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2016-10 19

[Special]Improper Solicitation and Graft Act

According to data from the Korean Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission (ACRC) in 2014, about 63 percent of Korean people believe that the Korean society is corrupt. As a member country of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), having the obligation to meet specific global standards in the political and economic sectors, South Korea has taken a brave step towards reducing corruption within public governmental institutions and in private and public schools. The following article will guide you through the newly implemented Improper Solicitation and Graft Act, also commonly referred to as the Kim Young-ran Act, and its effect on Hanyang University. Kim Young-ran Act In Korea, coping with corruption within public institutions was difficult with the preexisting laws, such as the Criminal Act and the Public Service Ethics Act. To enact a comprehensive law to prohibit improper solicitations and the reception of graft, the bill for the Improper Solicitation and Graft Act was first proposed in August 2012 by Kim Young-ran, the then-head of ACRC. Recently, on September 28, 2016, the law officially entered into force, establishing specific rules regarding solicitations and grafts. Kim Young-ran (Photo courtesy of Huffington Post) The scope of the application of this Act includes: all public institutions, private and public schools of various levels, media corporations, public officials, spouses of public officials, and the general public involved in improper solicitations. The general concept of improper solicitation is that no one should solicit, either directly or through a third party, a public official or any relevant person mentioned above. Briefly, there are 14 types of improper solicitation in total, one being “intervening or exerting influence in the appointment, promotion, job transfer or any other personnel management of public officials…” (Article 5 of Improper Solicitation and Graft Act). Besides, there are strict guidelines in prohibiting the acceptance of financial or other advantages. According to Article 8 of the Act, the subjects can be punished if one receives any form of graft which the amount exceeds one million won at a time, or three million won in a year from the same person. In addition to this, public officials are limited to the 3-5-10 rule, which sets a maximum limit on expenditure for food, gifts, and event fees respectively, by 30 thousand, 50 thousand, and 100 thousand won. Furthermore, disciplinary actions and penalties for those who violate the Act range from fines up to 30 million won to imprisonment for no more than two years based on the committed violations regarding improper solicitations and graft. Law-Abiding Citizens As expected, the Act can be applied to the school president, professors, office workers, and students of Hanyang University who are categorized as employees and members of a private educational institution. Out of the 14 types of improper solicitation that should not be violated, there are points that school members may need to take into account as a precautionary measure. It includes: trading in influence so that admission, grades, performance tests related to schools are manipulated in violation of the Act, exerting influence in the appointment of personnel into the school, trading in influence so that certain personnel wins an award or prize for outstanding performance, and much more. However, the Act is criticized for its vagueness because there are differing interpretations according to various situations. Therefore, it is important to make sure no invalid suspicions are raised regarding relationships among students, staff, and professors. Some specific examples regarding how the Improper Solicitation and Graft Act can affect the school environment are worth going over. For instance, a professor who accepts a student’s request of credits for an absence is a violation of the Act for improper solicitation, and the professor will either be fined or imprisoned up to two years. Likewise, if a student presents a cake to a professor that is worth 15,000 won, both the student and the professor will be breaking the Act if the event leads to some sort of academic advantage for the student. Lastly, part-time professors will also be subject to the Act, starting from the beginning of 2018 which is when the revision of the Act enters into force. Many are concerned about the Act possibly breaking some close relations among students, staff, and professors. Questions are also raised concerning the monitoring of all personal affairs in order to prevent improper solicitation and grafts. These issues must be resolved to avoid corruption from rooting deeply within the school. Yet, the success of the Act lies on the fact that the government is working towards creating a transparent society. Hopefully, Hanyang University will set an example by abiding by the law in all circumstances. The Improper Solicitation and Graft Act will reduce corruption within the society. (Photo courtesy of News Chosun) Park Min-young minyoungpark118@gmail.com

2016-10 10 Important News

[Special]Development of the Korean Automobile Industry

It is a known fact that South Korea has gone through a miraculous economic development since the end of the Korean War. There are several factors that have contributed to the success of the Korean economy, but the automobile industry has been the prime sector that led to its current economic status. This is the story of cars manufactured in Korea from the beginning of the 1950s to the modern day. The First Start Sibal, the car. Photo courtesy of NamuWiki Currently, according to the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA), Korea is ranked as the fifth largest automobile industry in the world. Statistically, as reported in 2015, about 4.5 million automobiles have been manufactured in Korea. Leading the industry, there are well-known automobile companies such as Hyundai, Kia, SsangYong, and General Motors Korea that represent the nation. To this day, those companies continue to impact the global automobile industry through the creativity and innovation of smart cars. However, today’s success in the industry did not take on an easy route. Initially, before cars began to be made in Korea, vehicle-related operations were merely centered around assembling functioning parts imported from foreign companies. Soon after the increase in the popularity of automobiles in Asia, many businessmen became interested in manufacturing cars in Korea. Then in 1955, Choi Mu-seong, a Korean businessman, and his two brothers created a military jeep-style automobile, made with sheet metal from a junk oil drum can. The first functioning car to be manufactured was called 'Sibal', which means a new start in Korea. Soon after the introduction of Sibal, other businesses, with the help of Japanese car industries, began to launch its own manufactured automobiles. In 1960, Shinjin Automobiles created the Shinjin Publica under technical support from Toyota, a Japanese automobile company. Then several years after the release of Shinjin Publica, three companies were established that led to the boom of Korean automobile industry- Hyundai, Kia, and SsangYong. They were able to grow steadily with the help of the Korean government. The Automobile Industry Protection Act protected the then-infant automobile industries. Yet, even though all these companies did manufacture on their own, they were merely automotive assembling companies, importing parts from overseas partners like Japan and the United States. Hyundai, Leading the Industry In 1970, Hyundai created the Hyundai Pony, which made the Korean automobile industry known to the world. It was exported to countries in South America, becoming the first Korean-developed car to be exported. Then, the same car entered the United States' automobile market and set a record for selling the most automobiles in its first year of business compared with any other car brand (126,000 vehicles in total). Interestingly, the Hyundai Pony was sold under a different name- as the Excel, in the United States. Hyundai soon rose as the top Korean automobile industry, producing more car models such as the Sonata, a medium-sized sedan, and the Avante. The Hyundai Pony, or the Excel, was the first exported automobile. Photo courtesy of Hyundai Motors Hyundai's success was also met with some difficulties regarding their best-selling Excel. In efforts to bring the cost down, the quality and reliability of Hyundai's cars suffered, imprinting a bad image on the company over time. That was followed by a drastic drop in car sales dealerships in the United States. Fortunately, the company made a firm decision to innovate, investing heavily in the quality, design, and research for their cars. This effort led to well-established trust between the company and the buyers. Today, Hyundai stands as the number one automobile company in Korea. According to Forbes, it is ranked nine among the largest automobile companies in the world. Pride of Korea Today, automobiles are valuable assets for both convenient transportation and style. Its industry continues to grow, with the slow change from anti-environmental gasoline cars to environmental-friendly cars occurring. Green technology is key for the future economic development of any automobile industry. It is quite amazing, looking back on the past, to see Korean automobile industries excel today in the global market. Not only does this success represent the industry’s achievement, but it also strengthens national pride that motivate people in Korea to aspire for greater advancement. Park Min-young manutdmin@hanyang.ac.kr

2016-09 25 Important News

[Special]Foreigners Who Loved Korea

Korea was colonized by Japan from 1910 to 1945. During that period, Japan illegally exercised sovereign power in Joseon, which was the name of Korea then. For the independence of Korea, there were thousands of activists who fought Japan’s violence. Among them, there were foreign activists who deeply empathized with Joseon’s hardship and accommodated with Koreans to accuse Japans’ brutality to the world. This week, the Internet Hanyang News (IHN) introduces two foreign independence activists- Ernest Thomas Bethell and Frank William Schofield. ▲Bethell established the Korea Daily News with Yang which was printed in both Korean and English.Photo courtesy of the Independence Hall of Korea Englishman Who Established the Korean Daily News Bethell, also known as Bae Seol as his Korean name, first came to Korea in 1904 as a correspondent for the Daily Chronicle, a British newspaper, to cover the Russo-Japanese War. However, when he witnessed the reality of Korea, he decided to report on Japanese imperialism in Korea instead. Although there are no official records, it is said that he was able to relate with Koreans well as Jews himself. With Yang Gi-tak, a Korean independence activist, Bethell founded the Daehan Maeil Shinbo (the Korea Daily News) which was published in both Korean and English. The content of the newspaper was strongly antagonistic to Japanese rule and many Korean activists and historians contributed to it. As Bethell was British, he could enjoy extraterritorial rights, protecting the newspaper against the Japanese colonialists’ strong suppression against the media at the time. The Korea Daily News had two aspects of influence internationally and domestically. Since the newspaper covered a lot about Japanese imperialism and Koreans’ resistance toward it, they could lead international public opinion to go against Japan. Within Korea, the strong tone words used in articles greatly instilled Korean people to actively participate in independence movements. Right before the Russo-Japanese war, Japan tried to forcefully gain the right to cultivate the wasteland of Korea for more than 50 years. Japan wanted to claim more than two thirds of Korean land to immigrate the overgrowing population of Japan and supplement more crops from Korea. Korean newspapers’ articles were stirring up opposition among citizens. Although it was just four days after its establishment, the Korea Daily News also issued an article that strongly criticized Japan’s plan. It helped Joseon, which had no supportive diplomatic relationship at the time, to spread the world about its situation to other countries like Britain, which was in a favorable relationship with Japan. In the perspective of Japan, the Korean Daily News was a very disturbing obstacle to conquer Korea and remain in amicable relationships with other countries. Japan constantly asserted to Britain the need to capture and expel Bethell from Joseon. While the Korea Daily News reproached Japan repeatedly, Japan continuously requested the British to punish Bethell. Britain’s consul general Henry Cockburn had no choice but to sentence him 6 months of probation. Even after the probation, Japan saw Bethell as a problem and continued to oppress the Korean Daily News. Due to many hardships that struck him, Bethell suddenly faced death in 1909 due to cardiectasis. Many Koreans mourned his death and voluntarily started to collect money to erect a gravestone for Bethell. He died, leaving behind the famous saying “Even after I die, protect the newspaper and save Koreans.” ▲The Korea Daily News not only informed the world of Japan's brutal crimes in Korea but also greatly motivated Koreans to engage in independence movements. Photo courtesy of Korea Times One Canadian among 48 National Activists Frank William Schofield came to Korea as a missionary and a professor at the Severance Medicine School. He taught bacteriology in Korea from 1916. Since then, Schofield sympathized with the Koreans who were under Japan’s harsh imperialistic condition and decided to help them. From 1910, Japan was both politically and economically taking advantage of Korea. ▲Schofield was the only foreign activist who was informed of the 3.1 movement the day before it occurred. Photo courtesy of the Independence Hall of Korea After World War I, the US President Woodrow Wilson declared the 14 points- peace principles. One of them was the principle of national self-determination. As many other countries that were influenced by the principle, there were independence movements held in different regions of Korea since March 1st, 1919. It was meaningful in the sense that it was the first movement of Koreans to declare sovereignty and democracy. It also motivated the establishment of the provisional government of the Republic of Korea. Schofield was the only foreigner who was notified of the event a day earlier to translate the declaration of independence and send it to the White House. Even though Schofield was suffering from polio and his one leg and arm deterred him from moving freely, he took photos of the 3.1 movement, beginning on its first day. Almost all photos related to the movement were taken by him. While the 3.1 movements were spread all across the country, Japan committed a dreadful crime to strike against the 3.1 movement. At April 4th, in Jae-am-ni, Kyunggi-do where citizens shouted out for independence of Korea, Japan massacred more than 30 citizens. Schofield visited the place and helped the people. He also reported on the crime with his article “The massacre of Jae-am-ni” to newspapers in China and the US. Schofield didn’t hesitate to personally meet and contact officials of the Japanese Government’s General of Korea to stop the ruthless torture of Korean activists. He was able to do so, as he also enjoyed extraterritorial rights in Korea as an English-Canadian. After Schofield reported on the 3.1 movement, he was threatened to be killed by an unknown robber. After such an incident, he had to go back to Canada for his safety but still continued to support and advise Koreans through articles. Once in one of his articles, Schofield stated, “I think of myself more as a Korean than a Canadian”, and showed how deeply he loved Korea. Unlike other Western missionaries who thought they were superior to Koreans, Schofield was truly considerate towards Koreans. ▲Schofield was also a professor of bacteriology who loved his Korean students. Photo courtesy of the Independence Hall of Korea Even after Korea’s independence, Schofield came to Korea in 1958 with the Korean government’s invitation to celebrate the 10th year anniversary of the birth of the Korean government. He subsequently stayed in Korea as a professor in Seoul National University. While Korea was still unstable with its new democratic form of rule, Schofield didn’t stop advising the Korean people to remember the spirit of the 3.1 movement. He continuously emphasized the importance of human rights and free country. Schofield died in 1970 due to cardiac asthma he suffered from for years, leaving a famous saying, “Always remember the people and their sacrifice in 1919.” Yun Ji-hyun uni27@hanyang.ac.kr

2016-09 25 Important News

[Special]Hanyang Job Discovery Festival

The Job Discovery Festival, an annual job fair held in Hanyang University, took place in the Olympic Gymnasium of HYU’s Seoul campus on September 5th and 6th. On the 5th, 124 companies and 310 human resources managers joined the event, and more came the next day. Korean and international students at Hanyang gathered at the fair to obtain information about companies that they were interested in applying to. This week, the Internet Hanyang News (IHN) reporters visited the Hanyang Job Discovery Festival to attend job Job Consultations Held for Korean and International Students information booths and find out how HYU prepared for the event. Job Consultations Provided to Hanyang Students In each booth, job information and consultations were provided for HYU students. Due to the diverse characteristics of each company, different advice was given to the job-seekers. Yu Hyeon-jun of POSCO, a Korean steel corporation, said, “Because there are many corporate bodies of POSCO outside of Korea, global competence would be an important ability in order to be employed here.” Since POSCO is a government-run firm, responsibility, independence and diligence are qualities that are also very significant. “We do not prefer people of specific majors but we do want to recruit people who are interested in gaming and have knowledge of programming. We like people who are persistent and have the experience of delving into one specific area,” said Lim Su-bin of Smilegate, a global entertainment company that prioritizes game development. ▲Students participating in job consultations Students who participated in the event displayed feelings of nervousness and anticipation. Lee Yong-wu (Architectural Engineering, class of ‘12) said, “I am here because I want to hear what kind of people companies want as their employees, and also to find out the processes of employment.” Lee’s friend, Ha Jae-yun (Architectural Engineering, class of ‘10), commented, “I feel very earnest about getting a job right now.” Son Seung-dong (Industrial Engineering, class of ‘12) said, “I came to check my understanding of one specific vocation I am interested in, which is technology management. I felt that applying for jobs seemed far off, but now here it is.” Booths for Foreign Students Near the entrance of the gymnasium, job information booths for foreign students were arranged. Seven companies, including Lotte and KOTRA, were present. Deputy Yeo So-yeong of Lotte said that, “Lotte recruits foreigners from Vietnam, Thailand, India, China and Japan twice a year. This is because those are the countries where we have affiliates.” According to Paik Chung-hun from Kyungdong Navien, a company famous for its boilers, many foreign job-seekers are interested in the sales, management and marketing of the company. “Responsible people are suited to work at the sales department, and departments of management and marketing require people who have practical business skills.” Kim Eun-ju of KOTRA explained, “International students can work as a bridge between foreign employees and Koreans. That is why that Korean communication skills and the understanding of Korean culture are prerequisites for getting hired.” ▲Job information booths for international students were also present at the festival, marked by orange flags. Quite a few international students could be seen near job booths for foreigners. Dana Staca (Tourism, class of ‘15), an international student from Romania, said. “I participated in this event because I am planning to get a job in Korea next year. I came to Korea because I studied Korean before [back in Romania] and I thought it would be a good chance to get a job here.” Ferdinand Koranling, (Biomedical Engineering, class of 13), a student from Ghana, said, “This is my final year at Hanyang, so I came to find which options I have in terms of jobs. The companies I am interested in are medical and transport companies.” Koranling became interested in Korea because of its technology and that recently, there have been a lot of partnerships between Korea and Ghana. Hanyang’s Preparation for the Fair Shin yong-zin of Hanyang’s Career Development Center explained that this year’s event focused on liaising companies that students of Hanyang would prefer most. “We tried to enhance the festival’s quality by increasing the number of participating companies. There are more students who joined the event compared to last year, and it could be seen that they were very enthusiastic about finding employment,” said Shin. The participants of the event were private for-profit companies. Big corporations such as Samsung and LG were the main participants of the event. However, there were other corporations as well, such as Binggrae, a food business, and Juvis, a diet consulting enterprise. Shin explained about how HYU prepared for the event, one of which was providing the mobile website of the festival. (Click to be directed to the mobile website.) Shin explained how the school prepared for the event. “First of all, HYU made a mobile website for students to search the companies of their interest easily and find the locations of corresponding booths. Booklets on corporations, job interviews, and special qualifications were provided.” There were also additional booths that consulted students on their resumes and interviews. According to Shin, there is no other university other than Hanyang that holds job recruitment information booths for international students. The booths were quite small in size this year, but it is to be expanded in the future so that it would be of more help for foreign students at HYU. Shin advised, “Not only should students participate in the event, but it is also important for them to prepare in advance by searching up to four or five companies that they want to enter before visiting each booth.” He also mentioned that because there were a lot of Hanyang graduates present at the event, it would have been helpful for students to ask them questions. At the Job Discovery Fair, students may have found what they are lacking and are in need of to succeed in this year’s recruitment season. Jang Soo-hyun luxkari@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Ha-na Moon

2016-09 24

[Special]Korean Cartoons Online, the Webtoon

First driven by the spread of K-pop and K-drama, the Korean Wave is flourishing with growing popularity on the global stage. Amidst these forms of Korean culture, another emerging content prominent in Korea is entering the stage, the Webtoon: South Korean webcomics or manhwa that are published online. Originally beginning as a domestic wave, it has now ripened to be a global phenomenon, carried by the Internet and the social media. What could have otherwise been a simple means of entertainment functions not only as a time killer but also as a lesson giver and cultural promoter of South Korea. From Paper to Screen Countless cartoonists have been writing and publishing comic books since several decades ago, so the idea of comics is not new. However, a new idea of comics has been on the rise since its advent. Adjusting to the contemporary circumstances, where computers and smartphones are easy to find, webtoons are made accessible online. Webtoon was first introduced in Korea by the Korean web portal Daum in 2003 and in the following year by Naver. Released regularly on a weekly basis on each portal, most webtoon serials are available for free. In 2014, Naver and Daum published more than 520 and 430 webtoons, respectively. While it is true that webtoons are geared towards and are mostly fueled by an army of a younger audience, they often appeal to a wider range of age. Each webtoon has its own genre, plot, drawing style, and length depending on the cartoonist, meaning that there are no standards to the ideals of a webtoon. This makes it even more appealing to different types of people. Even more interestingly, webtoons are not produced by professionals but by laypersons who have outstanding drawing skills and creativity to capture people’s attention. Thus, webtoons are rated by the viewers, and the rank is determined by their popularity. With the predominance of smartphones, webtoons, on top of being free of charge, became even more easily accessible to people with the help of the gadget. Anyone with a smartphone has free access to hundreds of webtoons with just a few touches on their screen. The convenience brought about by technology elevated the popularity of webtoons even reaching out abroad. Ironically, some of the most popular webtoons are printed into hard copies for sale. ▲Webtoons on each portal are organized in weekly arrangements and ranked by popularity. (Photo courtesy of Naver) There are several websites, either legitimate or illegitimate, that translate webtoons into English for non-Korean readers abroad. Naver has published a website dedicated to offering some of their top-rated webtoons in English. Some of the top-rated webtoons in English are “Siren’s Lament,” “Tower of God,” “Orange Marmalade,” and “Noblesse,” each recording a rating of 9.73, 9.63, 9.51, and 9.66 out of 10, respectively. Webtoons as Message Conveyers Instead of merely being an entertaining time killer, some webtoons have inspiring lessons and messages to be grasped by the audience. For instance, the webtoons “SangJoongHa” by Han and “Golden Spoon” by HD3 have similar plots: the main characters become troubled by the life-changing dilemma that compel them to choose between family and money. Although the two webtoons still have not reached their ends yet, the point the authors are trying to get across is this: money is not the most important thing in life and happiness is not only derived from wealth. ▲This picture is featuring main characters of some of the top-rated webtoons published by Naver (Photo courtesy of Naver) In the former webtoon “SangJoongHa”, triplet brothers betray, fight, and eventually kill one another over matters of money, specifically to take over the place of the billionaire’s son. On a similar note, the latter story, “Golden Spoon,” features a young boy who intentionally chose to switch his and his friend’s parents because he was born into a poor family, while his friend was enjoying an affluent life under a prosperous father. In both webtoons, the authors intend to allow the readers to sense that the main characters’ actions and choices were not advisable. As these two exemplary works show, a lot of webtoons have morals and messages to convey, which could also be another attraction for more readers. With its popularity soaring through the roof, webtoons clearly show the potential of expanding the size of its industry as big as that of K-pop and K-drama. They are so prevalent and popular that it became not only a part of Korean culture but also the cultural promoter of the country that attracts more and more viewers as time goes by. ▲The graph shows the increasing value of webtoon market each year. (Photo courtesty of Joongang Daily) Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr