weld silver nanowire onto the PET substrate,” chuckled Kim. Using PET substrate is also the key to manufacturing cheap and flexible displays, as a thin ceramic substrate, no matter how thin they are, inevitably cracks after repeated use. Welding silver nanowire and graphene on PET substrate. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim solved both dilemmas by welding silver nanowires onto PET substrate, using flashlight sintering. Flashlight sintering uses a lamp filled with Xenon gas, a highly inert gas due to its structure. Kim drew this idea from skin care technology called Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) where they use a flashlight instead of a laser to burn moles or wrinkles without damaging the skin. “I wondered, Can the polymer substrate and the nanowire work as the skin and the mole?” mentioned Kim. With academic interest, Kim researched further during his post-doctorate degree at UCLA. By welding the silver nanowire instantly with the light, it reduces tech-time and therefore reduces the manufacturing price. Moreover, Kim added a layer of graphene to the network of wires to further enhance the conductivity. Graphene is a form of carbon, consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice. Although it is a form of carbon, the thickness being one atom makes it look transparent. Welded silver nanowire with a layer of graphene prevents the resistance from raising even more, extending the lifetime of the display. Kim emphasized that students in Hanyang are better than most students in other schools. “I was in the so called "elite" group, so I can tell our students are much better!” said Kim. The hardest part of wielding such results was the skepticism. “Because the IPL technology did not exist in Korea, I was often scoffed at by others. So, I had to make my own devices as there were no research funds,” reminisced Kim. For about two years after Kim started making progress and received a big government project, not a lot of people believed that silver nanowire welding was even possible. Now, thanks to Kim, we will soon be able to see foldable smartphones. Kim So-yun dash070@naver.com Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-04 23

[General]Hanyang University Medical Center and MediBloc

On April 9th, Hanyang University Medical Center (HYUMC) signed an MOU with MediBloc, taking its first step to creating a more patient-oriented medical environment. MediBloc is a company that uses Blockchain technology to create a decentralized (meaning it doesn’t rely on a single computer or server to function) personal health record (PHR) platform. In other words, it is creating a new platform where each patient can keep track of and have control over their own health record instead of relying on the government to keep the information for them. Kim Hyuk (vice president of HYUMC), strongly believes that this new patient-oriented system will certainly create an environment that all hospitals should provide, and also add efficiency to the flow of information that can benefit both the patients and the hospital. How does Blockchain technology work? Originally, Blockchain technology is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of cryptocurrency transactions. Constantly growing as completed blocks, the most recent transactions are recorded and added in a chronological order, allowing market participants to keep track of digital currency transactions without central recordkeeping. If you own any cryptocurrency, what you basically have is a private key (or a long password) to its address on the blockchain. With this key you can withdraw currency to spend. That is why it was originally developed as the accounting method for the virtual currency Bitcoin. HYUMC and MediBloc signed an MOU on April 9th. However with Blockchain technology applied to medical health records, it creates a platform where the patient himself can collect all his personal health records from the different hospitals he went to, allowing him to have better access to and control over his own health records. You can simply download an app to see all the accumulated medical data yourself, and even provide some of the information to hospitals or research institutes that need the data. On top of that, whenever a patient receives treatment from a hospital that uses this technology, he will receive a bit of virtual money that can be used as a discount on his medical bills. Of course, all the flow and usage of information requires the patient’s consent. This is much more efficient than the current centralized PHR system, which means that it relies on a single computer or server to function. Kim also mentions how difficult it is for a hospital to receive a patient’s health record from another hospital. Current situation According to Kim, all PHR in HYUMC will become digitalized by next year, which is why cooperating with MediBloc and adapting its new Blockchain system now is crucial. Through collaboration, both the hospital and MediBloc can figure out how to best provide a medical environment that the patient can benefit from. Since HYUMC treats specialized areas such as rheumatism, using MediBloc allows the hospital to easily reach out to the patients who’ve already given their consent and can provide them with personalized consultation and treatments matching their needs. The patient can also make his own requests after looking over his accumulated PHR in the app. Currently, HYUMC is still in the process of practicalizing the newly adopted system. After HYUMC fully adopts the electronic medical record (EMR) system by next year, Kim foresees that within two years, it will be able to successfully develop the new PHR system with MediBloc. "We hope to have a better flow of information that can benefit both patients and hospitals in the future." Park Joo-hyun julia1114@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-04 19

[Performance]Selected for Excellence in University Evaluation on the Perspective of Industry

In "2017 Evaluation of University Education on the Perspective of Industry (산업계관점 대학평가)," announced by the Ministry of Education and the Korean Council for University Education on April 18, Hanyang University participated in four out of the five fields and selected for ‘excellence’ in three fields including software, electronic semiconductor, refining and petrochemical. To apply the demand of the industry to the curriculum, Evaluation of University Education on the Perspective of Industry enables head of the industrial division to propose key competences and related subjects in each field, evaluate the level of cohesiveness with the curriculum, and provide information. Korean Council for University Education has been organizing this evaluation since 2008 in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and five economic organizations. This year's university evaluation was conducted for five departments of software, electronics, semiconductors, information communication, refining & petrochemical and cosmetics and 160 departments of 75 universities who wanted to participate became subject of this evaluation. 44 departments of 31 universities were selected as the ‘best’ category. 2027 companies, executives and staff members of 39 companies including Kakao, LG Electronics, and COSON and university assessment experts participated in this survey. In the field of software, 16 universities including Hanyang, Gachon, Konkuk, Kyungnam, Kyungsung, Kyungil, Gwangju, Dongseo, Dong-Eui, Sogang, Sunmun, Sookmyung Women's, Soongsil university received the best rating. The best universities in the field of electronic semiconductors are 11 universities including Hanyang, Kangwon, Kyungnam, Kookmin, Gunsan, Sogang, Sungkyunkwan, Soonchunhyang, Soongsil, Chungbuk, Honam University, and in refining & petrochemical fields, Hanyang, Kangwon, Konkuk, Soongsil, Yeungnam, Inha, Chonbuk University were selected. Major in Software, Department of Electronic Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering of Hanyang University were evaluated that they reflect the opinions of the industry from the stage of designing and operating an industry-based curriculum to the performance inspection process, and provide the best education courses the industry wants, thus selected for the ‘best’ category in three fields of software, electronic semiconductor, refining and petrochemical. An official from Korean Council for University Education said, " We will lay the foundation to nurture talented individuals with creative convergence mindset who will lead the fourth industrial revolution through the evaluation of industrial universities and will also make efforts to establish and expand intergovernmental communication channels. " ▶ 2017 Evaluation of University Education on the Perspective of Industry Industrial fields Name of universities Software Gachon, Konkuk, Kyungnam, Kyungsung, Kyungil, Gwangju, Dongseo University, Dong-Eui, Sogang, Sunmun, Sookmyung Women's, Soongsil, Woosuk, Chung-Ang, Hanlim, Hanyang (Selection of 16 universities/ participated by 55 universities) Electronic Semiconductor Kangwon, Kyungnam, Kookmin, Gunsan, Sogang, Sungkyunkwan, Soonchunhyang, Soongsil, Chungbuk, Hanyang, Honam (Selection of 11 universities/ participated by 38 universities) Information Communications Gangwon, Dongguk, Dongseo, Dongshin, Dong-Eui, Chung-Ang (Selection of 6 universities/ participated by 33 universities) Refining and Petrochemical Kangwon, Konkuk, Soongsil, Yeungnam, Inha, Chonbuk, Hanyang (Selection of 8 universities/ participated by 25 universities) Cosmetics Gangwon, Dankook, and Joongbu (Selection of 83universities/ participated by 9 universities)

2018-04 19

[Academics]Architecture as the Outcome of Thought Towards the Truth

As structures are among the chief artifacts that any civil society leaves behind, the history of architecture reflects the story of human civilizations in many different ways. Jeong Jin-kouk (Deparment of Architecture), who mainly deals with modern architecture, finds the understanding and study of architecture crucial as it is a way of enriching human lives. Greatly influenced by Hubert Damisch, Jeong began his study of modern architecture which led him to focus on the works of Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier is considered one of the pioneers of modern architecture, and 17 of his projects have become UNESCO World Heritage Sites. When Jeong encountered his first Le Corbusier building, he was overwhelmed with shock and awe, which intrigued him to the point of wanting to understand how the building alone could have left him in such an emotional state. Along with many other reasons, this was the beginning of his studies and the creation of his academic paper titled “The ‘New Type of Church’: From Le Corbusier’s Church at Firminy” which focuses on three significant religious building conceptualized by the renowned modern architect in 1950s and 1960s, particularly on the last one - the Church at Firminy, after Chapel of Ronchamp and Monastery of La Tourette. “Architectural promenade is the observer’s pathway through the built space and is the central element of Le Corbusier’s architectural and city planning designs. In short, it is the sequence of images that unfolds before the eyes of the observer as he or she gradually advances through the structure.” (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) One interesting fact about the paper is that the content is laid out following Jeong’s perspective as he takes his first few steps along the architectural promenade. In this way, Jeong tried to truly understand and match his flow of consciousness along with that of Le Corbusier’s by doing an in-depth analysis from the structure itself, rather than simply applying external theories to explain the new type of church. This flow is conveyed through different concepts of the church’s worship space, ecstasy, the site, box of miracles, and spontaneity. Worship space & ecstasy Shaped in the form of a truncated cone, the Church at Firminy is a structure that is only made out of concrete with four different, precisely calculated facades that change according to different orientations. The shape of the natural sunlight coming through the openings on the walls is manipulated both quantitatively and qualitatively to maximize special effect. The light reflection of the Orion constellation on one of the walls also adds to the visual delight, leaving its visitors lost in an indescribable mix of senses. Many have suggested that this comes from religious factors as it is a religious space, whereas Le Corbusier himself simply tried to explain it in terms of plastic arts by referring to it as an "ineffable space." An ineffable space is a space that cannot be explained with any verbal terms. In other words, an “ineffable space aims to reach a high emotional state, in which the spirit can develop feelings such as ‘the joy of getting outside myself.' ” According to Jeong, the concept of “the joy of getting outside of myself” “can be defined as an ecstatic state in terms of Sergei Eisenstein’s developed theory of Montage.” Here, ecstasy is based on geometry of vision, rather than any religious symbols or theological emblems. As Le Corbusier said, “The human head … is a box into which one can pour pell-mell the bits of a problem. Let it ‘float,’ ‘marinate,’ ‘ferment.’ Then one day, out of a spontaneous burst of inner being the click is produced. … It is born.” (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) The site & the box of miracles Another factor that contributes to the state of ecstasy is the “floating Box of Miracles.” Here, the Box of Miracles is an empty concrete square like the worship space of the Church at Firminy. Jeong simply added floating, because Le Corbusier, who emphasized the importance of the harmony and balance between structure and its surrounding environment, as well as the right angles of the two, “lifted up the Box of Miracles from the ground in order to make it to float for the religious building in Firminy.” “The Box of Miracles was originally invented at the beginning of 1950s as a Spontaneous Theatre, and was considered of equal value to the space of worship in a religious building.” In other words, the key point of a Box of Miracles is at spontaneity itself which, according to Le Corbusier, defines the nature of creativity. The Worship Space of the Church at Firminy (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) Spontaneity The term spontaneity here must be distinguished from improvisation, as the latter literally does not require any form of prior contemplation. The Spontaneous Theatre has meaning in the sense that it is an area where people can truly express their feelings through creative acts and inspiration. Le Corbusier’s conceptualism of spontaneity which is the core essence of creativity, is based on patient search for the maturity of an idea. “Once idea becomes fully mature and reaches its perfect point, the solution emerges ‘at one time’ and ‘at a stroke,’ so to speak, spontaneously.” Hence, without thought and patient search, spontaneity simply becomes meaningless. According to Jeong, the Box of Miracles, also known as the Spontaneous Theatre, works as both a common denominator and point of uniqueness for the Church at Firminy when comparing it to the other two final works of Le Corbusier. It is because although the Box of Miracles are present in all structures, the one at the Church at Firminy is floating, and the architect’s constant contemplation on how to integrate the structure into the site gives up different geometry of vision and system of expression, making it a "new type of church." Park Joo-hyun julia1114@hanyang.ac.kr