Total 17Articles
News list
Content Forum List
2018-07 13

[General]Building Blocks of a Self-driving Future

Self-driving cars are not simply a dream of science fiction movies anymore. South Korean President Moon Jae-in famously rode a self-driving vehicle to the Pyeongchang Olympics earlier this year. As the market is expanding, research and development behind such vehicles are also thriving. Hanyang University is one of the leading universities in automobile technology and has been hosting the Intelligent Model Car Contest since 2003. 100 teams from 50 different universities registered for the competition, on July 12th, at the Olympic Gymnasium of Hanyang University. A participant in the contest is placing his model car on the track in the Olympic Gymnasium on July 12th. The contest, marking its 16th anniversary this year, started at 9 a.m. and proceeded with the preliminary contest and the final round. Although 100 teams comprised of 450 students, only 39 teams were able to actually participate in the competition on the day, with 19 teams making it to the final round. As the two tracks used for the preliminary round were redesigned and combined into one long lane with more obstacles, none of the teams were able to run the whole course on the first try. The most notorious obstacle was the crossroad, which was implemented for the first time in this year's competition. The head chairperson Sunwoo Myung-ho (Automotive Engineering) decided to give everyone a second chance. Team Initus Novis won the golden prize. Initus Novis means 'a new beginning' in Latin. All of the participants are 4th year students from the Department of Automotive Engineering. Fierce competition continued, and team Initus Novis from HYU and team Interface from Kyonggi University made it to the finish line with the record times of 0:36:010 and 0:48:175, respectively. After a long discussion among the judges, they decided to give the awards and prizes despite the failure on the first try. 19 awards from 7 different sections were bestowed: ACE Lab (gold), MathWorks (silver), Encouragement Award, Infineon Special Award, BMW Special Award, MathWorks Special Award, and Female Engineer Special Award. Initus Novis was honored with the gold prize of 5 million Korean won, which was the biggest award as the highest prize was not given to any team at all. Mijamong, another team from HYU received the Encouragement Award. Kim Young-woo from MathWorks commented that, "Failure is a valuable asset for everyone," and encouraged students to, "run as many simulations as you can with your algorithms." He also praised all the participants by saying, "You are the future." Kim So-yun Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-07 04

[Performance]Hanyang University Hospital Receives Top Ranking

The Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service evaluates every hospital in Korea and rates them into six tiers, with the last one being "unscorable." Hanyang University Hospital has been rated in the top tier in four major cancer departments for three years in a row. As there are many good hospitals in Seoul, a hospital has to have almost perfect scores in every aspect in order to rank in the top tier. News H visited the director of Hanyang University Hospital, Lee Kwang-hyun to find out their secret. Lee Kwang- hyun , the hospital director, stressed that his efforts to overcome the difficult times were not futile. “There is really no secret to the gradings,” muttered Lee. He mentioned that every member of the hospital including professors', doctors', nurses', pharmacists', and interns' striving to provide better medical service to the patients made it come true. Lee especially credited the professors from each cancer department. The Health Insurance Review and Assessment service’s grading is the result of 2016’s performance. Documents and information were collected last year from September to December, assessed earlier this year, and announced this June. "Safely trustable hospital" (Is this the accepted translation of the motto? It doesn't sound very natural. If it can be changed, I would recommend, "Safe and trustworthy hospital." Hanyang University Hospital's motto. Surprisingly enough, our university hospital had a tough time just a few years ago. Rumors spread that we might have to close due to the worsening management situation. Lee mentioned that there were two things that brought about the betterment of such a dire situation. First was the cooperation between the labor and the management. “Communication is the key. Without it, suspicion and misunderstandings pile up and can cause disasters,” said Lee. Although it is very difficult for two groups with conflicting interests to work harmoniously with each other, through their efforts to be transparent for the workers and members of the hospital, the labor force and the management came to understand each other and worked towards the growth of the hospital. The second aspect was for the hospital to “really work as a hospital” through a “sensible system." Lee acknowledged that in the past, there were some systemic failures where the hospital was not serving the patients but rather focusing on its own interests. For example, the reception desk used to close at 7 p.m. sharp even if there were some patients still in the doctors' office. After the acknowledgment of this shortcoming in service, the hospital tried to amend the system to work for the patients and to provide as high a quality of service as possible. Thanks to the efforts of every member from every corner of the hospital, our university hospital was able to receive not only receive a top-tier rating in the four major cancer departments, but we also scored high on other indexes such as for treating rheumatism, caring for patients who have had a stroke, the use of antibiotics for infants, and more. Lee was confident that the hospital will be ranked in the top tier again next year as well. He commented that the motto of Hanyang University Hospital is to become “safely trustworthy hospital," smiling. Kim So-yun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-06 11

[General]Paiknam to be the Best of University Libraries

Paiknam Library, commonly known as the central library, won the Chairman of the National Assembly Award on May 24th. The prize was awarded by the Korean Association for Research Information (KARI). This meaningful milestone is the biggest award given by KARI, and Paiknam Library is the only university library to have received the prize this year. Our beloved library is 70 years old as of 2018, and the Chairman of the National Assembly Award is not the only award Paiknam has received. It also received the Korean Library Association Award this February. News H interviewed the Dean and the Associate Dean of the library to find out more about these events. From the left, Hong Yong-pyo (Associate Dean) and Eom Ik-sang (Dean of the University Library) are enthusiastically explaining the history and the future of Paiknam Library on June 8th. According to the Associate Dean, the university library was able to win the award from KARI thanks to the usage of the National Assembly library’s electronic resources by Hanyang members. In fact, Paiknam Library is one of the top five libraries in the nation to possess the most books. However, the percentage of books on loan is not as high. “We looked into the issue and discovered that Hanyang members actively download and borrow online resources,” mentioned the Dean. Paiknam Library is also sharing our resources with the National Assembly Library, too. Looking back on the 70 years of the Paiknam Library, there have been a lot of changes going on the past couple of years. The library was remodeled so that more students can enjoy the place more comfortably, and exciting programs such as debate competitions and coffee sessions on how to write good articles were created. Eom smiled and said, “I want the library to be a place students all love, like a second home.” He plans to nurture the place so that students can not only study in the library but also exchange ideas, be entertained, and even take a nap. Hong also mentioned that "The library is heart of the university," and that he will do his best to keep it up. Fifth from the left, Chung Sye-kyun (former Chairman of the National Assembly) is standing next to Hong at the May 24th KARI assembly. The Paiknam Library was awarded the prize on the same day. (Photo courtesy of Paiknam Library) Kim So-yun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-05 28

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Efficient and Aesthetic Hybrid Solar Cells

Professor Ko Min-jae recently made the cover article of Advanced Energy Materials with “Room-Temperature Vapor Deposition of Cobalt Nitride Nanofilms for Mesoscopic and Perovskite Solar Cells.” The research Ko has been conducting since 2008 deals with the hybrid solar cell, which is more flexible, lighter and more versatile than conventional silicon solar panels. The article focuses on Ko and his research team's development of a power conversion efficient nanofilm made of cobalt nitride (CoN). As it can be dye-sensitized and bent freely, Ko proposes that this material can be applied on flexible and wearable devices in the future, at an affordable cost. “If we use CoN nanofilms, electricity can be generated from everyday devices and objects, not only from thermoelectric or nuclear power plants. By utilizing natural renewable energy, the human race can develop sustainably, and that is very important,” Ko mentioned in the interview. The new finding can also generate power from weak lights such as the sun on a cloudy day or even from indoor fluorescent lights. The reason behind the reduced cost is the simple production process. Conventional silicon solar panels require special devices to assemble, which are big and expensive. Finding the right combination of substances that induce stable synergy is the hardest part and the reason Ko’s lab is one of the leaders in the solar power field. Ko mentioned, “Idea is the key, and it is wonderful that I can see if the idea works or not in two days.” It is predicted that the CoN nanofilm will be commercialized in five years. "Fighting!" Ko and his students are posing and assuring their will to work hard. From the left, Yoo Yong-suk (Chemical Engineering, Master's program), Ko Min-jae and Kim Dong-hwan (Chemical Engineering, 4th year). Kim So-yun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-05 21

[Event]Campus Refurbish Day with WeMakePrice

On 17th May, Campus Refurbish Day took place in the lobby of the HIT building, with 4,000 items donated from the online store WeMakePrice. This is the third Campus Refurbish day; events were previously held at Ewha and Yonsei. Kim Eun-jung from Hanyang University Center for Social Innovation had a short interview with News H on site. She showed her passion for social innovation and HYU students who are working towards it. The event was organized by three parties: WeMakePrice, the Beautiful Store, and Hanyang University Center for Social Innovation. WeMakePrice donates refurbished products which are perfectly usable but inadequate for sales to the Beautiful Store every year. The secondhand store then sells the items in its shops all over the nation. But from last year, the Beautiful Store thought of selling the items on university campuses to benefit the students by allowing them to purchase good items at shockingly low prices, and also using the profit to benefit students. Items such as laptops and air purifiers selling for only 30% of their original prices were already sold out at the point of noon, but many people were still searching for good deals in the clothing, shoes, and kitchenware sections. A student who purchased a calculator worth 20,000 won for 3,000 won had a big smile on his face as he left the building. Hanyang University decided to take half of the profits and turn them into a scholarship for the Asia Pacific Youth Exchange (APYE). APYE is a program to facilitate sustainable development plans to solve social issues in the form of social entrepreneurship. Youths from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) gather together in a host country for 10 days, build up, and present their original ideas through a symposium held on the last day. HYU is hosting APYE this year with 150 students. The Beautiful Store utilizes the other half of the profits to organize other programs benefiting local people. Campus Refurbish Day at HYU was the biggest in size and raised the highest profit. 596 people participated in this event, raising 1,416,000 won from 4,000 donated pieces. 39 students willingly volunteered to work as sellers. One reason behind the success of this event was its active promotion by the Center for Social Innovation. Posters and notices were all over the campus. Although there was no space on the display stand filled with people, a volunteer from Hee-mang-han-dae leader group mentioned that there were much more people in the beginning. Kim So-yun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-04 23

[Academics]Flexible Cell Phones Possible Through Silver Nanowire on Graphene on a PET

Imagine your smartphone expanding up to twice its size if you unfold it. Wouldn’t it be wonderful? There is a researcher and a professor at Hanyang University who brought this world a step closer to such technology. Kim Hak-sung (Mechanical Engineering)’s recent paper “UV-assisted flashlight welding process to fabricate silver nanowire/graphene on a PET substrate for transparent electrodes” revealed a new progress in technology to weld silver nanowire onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate, a thermoplastic polymer) substrates. When asked about his future academic plans, Kim answered it was to follow his interest and have fun. “I had this ‘idea storm’ while studying for my doctorate degree. At that time, I bought three monitors and wrote three articles simultaneously. I lamented at the fact that I have only two hands,” laughed Kim. In order to actualize a foldable smartphone and commercialize it, the flexible part must be both transparent and durable. Although there has been a decade of research in the field to discover such technology, one has yet to be found. The two main obstacles were, first, to keep the wires laid in a knit-like organization without raising the electronic resistance through time. The issue here was while the flexible display is folded and unfolded repeatedly, mechanically placed silver nanowires are slowly detached from the substrate. A substrate is a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs. This leads to bigger resistance, as the road of a same amount of electricity can move is technically reduced. If resistance increases more than a certain level, the display malfunctions, making the entire device useless. Another obstacle was not being able to weld the nanowires to the substrate. This is because silver nanowire melts at 300 degrees Celsius while the PET substrate melts at 150 degrees. “Not even experts in the fields believed me when I told them I could weld silver nanowire onto the PET substrate,” chuckled Kim. Using PET substrate is also the key to manufacturing cheap and flexible displays, as a thin ceramic substrate, no matter how thin they are, inevitably cracks after repeated use. Welding silver nanowire and graphene on PET substrate. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim solved both dilemmas by welding silver nanowires onto PET substrate, using flashlight sintering. Flashlight sintering uses a lamp filled with Xenon gas, a highly inert gas due to its structure. Kim drew this idea from skin care technology called Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) where they use a flashlight instead of a laser to burn moles or wrinkles without damaging the skin. “I wondered, Can the polymer substrate and the nanowire work as the skin and the mole?” mentioned Kim. With academic interest, Kim researched further during his post-doctorate degree at UCLA. By welding the silver nanowire instantly with the light, it reduces tech-time and therefore reduces the manufacturing price. Moreover, Kim added a layer of graphene to the network of wires to further enhance the conductivity. Graphene is a form of carbon, consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice. Although it is a form of carbon, the thickness being one atom makes it look transparent. Welded silver nanowire with a layer of graphene prevents the resistance from raising even more, extending the lifetime of the display. Kim emphasized that students in Hanyang are better than most students in other schools. “I was in the so called "elite" group, so I can tell our students are much better!” said Kim. The hardest part of wielding such results was the skepticism. “Because the IPL technology did not exist in Korea, I was often scoffed at by others. So, I had to make my own devices as there were no research funds,” reminisced Kim. For about two years after Kim started making progress and received a big government project, not a lot of people believed that silver nanowire welding was even possible. Now, thanks to Kim, we will soon be able to see foldable smartphones. Kim So-yun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-03 26

[Academics]The Beauty of Dynamic Tensions

A. S. Byatt is the famous British writer known in Korea for winning the Park Kyong-ni Prize last year. Peter Mathews (English Language & Literature), who has been interested in her work for more than 15 years, recently wrote an analytical article "Dynamic tensions in A. S. Byatt’s 'A Lamia in the Cevennese'" which focuses on the pattern she often uses. “I came to Hanyang 8 years ago to balance my research and teaching,” smiled Mathews. "A Lamia in the Cevennese" (1998) is part of a short story collection named Elementals: Stories of Fire and Ice (1998). In this collection, A. S. Byatt challenges the traditionally associated negativity in "cold philosophy" or "intellect." Therefore, she creates dynamic tensions between logic and emotion, reality and myth, and so on. In many works of literature and art, passion is often referred to as the birthplace of art and motivation, while logic and intellectuality are perceived as things that deter such beauty. Byatt writes against the conventional assumptions and expectations of the readers. Specifically, in the story "A Lamia in the Cevennese" (1998), the main character, an artist named Bernard Lyccet-Kean, moves to southern France to find a lamia in his pool. Lamia here refers to a mythical creature that is half women and half snake. She tries to seduce Bernard when he shows no interest in romance but in art. In this way, Byatt associates Bernard with both "cold" and "hot," creating the dynamic tension. She uses various measures to bring such tension throughout the story. For instance, Byatt creates tension between myth and reality by portraying lamia, a mythical creature, threatening to but eventually failing to enter Bernard’s reality. Such tension persists throughout the collection. "I think of writing simply in terms of pleasure. It's the most important thing in my life, making things. Much as I love my husband and my children, I love them only because I am the person who makes these things." From the interview with The Guardians, A. S. Byatt. (Photo courtesy of British Council) Mathews aimed to “try and find a key and pattern in understanding her work.” He used Byatt’s other works at the beginning of the Elementals to build a structure that applies to the story about the lamia and Bernard, which is in the latter part of his essay. Taking the relatively short time of only four weeks to write, as he was on his sabbatical last year, he had to read all of the articles that were written on A. S. Byatt and re-read some of her writings to put this essay together. “When you are working in this field, you draw a lot from what you read along the way,” mentioned Mathews. The piles of books that filled his library-like office silently supported his statement. Mathews was inspired to become a professor in English Literature in a class that he took in his second year of university. “That was the first time I was inspired to study something in depth. From there, I followed my inclinations,” smiled the professor. Now, he is getting a step closer to his teenage dream of becoming a writer. “I just finished a story, my first serious adult story, as of this morning,” said Mathews. The title is 'Patrick White Square' , and it imagines a world where his home country of Australia is a world power, such that all British kids have to read Patrick White (a renowned Australian writer), like how in reality Australian kids currently have to read British novels. With his academic interest in literary theory, Mathews plans to keep on writing articles and essays in the field. Art collections, endless shelves of books, and guitars in his office seem to tell a lot about who Peter Mathews is: a delightful and dedicated scholar. Kim So-yun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-02 28

[Academics]What Makes People Prosocial

Have you ever wondered what makes some people particularly social and not others? Kim, Sanghag (Department of Sociology) tried to identify the relationship among empathy, attachment to parents, and prosociality. Prosociality refers to behaviors that are intended to benefit others. Kim mentioned that there was not a lot of research done to figure the relations among the aforementioned three aspects of human psychology. To make matters worse, research on empathy predominantly focused on older children from around 11 to 15 years of age, as morality was conceived as a cognitive process. Kim is enthusiastically explaining about his work. That focus has recently shifted to younger children – as young as just a few months old – and the findings in the differences in emotional empathy at such an early stage have emphasized the importance in the influence of nurture on empathy and the prosociality of a person. Kim stressed that one of the strengths of his recent paper titled, ‘Relational Antecedents and Social Implications of the Emotion of Empathy: Evidence from Three Studies’ is the quality of data that the team has collected over the course of 12 years. In order to discern the link among empathy, attachment, and prosociality, the research team had used three forms of studies: family study, play study, and the parent-child study. In the studies, a child’s empathy for either the mother or father was elicited under a scripted, stimulated distress paradigm, where the parents acted upon a detailed script to see the child’s reaction. The entire process was recorded for later coding, capturing the child’s expressions of emotion through facial, verbal, and behavioral means. The child’s attachment security was measured under the Strange Situation Paradigm (SSP) and the Attachment Q-Set. In the former measure, the child was left with a stranger and the action was analyzed through coding; while in the latter measure, the parents were asked about the attachment security. The last and probably the most important measure, the child’s prosociality was measured in a peer context in order to determine whether the child took turns when playing, askings for things nicely, and so on. The solid line represents a significant effect, and the dashed line represents a nonsignificant effect. Graph A represents the mother– child dyads and B for the father– child dyads. Further explanation is below. Photo courtesy of Kim Through such vigorous research from middle class families with various educational and ethnic backgrounds to high risk families with financial issues, Kim and the research team were able to draw lines between the factors. Attachment here turned out to be a moderated mediation. Moderated mediation is a statistical term where the effect of an independent variable A on an outcome variable C via a mediator variable B differs depending on the levels of a moderator variable D. In this context, the effect of ‘empathy’ on the outcomes ‘prosociality’ depends on the level of the moderator's ‘attachment security’, as you can see in the graph. There is an arrow pointing to the solid line between empathy and prosociality. What is surprising about the finding is the impact of empathy on prosociality, which is stronger when the attachment level is lower. This goes against the common perception that the better the relationship between the parents and a child, the better the child behaves in society. However, this does not necessarily mean that children are more prosocial when they have a bad relationship with their parents, but that the impact of empathy is noticeably stronger under an undesirable context. “This research will provide supporting evidence that prosocial behavior and empathy is at least partially due to the environment, as infants are a good subject to see the effects of nature and nurture. They do not have any other contaminating factors that the researchers have to take into account,” said Kim. "Don't be afraid to take the path that nobody else chooses. With the know-hows acquired from the deserted place, you will be able to succeed in the well known fields too," encouraged Kim. Kim, unlike most social science researchers, is highly interested in what induces positive aspects from people such as happiness, morality, and identity. “Social science and social psychology to be specific, are great tools in explaining to me and the people around me. What we feel, acknowledge, and learn is what makes this area so fascinating for me,” smiled Kim. He plans to continue his research further on the three key words both in Korea and in the United States. Kim So-yun Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-02 12

[General]Hanyang Trail-Doolehgil Recreated on Our Hands

Hanyang University is known to have many hills, making the two-dimensional map less useful. It is not hard to encounter a visitor or a freshman on campus asking for directions year-round. The Industry-University Cooperation Foundation and the Wooyang Cooperation joined forces to develop Smart Doolehgil last April, which had its opening ceremony on December 12th. On Friday, January 9th, the team joined the 2018 College Lab Technology Start-up Demo Day in the Coex for the demonstration. News H joined the event to further explore the Smart Doolehgil. The Smart Doolehgil application is running on a tablet. The application can be downloaded from the Google Playstore. Visitors, freshman, and the visually impaired Doolehgil is a Korean word that refers to a walking road that goes around something. The Hanyang Doolehgil, therefore, refers to Hanyang’s eight scenic points and the roads that connect them. A 2.6km-long trail that passes through the campus covers major historical monuments and buildings of Hanyang. The trail provides a restful environment for people and an opportunity to see the whole Sungdong-gu at a glance. Unfortunately, there are some people that cannot join the majority due to their visual impairment. Smart Doolehgil provides guidance to those who are not familiar with the campus but mainly for the visually impaired. “We are always interested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and have the technology to provide better guidance,” said Kim Jin-hong (Chemistry, '85), the CEO of Wooyang Cooperation. Smart Doolehgil was created with Wooyang Corporation’s technology in making beacon devices combined with the Hanyang Industry-University Cooperation Foundation’s data processing technology. A beacon is an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location. More than 350 beacon sensors planted on campus are now working as the new guide dog. Kim Jin-hong (Chemistry, '85), the CEO of Wooyang Cooperation, is enthusiastically explaining the background story of the Smart Doolehgil system. For better mobility With the smartphone application and a shoe sole, the visually impaired or individuals with very poor vision can locate buildings, ATMs, and bathrooms. A pair of location devices is embedded in the specially designed shoe sole, and vibrates in the direction where the person has to move to. For instance, if a walker needs to turn right at a corner, the sole in their right shoe vibrates. The device also lets the user know whenever he or she is facing a staircase, a hazardous place, or has arrived to their destination. The smartphone application is used together with the device to provide verbal instruction. Both Kim and Jang Gi-sool (Manager, Industry-University Cooperation Foundation) mentioned that Kim Hee-jin (Management, 4th year) helped a lot, especially in giving insight from the perspective of the visually impaired, from what they need the most in order to enhance their mobility. She also contributed in choosing the location of the device to be inserted in the shoes, where it was least apparent from the outside. Other options, such as the wrists or neck, would have discouraged the handicapped from using the system. The shoe sole vibrates to alert the user about the direction or any hazards. The product has not yet been placed on the consumer market as it is still under development. The Smart Doolehgil, however, is accessable only via the smartphone application. “We still need more progress. The most important thing is the preciseness, as many blind people cannot find the entrance of the building even if they succeed in finding the building itself. The more accurate it is, the better,” mentioned Kim. The Smart Doolehgil’s opening ceremony was in December, but the system is constantly developing based on user experience. Both the Wooyang Cooperation and HYU plan to exhibit the technology to the mass market during the upcoming entrance ceremony in March when the need for an accurate map and guidance system within the campus is at its highest. Kim’s ultimate goal is to grow his company as a social enterprise. With the success of the technology within Hanyang University, the Wooyang Cooperation will expand the system to roads and buildings outside the campus, yielding even better mobility for the visually impaired. Kim So-yun Photos by Choi Jin-myung

2018-01 03

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Calculating the Effects of the English Rule and American Rule

Have you ever lost a lawsuit? There are two ways to resolve the financial issues concerning legal costs after the resolution. The first method is called the English Rule, where the loser of a lawsuit pays the winner’s legal fees. The other one is the American Rule, where each party handles their own legal cost. Since the 1990s, there has been a general consensus among economists that the former improves the quality of a lawsuit and reduces trial costs. Yoon Jung-mo (Professor, Department of Economics & Finance) was the one to propose the question, ‘is it really?’ in his recent article, ‘Estimating the Effects of the English Rule on Litigation Outcomes.’ When asked if he has anything to tell his pupils, Yoon said, "you are all doing excellent, so I wish you can stop worrying," with a warm smile on his face. Every government aims to reduce the number of lawsuits, especially Korea and the United States. The increased number of court cases lead to increased government and societal spending on legal institutions and its personnel. The key to amend such issues is to reduce the real number of law suits to alleviate the burden of the court and increase the case quality, which is determined by the chance of a plaintiff winning the case and the amount of the settlement. Therefore, according to the long research in the economics field that concluded the English Rule, a lot of people argue for the rule. Currently, Korea is running based on the American Rule, but the law limits the amount of money that can be covered by the loser of the case. The prevalent textbook conclusion is mostly derived from the comparison of the Florida case, where they switched from the American Rule to the English Rule in 1980 and then flipped back in 1985. Because measuring the economic impact of a legal system can sometimes look like comparing apples to oranges, the case of Florida provided the perfect background for legal economists to analyze the impact. Yoon mentioned that there are two main significances that the paper proposes. First is that there are more proofs accumulated after the 1990s when the consensus was initially made. The initial paper studies the cases before 1980 and cases between 1980 to 1985. However, it neglected the cases after the second change of the rule, which could have critical impact to the interpretation. Also, Yoon and his co-author implemented a new way of making a conclusion. Traditionally, the economic impact is measured and reported as a fixed number. However, this cannot entail all the complex probabilities behind the result. Using the bound analysis method, researchers can predict the best and worse case scenarios and give a range of possible influences. The second significance is that Yoon and his co-author took the cases that were settled during the process into account. As only a few litigations continue to the very end of the judicial process, it is very important to consider the changed behavior of people according to the increased or decreased amount of pressure resulting from the verdict. Yoon is enthusiastically giving an explanation about his paper. Yoon’s scrutinized analysis, however, contradicts what has been believed for a long time. When it comes to the trial outcomes, the range derived from the bound analysis does not signify any relevance between the change of legal system and the trial cost. It does increase the amount of settlement, while decreasing the number of settled cases. “The hardest part of continuing such rigorous research was to overcome the constant skepticism,” said Yoon. According to him, it takes a long time for a researcher to complete a paper and for the paper to be accepted in a journal or presented in a conference. Believing in himself and moving forward regardless of the incredulity, Yoon will continue further to conduct research. Kim So-yun Photos by Kang Cho-hyun