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For centuries, cancer has been mankind’s mulish enemy that has taken away countless lives. Scientists and researchers are unceasingly putting effort into developing a cure for cancer, including Choi Je-min (Department of Life Science) who recently paved another road to effectively treating cancer in his paper “Regulation of chitinase-3-like-1 in T cell elicits Th1 and cytotoxic responses to inhibit lung metastasis.” First, starting his research from a small curiosity for a certain component in our cell called chitinase, Choi unveiled the secret related to the immune system for cancer and accomplished the first step of creating a drug for the disease. "My research began from the question 'why?'" Chitin may sound familiar due to its presence in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crabs, lobsters, and shrimps and some insects and molluscs. A derivative of the word is chitinase, which is a component that reshapes or dissolves and digests chitin for animals. Such a component also exists in the human body, which has no specific function of its own. Knowing this fact, Choi was eager to find out why it still exists in our body and what it does. Without a function, the component lost its name and has come to be called ‘chitinase-3-like-1.’ “If it is completely useless, why do we have it? When such a question arises, we biologists experiment in one of two ways: remove it or increase its amount. In this case, I decided to remove it to see what happens in the testing mouse. Since chitinase is used to protect the body in plants, I guessed that it would have something to do with our immune system.” After removing the component from the mouse, Choi’s discovery was surprising. The type of cell called T cell which plays a key role in cell-mediated immunity, specifically Th1 and CTL, were greatly activated. In other words, chitinase-3-like-1 were acting as the deactivator of the T cells, which play a central role in battling cancer. Choi had two model mice in his experiment, one with the component and the other without it. He inserted cancer cells in both mice and compared the outcome. Expectedly, the mouse without the component showed much lower development of cancer while the other showed the opposite. This means by removing chitinase-3-like-1, which allows the T cells to be activated, immunity for cancer considerably increases. “The experiment let me figure out that if chitinase-3-like-1 are removed from our body, it could work as an excellent anticancer treatment.” Quenchingly, his question was answered by the result of his experiment. Choi and his students are conducting their research on chitinase-3-like-1. Based on his finding, Choi took another step to develop an anticancer drug. Since it is impossible to remove DNA from the human body, there had to be another way to remove the component from our body. Therefore, he went ahead and worked to create a drug that restrains the chitinase-3-like-1-creating DNA from producing more of the component. With a technique called RNA-interference which removes the undesired or mutated RNA in the body, Choi targeted the chitinase-3-like-1 RNA after converting it to RNA from DNA and attempted to remove the undesired component to increase cancer immunity. Using a technique called peptide-based drug delivery, Choi attached the RNA version of the component with peptide bonds in the drug and aimed to spread the medicament throughout the body. This resulted in deactivation of the chitinase-3-like-1-creating DNA and thus an escalation of cancer immunity. “Although it could take about a decade before this drug becomes commercialized and widely used, it could be a breakthrough once it does. The underlying prinicple of my research is always to produce a useful outcome that could actually be put into use and not just end in the lab. I could say that our establishment philosophy ‘Love in deed’ fits well with my goal,” smiled Choi. He emphasized that it is always important to sometimes question the basic things, even the things that are already proven to be a fact. Through his research and experiments, Choi wants to discover more unknown facts. Choi will continue his research to experiment with cells and create more drugs to be used practically. "'Love in deed' in the laboratory!" Jeon Chae-yun firstname.lastname@example.org Photos by Choi Min-ju
Clothes that create electricity is not something in a movie anymore. In the midst of searching for various renewable energy, Professor Hong Jin-pyo (Department of Physics) created a new energy source that is created through friction in a single thread, as demonstrated in his research, ‘Hierarchically Nanostructured 1D Conductive Bundle Yarn-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerators.’ Hong conducted his research on energy-producing threads. When designing a wearable device, people generally think of light and slim devices attached on one’s clothes or body, usually charged by a solar heat system. This is referred as a two-dimension technology, as an object is placed upon another object. This does have its own benefits but also contains deficits such as weight and energy sources. Therefore, Hong created a one-dimension energy source – a thread that is used when weaving clothes. “Once a material is attached to clothing, the efficiency lacks uniformity,” explained Hong. He invented a thread that can produce energy itself, without having to attach anything onto a particular piece of clothing. The threads that make up the clothing could create energy itself. This thread, also named as a ‘triboelectric nanogenerator’, is a structure made from the notion of friction that we experience in our daily lives. For example, when we rub a balloon to our hair, friction occurs, resulting in a form of spiky hair. This phenomenon occurs when an electron is moved from one object to another, when these two objects continuously collide with each other. Depending on the characteristics of an object, one object would lose electrons and the other would gain electrons, meaning some sort of slight energy is formed. In this thread, polymer and aluminum are used; the former collects the electrons and the latter releases the electrons. Therefore, once the body wearing the clothing weaved from this thread moves, energy is created. The microscophic strucuture of a thread. (Photo courtesy of Hong) This triboelectric nanogenerator is still in the midst of its research. As this thread is extremely thin, Hong’s research team created a conductive bundle yarn so that they could have more strength. Moreover, he attached polymer-like nanostructures onto a single thread, so that the thread could have an increased surface area of energy production. Once energy is created through a larger surface area, bigger energy could be created within a single thread. This whole process is also known as a tribo electric effect. This one-dimension thread has a bright future in front of them, as technology closer to human are fondly being conducted on. “Once a sensor could be attached onto the thread, even more tasks could be done. This sensor could send whatever information they require to the owner’s smartphone, once the sensor adapts a Bluetooth function,” commented Hong, when asked about the future of this invention. He wished that this function would be able to let citizens to have control of their IoT (Internet of Things, a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, object, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers) through their energy producing clothes. "Keep trying! No matter what!" As Hong has not majored in clothing and textiles, he is not yet an expert of clothing, but has not been afraid of pioneering this area. “I had been proceeding my research in semiconductors at first. As new technologies evolved, I believed it was important to keep up with these changes to improve what I have been initially doing,” reminisced Hong. As he had achieved an unexpected success through his passion, he also gave the same advice to all Hanyangians. “Don’t make excuses. What really matters is whether you tried your best or not. I wish all of you can improve yourself through endless challenges!” On Jung-yun email@example.com Photos by Choi Min-ju and Lee Jin-myung
In the society where social networking is becoming more and more inseparable from people, an ever-increasing number of users are getting involved. As a consequence, the ocean of big data in corresponding area is expanding its capacity, and there has been a need to efficiently analyze and organize the data. In his Big Data Science Laboratory, Kim Sang-wook (Department of Computer Science) has been continuously researching the topic. In his recent paper “High-performance graph data processing on a single machine,” Kim has proposed a method to increase the performance of data processing and to efficiently arrange the mass of data. A graph or a network is a complex arrangement of nods and edges, which are the components of an online world such as its users and webpages and the relationships they have, respectively. In a social network, for example, each user will be labeled as a nod and the relationships that users have with other users or webpages will be marked as edges. “Where could this graph be used? Numerous types of data could be modeled in the form of this graph. For example, Facebook users and their friends, bloggers and their neighbors, and the recommender system of search engines such as Youtube, Amazon and more are all related to the graph of nods and edges.” Depending on who views what how many times or which page receives the most views, weights could be added onto the edge between the user and the page, zooming out of which will form a complex web of a graph. Big data is usually calculated in a matrix, the process which is made more efficient by Kim. (Photo courtesy of Kim) How Kim made the graph data processing more efficient is by creating three constructive approaches. First, he made matrix multiplication of data simpler and easier by balancing the load over each thread blocks of the matrix. When there is a poor balancing of load input in each row of the matrix, the multiplication process could take a long time and the performance might not be excellent. With the balanced threads of the matrix, however, even distribution of workloads would resolve this problem and it would be much less time-consuming compared to the previous method. Second, Kim created a graph engine, which is a storing software that handles data in a productive manner. In order to analyze a graph, the data must be saved in a disc first. In doing so, the tool that helps the disc to save the data more efficiently is the graph engine, which Kim proposed in his paper. “The strength of our laboratory is that we research on two aspects of data. By researching the performance-wise aspect of the data and also the analytical aspect, we leave no chance of missing a single detail of matter.” Thirdly, Kim introduced a placement algorithm that could simplify the arrangement of nods in a graph engine. Previously, when a graph undergoes a process of analysis in a graph engine, the data was put in the exact same order as it entered. Clusters of irrelevant nods could cause a delay in the data processing, which Kim solved by discovering that by sorting the nods of similar traits together, the overall performance of graph processing could show a big difference. With the same data, different outcomes could be derived by finding out the advantageous groupings of nods. With his current research of graph engine and graph modeling, he could use them as stepping stones to move onto his next research. Kim’s future research is directed toward community detection and recommender systems. With the modeled graph of data, analysis of the data could easily be made and the members of a social community with similar interests could conveniently be detected. On a similar note, a recommender system could be improved by analyzing what a user likes, clicks, views, buys, or prefers with the graph: a more accurate recommender system could be developed. With the building blocks he has worked on, Kim will be building on more as he carries on his future research. "Characteristics of the data could be figured out by analyzing the graphs." Jeon Chae-yun firstname.lastname@example.org Photos by Kang Cho-hyun
Have you ever lost a lawsuit? There are two ways to resolve the financial issues concerning legal costs after the resolution. The first method is called the English Rule, where the loser of a lawsuit pays the winner’s legal fees. The other one is the American Rule, where each party handles their own legal cost. Since the 1990s, there has been a general consensus among economists that the former improves the quality of a lawsuit and reduces trial costs. Yoon Jung-mo (Professor, Department of Economics & Finance) was the one to propose the question, ‘is it really?’ in his recent article, ‘Estimating the Effects of the English Rule on Litigation Outcomes.’ When asked if he has anything to tell his pupils, Yoon said, "you are all doing excellent, so I wish you can stop worrying," with a warm smile on his face. Every government aims to reduce the number of lawsuits, especially Korea and the United States. The increased number of court cases lead to increased government and societal spending on legal institutions and its personnel. The key to amend such issues is to reduce the real number of law suits to alleviate the burden of the court and increase the case quality, which is determined by the chance of a plaintiff winning the case and the amount of the settlement. Therefore, according to the long research in the economics field that concluded the English Rule, a lot of people argue for the rule. Currently, Korea is running based on the American Rule, but the law limits the amount of money that can be covered by the loser of the case. The prevalent textbook conclusion is mostly derived from the comparison of the Florida case, where they switched from the American Rule to the English Rule in 1980 and then flipped back in 1985. Because measuring the economic impact of a legal system can sometimes look like comparing apples to oranges, the case of Florida provided the perfect background for legal economists to analyze the impact. Yoon mentioned that there are two main significances that the paper proposes. First is that there are more proofs accumulated after the 1990s when the consensus was initially made. The initial paper studies the cases before 1980 and cases between 1980 to 1985. However, it neglected the cases after the second change of the rule, which could have critical impact to the interpretation. Also, Yoon and his co-author implemented a new way of making a conclusion. Traditionally, the economic impact is measured and reported as a fixed number. However, this cannot entail all the complex probabilities behind the result. Using the bound analysis method, researchers can predict the best and worse case scenarios and give a range of possible influences. The second significance is that Yoon and his co-author took the cases that were settled during the process into account. As only a few litigations continue to the very end of the judicial process, it is very important to consider the changed behavior of people according to the increased or decreased amount of pressure resulting from the verdict. Yoon is enthusiastically giving an explanation about his paper. Yoon’s scrutinized analysis, however, contradicts what has been believed for a long time. When it comes to the trial outcomes, the range derived from the bound analysis does not signify any relevance between the change of legal system and the trial cost. It does increase the amount of settlement, while decreasing the number of settled cases. “The hardest part of continuing such rigorous research was to overcome the constant skepticism,” said Yoon. According to him, it takes a long time for a researcher to complete a paper and for the paper to be accepted in a journal or presented in a conference. Believing in himself and moving forward regardless of the incredulity, Yoon will continue further to conduct research. Kim So-yun email@example.com Photos by Kang Cho-hyun
Regardless of gender, age, and nationality, obesity is a health problem that is affecting an increasing number of people. While most people think obesity merely has to do with dietary habit, it shows close relations with metabolic diseases and cancer. In other words, obesity is not just caused by the consumption of large calories, but there are other possible factors to it. Kim Yong-hee (Department of Bio-Engineering), whose interest lies in obesity and the ways to prevent and cure it, discovered an innovative way to counteract obesity in his paper “Visceral adipose tissue macrophage-targeted TACE silencing to treat obesity-induced type 2 diabetes,” which was coauthored by two of the graduate school students of the department: Song Yoon-sung (2nd year) and Yong Seok-beom (3rd year). Kim explained that by targeting the inflammation caused by the excess fats, obesity can be treated. The existing method used to treat obesity was to suppress appetite by touching the nerve system, for it was mainly believed that the root cause of obesity was excessive-consumption. However, Kim discovered in his laboratory that obesity has to do with inflammation within fat-storing tissues, which are called adipose tissues. Inside a patient’s body, the excess fat that cannot be stored in the adipose tissue spreads to its surroundings, which then causes inflammation when in contact with other types of cells. A type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests foreign cellular debris called macrophage are largely responsible for obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. A breakthrough in Kim’s research is that obesity can be treated by preventing the accumulation of fat within the body, by controlling the inflammation through gene delivery, not by suppressing appetite. In such a scenario, the gene delivery system Kim and his students have invented in the laboratory refers to the targeted gene delivery system that is capable of selectively targeting the visceral (relating to the intestines) adipose tissue macrophages, which are the major cause of inflammation because they produce a type of protein called cytokine. The excess fats that cannot be stored in the adipose tissue spread to their surroundings, and when they come in contact with cytokines, that is when the inflammation springs. By targeting the inflammation, which is the root cause of obesity, the treatment for obesity is made possible. There have been several clinical studies that have highlighted the significance of inflammation regarding obesity, but few therapeutic approaches have been suggested. Through his research, Kim and his students have proposed a therapeutic strategy of targeted gene delivery that could safely treat the disease without any side effects. This strategy is also favorable in treating type 2 diabetes, which primarily occurs as a result of obesity. It is preventable by staying at a normal weight through regular exercise or dietary changes. This could also be the way to prevent obesity as well, which, in other words, means that the cause of the two diseases have the same outset, which is the inflammation within the tissues due to being overweight. Therefore, Kim’s proposal of therapeutic approach for obesity can also treat type 2 diabetes. Targeted gene delivery strategy could kill two birds with one stone. Building on his current studies, Kim’s future research aims to create more formulas for drugs that could treat obesity. “Liposuction is an extremely dangerous surgery because it sucks the good fats as well. Obesity is surely preventable or even cured for those who are not severely obese. However, those who are super-obese, their genes could transform into obese genes and this can affect their children. So, the targeted gene delivery approach can optimally be used in the future.” Kim specifically chose the topic of inflammation of obesity because he wanted to find a narrow gate and open it wide. Since not many solutions for obesity inflammation have been discovered, he wanted to delve into the studies of this topic and create a cure for the countless people waiting for treatment. Kim always aspires to study and research on topics that is subject to a breakthrough outcome. "I am interested in finding cures for diseases that do not have many treatments." Jeon Chae-yun firstname.lastname@example.org Photos by Kabg Cho-hyun
Augmented Reality, self-driving cars, and facial recognition are no longer a technology of future. Such advanced technologies are deep in our daily lives. In order for machines to properly function as they are meant to, they need something called ‘machine vision’. Machine vision (MV) is the technology and method used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry. And the field that encompasses the subject is Computer Vision, which Lim majors. For December’s Researcher of the Month, News H interviewed Lim Jong-woo (Professor, Department of Computer Science) who recently won a major government project to acquire the source technology for such field. Lim is enthusiastically explaining how the technology can be applied in real lives. For example, with the structure modeling, calculating the altitude of a person's eye level (when wearing an AR/VR glasses) would be possble. The final goal of this four-year project is to develop a high-level video situation recognition technology based on structural modeling and geometrical analysis of images acquired in extremely congested situations such as the real environment. Structural modeling of a video means to draw lines and actually structure the surrounding environment within the video, either in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional form. Up to current technology, a system can process a single object in the video or occasionally multiple objects. However, it is not yet developed for computers to recognize and analyze a ‘congested’ video with dozens of moving objects, which is often the case in real life footage. “If developed further enough, a computer would be able to track irregular paths taken by a suspect from CCTV video and alert us,” mentioned Lim. (Left) Estimation of the structure of a space through existing technology (Right) Provisioned result of structure estimation (Photo courtesy of Lim) One of the ultimate goals of the project is to also integrate multi-object detection and tracking with the environment. “There are a lot of people trying to integrate detection and tracking technology,” said Lim. Because it is highly improbable for researchers to set a model human face for the computer to detect all human faces, integrating such technology with tracking a moving person is even more intricate and difficult. Nevertheless, if it does become reality, computers will be able to read the context of a specific video. For instance, because they can recognize each person, it would be able to write a storyline and understand relationships between characters in a show or a movie. As mentioned in the earlier part of the article, computer vision is a crucial part of augmented reality and autonomous cars. In the case of AR, the computer must be able to structure its environment to decide where to put the virtual object. Also, by such mapping, the machine can change its perspective in accordance with the user’s change of perspective. Furthermore, autonomous cars require even higher accuracy of computer vision in order to detect obstacles and prevent unwanted accidents. Unlike the facial detection of a camera app on our cellphone which is not really a matter of life and death, technology related to transportation has higher standards for that reason. "I aim to research for use, rather than a reasearch for research." Another surprising aspect of this research project plan is that the team will upload their findings on the web, free of charge as an open-source. When asked why not commercialize it, Lim answered “It is mutually beneficial for us to have the crowd test our algorithm and give feedback to us, as we cannot test it in every environment. Also, it is a trend to release algorithms open-source, because most of them fall short to be commercialized yet.” The research has begun this August and will be continued until the end of 2020. News H is looking forward to observing Lim’s progress and the social impact his team will bring. Kim So-yun email@example.com Photos by Choi Min-ju
As of last year, there were more than 1.71 million foreign residents in Korea, which is 3.4% of the total population. The number of marriage migrants, also known as multicultural marriages, is also a large part of the total population at around 150,000. Professor Kim Doo-seop (Department of Sociology) has built a foundation for migrant research since establishing the ‘CSMR Multiculture Institute’ in 2011. This year, Hanyang University SSK Multicultural Research Project was selected as a project to enter the large-scale stage. ▲On the 6th, News H met Professor Kim Doo-seop (Department of Sociology) and discussed the contents of the SSK multiculture research project and the selected items to enter the large-scale stage. An ongoing process of building data on foreign migrants Unlike conventional wisdom, Korea is becoming a country where various cultures coexist. As mentioned above, nearly 4% of the total population are foreign residents or marriage migrants. Socio-scientific research on this phenomenon is crucial but various data such as related literatures should be preceded. Since 2011, Professor Kim's research team has built a foundation for migrant research through archives and database construction. In addition, he published four academic books on marriage immigrants and migrant workers, ten books on foreigners' statistics, and 54 papers in domestic and international journals. He has also internationally carried out other academic activities such as academic conferences, joint seminars, a colloquium, and academic presentations. Recently, as a result of the examination by the Korea Research Foundation, the SSK multicultural research project of Hanyang University was recognized as a significant research project with its importance and timeliness and selected as a large-scale research progect. This selection has been applied since last September and will receive research funds of 580 million won per year over the next four years. The name was also changed from 'CSMR Multicultural Institute' to 'CSMR Multiculture Management Center'. Professor Kim 's research team will expand the research project. A leap forward as a hub for immigrant and multicultural research First, the archive for migrants and DB construction, which have been done in the past, will continue to be supplemented. By August 31, the research team has collected about 1,300 related papers in the CSMR archive and will be adding future papers and constantly supplementing the search menu. The research subjects have also been expanded to set targets for collecting data on ethnic minorities abroad. Until now, archives and databases have been organized mainly on problems related to domestic issues such as multicultural families, marriage migrants, migrant workers, multicultural children, foreign students, etc. By expanding the study's target groups and diversifying the construction data, the center pursues stepping up to a global DB center for multiculture. In addition, the center plans to expand exchanges with scholars and research institutes in Korea and abroad and also exert their active efforts to nurture students by linking with the in-school research institute and graduate school curriculum. In line with the name of the Multiculture Management Center, they will ultimately make a leap into the hub of multicultural research and immigrants who have formed networks with major research institutes and scholars in the world. ▲ Professor Kim Doo-seop said, "We will contribute to policy alternatives and social consensus through future research." Professor Kim said, "The center provides a center for research on migrants through document archives and DB construction" and added, “It is meaningful to promote research through various interdisciplinary approaches and to form an international network of migrants and multicultural researchers. " Furthermore, he stated that the ultimate goal of the study is to contribute to the accumulation of demographic knowledge on migration and multiculturalism that Korean society faces and to provide policy alternatives and social consensus through ongoing activities of the Multiculture Management Center.
Chronic diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, dementia, and degenerative arthitis, cannot be cured and should be managed for life. To treat this, stem cells are being studied in medicine. Professor Lee Sang-hoon (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine) has been conducting research on embryonic stem cell research for treatment of chronic diseases at the Medical Research Center (MRC) of Hanyang University since 2008. He will carry out further research until 2024. ▲ On November 6th, News H visited Prof. Lee Sang-hoon (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine) and talked about stem cell and tissue regeneration research. (Source: Professor Lee Sang-hoon) Increased understanding of stem cells The relationship between chronic diseases and stem cell research is inevitable. First, in order for the disease to be treated, it is necessary to restore the cells that have been damaged by the disease. The reason why chronic diseases are not treated is because the damaged tissue is an organ that can not be recovered by the human body itself. Neurons and brain cells are destroyed, or genetic problems do not occur due to specific hormones, making a cure impossible. But there is a possibility. If the patient's stem cells can be cloned and cultured well, the cells can theoretically be differentiated into desired cells. Professor Lee has studied the theoretical techniques in detail. In 2008, Hanyang University MRC (Medical Research Council) conducted a research on the basic mechanism of stem cells under the name 'Stem Cell Control Research Center'. In detail, stem cells are cultured, and the number of stem cells is differentiated into tissue cells. Professor Lee conducted a 'stem cell behavior control study' that controlled this behavior. Since the study of stem cells at the time was at the beginning stage, he has been working on the mechanism of how a series of processes take place. Based on the research, he will carry out this research project. First of all, this research project will continue the basic mechanism research. In addition to the existing understanding, he will improve the understanding of stem cells, the understanding of the differentiation process, and the plan to apply it to other fields such as stem cells. ▲ Professor Lee's team will continue to study for higher stem cell understanding. (Source: Professor Lee Sang-hoon) Clinical application, industrialization and internationalization Through this project, his research team will receive a total of 7 billion research grants for seven years, one billion annually. As a new name, Hanyang University MRC 'Tissue Regeneration Promotion Research Center's goal is to develop cell transplantation and gene therapy technologies for Parkinson's disease, mass-production of stem cells with excellent therapeutic effects, and research on the development of affected parts using astrocytes. Parkinson's disease causes the destruction of dopamine-producing substantia nigra, which is intended for clinical application of cell transplantation or gene therapy. Mass production of stem cells can be used for clinical treatment, so mass production and industrialization are also important targets. Finally, research using stellate cells is also an important goal. When diseases such as dementia or Parkinson's disease are destroyed, not only the destroyed cells but also the surrounding environment becomes bad. Some of the environment is astrocytes. By transplanting stellate cells made by differentiating stem cells, it can improve the surrounding environment of the brain and help regenerate brain tissue. In this way, internationalization of research results through clinical application and industrialization process is being prepared. In addition to the domestic medical industry, it is also possible to enter the overseas markets in cooperation with Indonesian companies. In addition, research on the basic mechanism will be carried out continuously, so that degenerative diseases, which were chronic diseases in the future, will be gradually transferred to the treatment side.
Today, we live in the world where everything is becoming mechanized, meaning the field of electronics and mechanics are infinitely evolving. Conspicuous or not, there are small and big changes around us that make our lives more convenient and more efficient in various ways. Professor Hong Jung-pyo (Department of Automotive Engineering), in his paper, “Simple size determination of permanent-magnet synchronous machines” has established a milestone in the field of both electronics and mechanics, by proposing a means of simplifying the process of designing and developing machines. Hong’s research can determine the direction of the process of motor’s development. When designing and producing an instrument, engineers go through trials of experiments, trying to pick the best formula by observing the results of each experiment. Such a process demands laborious amounts of time and cost, which under certain circumstances can be unaffordable. A perfect, well-constructed device or motor has been made through stages of trial-and-error so far, being tested on their performance in each stage. However, with Hong’s proposal of simulation experiment, this entire step could be greatly reduced, simply by executing the experiment with the simulator. When working on a motor, it is important to harmoniously combine the techniques of both the electrician and the engineer. However, what is more important is, the two fields should not be seen separately. The two perspectives commingled as one will bring the best result, whereas if they are regarded separately, failures can arise, and it would be difficult to figure out where the problem originated from. The simulator Hong proposed in his paper acts not only as a catalyst in making the process of developing machines faster, simpler, and easier by exempting the trial-and-error step but also allows to preview an outcome of integrated viewpoint. “For a better understanding, imagine this picture. There is a device I’m trying to make, and I want to equip this circle-shaped part. After doing so, I still think I can improve the final product somehow, so I will try dismantling the part I just added and equip this oval-shaped part. When doing so, I have to carefully remove the circle-shaped part and re-equip the oval-shaped one and then compare the two results to see what the best combination is.” This process of trial-and-error and comparison, which is time-consuming, is what Hong wanted to resolve with his research. With the simulator, engineers can simply enter the input and compare the different outcomes and go for what is the best much more conveniently. Everything that moves, including cars, elevators, and airplanes, are all powered by electric motors. In the future, the range of usages will increase infinitely which means there will be experiments after experiments for the development of motor-based objects. In each case, Hong’s research can greatly reduce the development process and offer the direction of choices for better outcomes. His future research goal is to create a unified solution of electronics and mechanics, which will boost the usability of the machine itself. Hong’s research will be a constructive contribution to engineers. Jeon Chae-yun firstname.lastname@example.org Photos by Park Young-min, Kim Youn-soo
'Lack of energy’ is an issue the whole world is focusing on. Various countries are searching for effective renewable energy and new materials that could replace the current energy sources. Professor Kim Seon-jeong (Department of Biomedical Engineering) discovered a new material every researcher was looking for. Kim's paper, “Harvesting electrical energy from carbon nanotube yarn twist” introduces the world’s first new material, which can produce energy through slight movements. Kim explains the concept of his new material Professor Kim’s research team started its first project in 2006 on artificial muscle. However, after his research, Kim realized its limitations as they were only able to move through an external energy source. Therefore, he thought of a new idea that the muscle would be more effective when it is able to produce energy by itself. Carbon nanotube is a new material which is a type of conductor and has a diameter of only a few nanometers. This material was made as a thread in the artificial muscle. However, when these threads were finely twisted into one direction, they were able to produce energy by itself through its contraction and relaxation without an applied voltage. Being made into a spring, their length can be changed as much as 30 percent on average. This new material, named as ‘twistron harvester yarn’, allowed a chance for the muscle to move by itself without a separate power source. This twistron harvester yarn looks and acts as if it were an ordinary thread. This states that making clothes out of this material is possible. Once this comes into realization, this would give a boost in making wearable devices, as producing electricity without an energy source is possible. Moreover, this thread is possible to use inside water, giving another possibility of an effective alternative energy. This has already been tested in the East Sea of Korea. Kim’s research team made a model consisting of a glass bottle connected with an electrode, the thread, a balloon, and an equipment that could measure electricity. As the twistron harvester yarn contracted and relaxed, electrical energy was verified from the ocean. Kim showed great passion in the research he was conducting. This research on the twistron harvester yarn was his fourth research. He has been working on artificial muscles for the past nine years before he started this research. “I didn’t start this research solely to find the twistron harvester yarn. I felt the limitations within the research I conducted earlier and was seeking for development,” reminisced Kim. He explained that he wasn’t the only person who conducted the research. Eight teams from three different countries worked on this new material for two years to deduct a better result. “We had a meeting through Skype every week, along with frequent visits to each team. Everyone had great passion and interest towards this research, and I believe that shows the firmness of this research,” said Kim. "Reach towards your own interest!" Kim also emphasized the attitudes Hanyangians should have towards their life. Even though he mainly teaches graduate school students, he wished all students could find what they truly wish to do. “Find something unique of your own. Find something you enjoy, and then you will be able to continue on with whatever you are doing. There are countless routes for all students. I wish students would keep challenging themselves to make the greatest results of their own,” wished Kim. Just as his words, Kim will continue with his work with great passion, for even better convenience for global citizens. On Jung-yun email@example.com Photos by Kim Youn-soo
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