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2016-12 26

[Special]How Koreans Celebrate the Festive Season

From the year-end to the start of a new year is the winter holiday season. People summarize their year’s accomplishments and plan their New Year’s resolutions for another new start. From December to January, take a peek into the lives of Koreans through a chronological timeline. When it comes to the middle of December, a lot of Koreans start to have year-end parties with their colleagues. Unlike countries in the west where time spent at the end of a year is more family-oriented, Koreans spend as much time with people from work. At the year-end parties, they tend to get more comfortable with one another and talk about things beside work more freely. They believe that the more they get closer with one another, the more efficient and effective their work will be. Koreans also enjoy the festive mood with friends and family, holding private parties and gatherings. Year-end parties with colleagues promote better cooperation between members in different units. (Photo courtesy of Kim Chang-gyun) While the year-end parties continue until the end of the month, Christmas comes along, which is one of the biggest holidays in the world. While Christmas is originally a Christian holiday to celebrate the birth of Jesus, it is now settled as a universal festivity for everyone regardless of their religion both in the West and the East. While people living in the West generally gather with families on Christmas Eve and on Christmas Day, Koreans tend to spend it with their lovers. It is one of the biggest occasions of the year to exchange gifts and have a romantic date night. Koreans spend Christmas with their lovers. (Photo courtesy of KJ Times) One of the iconic and symbolistic events at the start of the New Year is the Bosingak bell-ringing ceremony, which is also known as Watch-Night bell. When the clock hits midnight, the bell is rung 33 times to welcome the New Year. There are 16 people who are given the opportunity to ring the bell- five of them being governmental representatives of Seoul and the Jongno district, and 11 citizens who were recommended by the public through the official Seoul Metropolitan Government website. Around the very final days of the year, a lot of Koreans take a short trip with families, friends, and lovers. Koreans think that watching the sunrise of the very first day of the year is a memorable event that lasts throughout the whole year. They make their wishes whilst watching the sunrise and reaffirm their new year’s resolutions. The Bosingak bell-ringing ceremony is held every year on December 31th, just before midnight. For people who want to see the sunrise in Seoul, Nam-san Palgakjeong is recommendable. Being a popular spot for both Koreans and foreigners, there are shows and ceremonies prepared as well. In Gangwon province, Jeongdong-jin is the most representative attraction to watch the sunrise. The fact that more than 580 thousand people visit Gangwon province at this time proves the popularity of the region. In Gyungsangbuk province's Ulsan Homigot, there is a famous landmark statue which makes the scenery more beautiful. Namsan, Palgakjeong (Photo courtesy of soon 1991, tistory) Jeongdong-jin (left) and Ulsan Homigot (right). (Photos courtesy of gdjbal79,naver blog) Celebration of the New Year ends in January or February, whenever the Lunar New Year is. Seollal is one of the most highly celebrated holiday in Korea. In the morning of Seollal, the tradition for all family members is dressing up in hanbok (Korean traditional clothing) for the special occasion and gather in front of the ritual lacquer table for charye. Charye refers to a ritual done for the ancestors to give thanks on special holidays, which is a commitment for all generations. While there are abundant amounts of food prepared for the ceremony and for the whole family, the main dish which cannot be dismissed is tteokguk, which is a soup made with plain rice cake. The widespread concept is that when you eat a bowl of tteokguk, you are one year older. During charye, each food is placed in a specific order and direction. (Photo courtesy of Yun Ji-hyun

2016-12 22

[Infographics]At a Glance: 2016 Hanyang University Partners

Hanyang University Office of International Affairs announced the status of its international partnership contract as of December 21, 2016. According to the announcement, Hanyang University has signed a parnerhship relationship with 730 universities in 76 countries, of which 36 were newly completed in 2016. In 2016, the number of parnership contract has reached 20 in Asia (56%), 10 in Europe (28%), 4 in English (11%) and 2 in other regions (6%). Among them, China has the largest number of universities (19%), followed by six universities in Indonesia (17%), two universities of Canada, Italy, Taiwan and Thailand (6%). ▼ Universities with parnership contract in 2016 Order Name of university Region Country Date of conclusion 1 Erasmus University Rotterdam Europe Netherlands 2016-03-09 2 Kuwait University other Kuwait 2016-03-30 3 Humanitas University Europe Italy 2016-04-08 4 Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Asia Indonesia 2016-04-08 5 Singapore University of Technology and Design Asia Singapore 2016-04-12 6 National Taiwan University of Arts Asia Taiwan 2016-04-14 7 Dhurakij Pundit University Asia Thailand 2016-04-15 8 Toulouse Business School (TBS) Europe France 2016-04-15 9 VUZF University of Finance, Business and Entrepreneurship Europe Bulgaria 2016-04-25 10 Universitas Kristen Maranatha Asia Indonesia 2016-04-26 11 Telkom University Asia Indonesia 2016-05-03 12 Gadjah Mada University Asia Indonesia 2016-05-13 13 Kathmandu University Asia Nepal 2016-05-17 14 Airlangga University Asia Indonesia 2016-05-31 15 Zhejiang Gongshang Univeristy Asia China 2016-06-08 16 chungyuan Christian University Asia Taiwan 2016-06-22 17 Czech Technical University in Prague Europe CzechRepublic 2016-06-22 18 Mudanjiang Normal University Asia China 2016-06-28 19 Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Europe Turkey 2016-06-30 20 Linnaeus University Europe Sweden 2016-06-30 21 Osh Technological University other Kyrgyzstan 2016-07-01 22 University of Science and Technology of China Asia China 2016-07-29 23 Directorate of Courses & Training Development Asia Indonesia 2016-08-02 24 King Mongkut's Universit of Techonology Thonburi Asia Thailand 2016-09-12 25 The University of Nottingham English United kingdom 2016-09-29 26 Brown University English USA 2016-10-01 27 Hangsenng Management College Asia China 2016-10-25 28 Nanjing Tech University Asia China 2016-10-26 29 University of Luxembourg Europe Luxembourg 2016-11-03 30 Howest University College West Flanders Europe Belgium 2016-11-21 31 Fukui University Asia Japan 2016-11-25 32 University of British Columbia English Canada 2016-11-29 33 University of British Columbia English Canada 2016-11-29 34 Nanjing University of Science and Technology Asia China 2016-12-09 35 Politecnico Milano Europe Italy 2016-12-13 36 Beijing Normal University Asia China 2016-12-15 ▼ Distribution by Region / Country   Others Aisa English Europe Total Belgium       1 1 Bulgaria       1 1 Canada     2   2 China   7     7 CzechRepublic       1 1 France       1 1 Indonesia   6     6 Italy       2 2 Japan   1     1 Kuwait 1       1 Kyrgyzstan 1       1 Luxembourg       1 1 Nepal   1     1 Netherlands       1 1 Singapore   1     1 Sweden       1 1 Taiwan   2     2 Thailand   2     2 Turkey       1 1 United kingdom     1   1 USA     1   1 Total 2 20 4 10 36

2016-12 12

[Special]The Legends of Korean Wildflowers

In the old days, people liked to imagine and make stories about the origin of natural objects, such as constellations, animals and plants. Korean ancestors also enjoyed creating tales about nature, and one of the most frequent themes was flowers. Koreans believed when a person dies with han, the feeling of sorrow and resentment, his or her spirit bloomes as a flower. That is the reason why there are such sad stories affiliated with wildflowers in Korea. This week, News H introduces the tales of Korean wildflowers of all four seasons. The Korean 'granny' flower The Korean pasque flower, named halmiggot in Korean which means ‘granny flower’, is a perennial plant blooming in winter to spring which has a burgundy-colored, bell-shaped bud. Its name is derived from its appearance, with a curvy stem pointing toward the ground and soft, white hairs covering the flower to its leaves, resembling an old lady. Above is a photo of a halmiggot, or 'granny flower'. (Photo courtesy of There was a loving grandmother who raised three granddaughters due to the untimely death of their parents. She raised them with love and care, and as time passed, they all got married. The lonely old lady set out one winter day to visit each of them. However, she was neglected by the first and second granddaughters who married rich men, answering her visit with great disapproval. After being ousted from their houses, the old lady turned to visit the third granddaughter, who married a poor woodcutter. Her house was very far away, and the lady was cold and weak. The next day, the third granddaughter found her grandmother dead. She mourned for her grandmother and buried her near her house. A flower bloomed on her grave, which greatly resembled the old lady’s white hair and curved back, and the third granddaughter believed that her grandmother’s spirit came back and bloomed as the 'granny flower'. Dandelion, a symbol of undying love Dandelion, or mindlae, is a common spring flower worldwide, but there are special white and yellow dandelions that breed in Korea. The dandelion is a symbol of devoted love. In Koera, there exists the phrase ilpyundanshim mindlae, which stems from its legend of a young woman waiting for her husband during wartime. There are special white and yellow dandelions that bloom only in Korea. (Photo courtesy of A long time ago, there was a woman named Mindlae whose husband left to fight in war. She waited for him for three years, but heard the news that her husband died in battle. Mindlae followed her husband to death shortly after. The next spring, on the paths that she walked past while waiting for her husband, yellow flowers that nobody had seen before appeared. People thought they were the symbol of her spirit, and called the flowers mindlae after her name. Lychnis, the tragic story of a baby monk Lychnis, or lychniscognate, is a pretty orange flower that blooms in summer. It blossoms in a mountainside andis. Dongjaggot, meaning 'baby monk flower', originated from a legend of a young monk that lived in the mountains with an old monk. The name dongjaggot originated from the legend of a young monk who faced an unfortunate death. (Photo courtesy of A long time ago, two lonely monks, an old monk and a baby monk, were living in a small temple, depending on each other, in a deep forest. One early winter, the old monk had to leave the baby monk alone in the temple to go down the village to ask for donations to get through the winter. However, an early heavy snowfall blocked the way back to the temple. The old monk waited for the snow to melt with a heavy heart, but only could go back to the temple in the spring the year after. The old monk found the baby monk frozen to death while waiting. The devastated monk buried the baby, and the next summer, scarlet flowers that resembled the baby’s flush on his cheeks blossomed on the spot. People called the small orange blooms, dongjaggot, after the baby monk. Aster, the story of a girl who picked mugworts Aster is a lilac-colored autumn flower that resembles some species of chrysanthemum and is called ssukbujaengi in Korean. The name means mugwortpicker and the blacksmith’s daughter at the same time, indicating the heroine of the flower’s tale. The ssukbujaengi is a lilac-colored autumn flower that resembles some species of chrysanthemum. (Photo courtesy of A long time ago, there was a very poor blacksmith, who had eleven children. The eldest daughter helped out, digging out mugworts for her siblings. So, the villagers called her Ssukbujaengi, or mugwort picker. One day, Ssukbujaengi found a wounded deer in the mountain where she picked mugworts. She took the deer and cured it gently. The deer was very thankful and promised to repay her kindness. On the same day, Ssukbujaengi found a man caught in a boar trap. She saved the man, and after a short talk, she became fond of him. The man promised to return that autumn. From that day, Ssukbujaengi waited for years but the man did not come, and her mother became ill. Ssukbujaengi decided to pray to the mountain god for her mother, and suddenly the deer appeared, and gave her a purple pocket with three marbles in it. “Put the marble inside your mouth and say wishes out loud, then it will come true,” the deer said. She wished for her mother’s health, and she recovered instantly. Then she wished for the man to come back, and he appeared. However, he revealed that he was a married man, but asked her to live with him. Ssukbujaengi, thinking about his wife and son, wished for the man to return home. Years have passed, but she still could not forget the man and remained unmarried. And one day, while concentrating on picking herbs for her siblings, she tripped and was killed due to the fall. After her death, a lot of edible plants grew in the mountains and people called them ssukbujaengi. The plant had purple petals and was yellow inside, like the color of the pocket and marbles she carried around. These flowers can easily be found in the wild in all seasons in Korea, drawing any bystander to appreciate their beauty and scent. While a flower symbolizes and implies emotions such as love, desire, or hope in many cultures, it is interesting to see that in Korea, there are rather sad stories of han behind flowers, adding special meanings to their ethereal grace. Jang Soo-hyun

2016-12 11

[Special]Contrast between Korean and English

On October 9th, 1446, Hangul was formulated by King Sejong, the 4th monarch of Joseon Dynasty. It was created as an attempt to make education achievable by more people. Using Chinese as the nation’s language, learning to read and write was a difficult task in those times, inevitably rendering poor peasants illiterate due to their social status and circumstances. Originally holding the name Hunminjeongeum, the Korean language now has its own distinctive features that was recognized internationally as 'the most-scientifically-superior language among world languages', as stated by some Harvard University professors. The explanation behind this is the unique phonetic system of Korean language. The shapes of the letters are related to the features of the sounds they represent. The letters for consonants, each pronounced in a distinct place in the mouth, are built on the same underlying shape as the place where it is pronounced. Additionally, vowels are made from vertical or horizontal lines so that they are easily distinguishable from consonants. Shapes of Korean alphabets are resemblant to that of the mouth shape. (Photo courtesy of Basic components Korean has 14 consonants and 10 vowels, which can be put together horizontally or vertically—from left to right or from top to bottom—to form a syllable. English has 26 alphabets—5 vowels and 21 consonants—that are all written horizontally. 10 vowels and 14 consonants of Korean. (Photo courtesy of It is critical to note that English has both monophthongs (a vowel sound that has single perceived auditory quality) and diphthongs (a vowel sound that has two perceived auditory quality), while Korean only has monophthongs with no diphthongs. This is one decisive feature that distinguishes the two languages from one another when it comes to pronunciation. Lastly, the use of honorifics, which is the degree of formality or familiarity between the person speaking and the person the speaker is addressing, is an indispensable component in Korean. Such a factor is absent in English language. Honorifics is an essential aspect of Korean language and needs to be taken into consideration when conversing with anyone. Consequently, pronouns and verbs have several forms that vary based on the degree of respect whereas English grammar and speech do not require different forms of referent. Asymmetry between the two languages Consonants and vowels are inseparable in Korean. (Photo courtesy of One noticeable difference between Korean and English can be decoded in terms of phonology. Korean is a syllable-timed language in which individual word stress is insignificant, whereas English is a stress-timed language. In other words, the rhythm and intonation of Korean language are based on each syllable while English derives its own from the distribution of stressed and unstressed syllables. This is largely accountable for the extra syllable added by Koreans who are learning English as their second language; the syllable-timed structure of the language necessitates a vowel sound to be attached to a consonant sound. Moreover, syntax is also a significant characteristic. In Korean, the sentence order is subject, object, and verb, when English puts verb before object. For instance, a Korean would say “Mary coffee drank” while an English speaker would say “Mary drank coffee.” Besides, lack of subject and object markers in English makes Korean unique. Subjects and objects in Korean are always followed by their makers, either by “ie” or “ga” or by “eun” or “leul,” respectively. Taking the previous example, the simple sentence in Korean would be “Mary-ga coffee-leul drank” while in English it is “Mary drank coffee” without a marker attached to the subject and the object of the sentence. Similarly, one element that English has but Korean does not is articles such as a, an, or the. For this reason, Korean learners of English have significant and often permanent problems with the complexities of the English article system. Perhaps the biggest difference comes when Korean verbs are considered. They are used to convey information. Subject and tense are all added onto the verb, making it longer in length. English uses separate words known as auxiliaries instead of the way Korean language does. Also, Korean does not conjugate verbs using agreements with the subject: “he like” is grammatically correct in Korean when it is not in English. What is more is the difference in alphabet sounds. English sounds such as /f/, /v/, /th/, and /z/ are missing in Korean inventory, leading to the substitution of those sounds with the most similar ones. For example, a Korean might pronounce coffee as “coppee”, Vancouver as “bancouber”, think as “sink”, this as “dis”, pizza as “pija” and so on. There is a certain degree of overlap in terms of vocabulary, especially in modern times, as Korea has been subject to American influence over the years following the Korean War. Jeon Chae-yun

2016-12 05

[Special][Op-ed] Cherish Your Canine Family

As the number of nuclear families, bachelors, spinsters, and old couples increase in South Korean society, the rate of raising dogs as companions is a rising trend. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs of Korea, it is estimated that about five to six million dogs are being bred nationwide. However, the Huffington Post claims there are 60,000 dogs abandoned every year, wandering around the streets without a destination. What is more staggering is that this is the governmental data of officially registered dogs, inferring that there would be more stray dogs undiscovered on the streets. Tragedy of the abandoned dogs When stray dogs that seem to have been neglected are found, they are reported to the local government agency. It is a fortunate situation for the dogs, if they possess identification chips. However, a series of misfortunes befall on the reported dogs, because a host of them do not own identification chips as they are intentionally marooned on the streets by their previous owners. As the dogs are moved to public protection centers or pounds, the officials send out a public announcement for 10 days through the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency’s animal care and service system. The percentage of these dogs finding their owners is a mere 20%, and 30% of the rest of dogs find new owners who will start new lives. However, during this process, the ruled out ones are bound to either be euthanized or become ill and meet their deaths. The reasons behind this tragedy usually arise from thoughtless decisions to breed dogs without any economic precautions. Since the insurance system for animals is lacking, the costs resulting from various veterinary treatments are unbearable for some owners. According to the Joongang Daily, a skin suture surgery, which is frequently performed on pets, costs 550 thousand won. Also, an X-ray costs a minimum of 100 thousand won, a shot of inoculation, 20 thousand won, and heartworm prevention medicine,10 thousand won. Expensive medical care for dogs often lead the owners to abandon their dogs. A poster of the movie 'The Secret Life of Pets', which advocated the importance of responsibility in taking care of animal companions. (Photo courtesy of IMDB) Solutions to enrich the lives of pet dogs Numerous people who desert their dogs often do not sincerely study about them but rather, they bring dogs to their home due to their looks. The problem arises in the decision-making process on whether to keep a pet or not. If I were to have a pet, it is extremely vital to ponder about whether I am to be an appropriate and responsible owner. In order to judge myself, learning about a particular dog's history, environment, eating habits, characteristics, health and costs to raise them, and more, is demanded. The best solution to this problem is to follow the path of Germany. The German Animal Welfare Act gives rights to animals that are similar to human rights. Thus, grave responsibility is tested before humans gain the legal right to breed and raise pets at home. According to Article 2 of the Act, “any person keeping and caring for or required to care for an animal must possess the knowledge and skills necessary for providing the animal with adequate food, care, and housing in accordance with its behavioral requirements” (German Federal Law, 2010). This federal law also bestows selling rights to only certain animal enterprises that are consistently under governmental surveillance. These enterprises hence require anyone willing to keep pets to pass certain prior knowledge tests and interviews. Also, abandonment of animals subjects the keeper(s) to a fine of a minimum of 25 thousand euros, which also prevents irresponsible people relinquishing their possession of pets. Responsibility is the key to the eradication of animal abandonment. (Photo courtesy of Etsy) Looking into the eyes of neglected animals on streets or in pounds, they seem to pine for their invaluable, happy memories with their owners. It is important to keep in mind that pets are not possessions, but family members that hold sacred lives of their own. Kim Ju-hyun

2016-12 04

[Special]Korean Hip-Hop from the US

Hip-hop influences the culture and lifestyles of today's youths. As more and more people aspire to become rap stars, wannabe rappers upload their mixtapes online for people to listen to. Through this process, they become associated with music labels and groups, or join entertainment agencies. Some Korean rappers are now active overseas and MKIT RAIN, a hip-hop label based in Los Angeles, is of substantive support to them. The name MKIT RAIN comes from the phrase 'make it rain', which is widely used in the hip-hop scenes as is throwing money in the air. This shows people the pride and goal of the musicians of the fact that they will earn enormous amounts of money as rappers. As for the members of the label, there are: Loopy, Nafla, Bloo, Owen Ovadoz, and Young West. The label was established on 22nd January, 2016 by Loopy, Nafla, and Bloo. Strong characteristics As many rappers wish to create their rap name into something that best contains their character and music style, Loopy creates songs with tight beats and lyrics. The name Loopy comes from 'loop', which is the repetition of a song. It also holds the meaning 'half insane'. Although Loopy has not lived in the United States for as long as the other members of MKIT RAIN, he has his unique flows that appear original in taste. Loopy won the Best Mixtape Song of the Year 2015 from Hiphop LE, an online webzine and community for African-American music. “The goal of MKIT RAIN is to bring the native [US] hip-hop vibe to Korea. We would like to introduce the new genre of hip hop,” said Loopy during an interview with Wikitree. “Korea seems to concentrate only on the fashion of hip-hop and that's not all there is to the genre,” he added. Nafla came up with his name from some words written on a fizzy drink. 'Natural flavor' combined together becomes his name, Nafla. Born in Los Angeles, he used to work with 42 crew members, most of whom are now in the MKIT RAIN records. Nafla’s rap style used to be very aggressive since it was used to show his sense of anger until now. He is currently at the stage of finding his real music style. “We knew that our first official concert, First Class, would be sold out. A lot of people are interested in our group and we have been preparing as if a foreign artist is visiting Korea,” said Nafla during an interview with Wikitree. The Best Mixtape of the Year 2015 Award, and Best Mixtape Performance of the Year 2015 Award have been received by Nafla from Hiphop LE. From the top left clockwise: Loopy, Nafla, Owen Ovadoz, Bloo (Photo courtesy of MKIT RAIN Records) Bloo used to work under the name of Daniel Prynne. He got his name from Badboyloo. He believes that originality in music comes from the roots of where it originated from, which is the United States. “Korean lyrics would all meet at a point where people have had similar experiences at school and while dating. It has to be limited. In the United States, there is a culture that makes people understand the roots to where hip-hop music has originated from,” said Bloo during an interview with Wikitree. He has strong faith and conviction in his music that he concentrates on making a piece of music that the public wants to listen to. “I have worked on the storytelling part of music so that my memories take place within the music,” he said during a listening session with Hiphop LE. Owen Ovadoz has his name from a Bible verse, 'if someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also'. Owen is the generous ego while Ovadoz is the negative ego that adds up to the two sides of human being. Owen, who spent his childhood years in the United States, is famous for his amount of songs produced. He has produced so many mixtapes until now and a lot of rappers say that it is hard to keep up with the pace since he is so passionate at his work. During an interview with Hiphop LE, he said that “I am a very greedy person when it comes to creating songs. I write the lyrics fast and I spend a whole day recording the songs created." He added, "I create blueprints in my life as a steroid. It drives me forward and achieve things one by one, which motivates me to go even further." Young West has recently joined the MKIT RAIN records. (Photo courtesy of Street) Last but not least, Young West, who is from the 42-person crew with Nafla and Bloo, has also joined the MKIT RAIN as the fifth member. As of the ‘Bad Bad Good Good Tour in DAEGU’, which was a concert held in Daegu, Korea, he has officially joined the label. “I moved to California when I was young. My starting point was listening to different types of music. The relationship among the 42-member crew started by hanging out together since junior high,” said Young West during an interview with Street. “I try to create a free, out-of-the-box type of music. I want to make the listeners move and be remembered as more than just a rapper,” he added. Although these five different musicians each have unique characteristics, they come together to create a well-balanced synergy that is affecting the Korean hip-hop scene. Since they have ambitious goals with a lot to offer to Koreans, why not give them a listen. Kim Seung-jun

2016-11 20 Important News

[Special]Wisdom in Proverbs

There are hundreds of Korean proverbs, all of which originated from the thoughts-incorporated daily lives of our ancestors, allowing us to take a glimpse of their livelihood. They teach us sympathetic lessons that are applicable in our lives even today, showing deep wisdom and keen insight embedded in our ancestors’ minds. Even though the lifestyle and circumstances changed over centuries, the proverbs inherited from our precursors are still relatable and usable at modern times, put in use of people’s everyday conversation suiting to the situation. Transcending over time, the proverbs have provided us with valuable teachings. Categories of Proverbs Proverbs are often defined as concise and accurate expressions containing wit and wisdom, often derived from ordinary people’s daily lives and experiences. They are formed from abstraction of a particular instance, in which the situation itself becomes a figure of speech that contains a specific meaning or a lesson that corresponds to the situation. According to each situation, proverbs can be largely divided into four types: critical, didactic, experimental, and jocular proverbs. Critical proverbs involve criticizing or admonishing the opponent about their behavior, pinpointing the blunder with the tone of sarcasm or scolding. An exemplary critical proverb would be “a frog forgets about its tadpole days,” meaning someone who stands at a high position belittles those at a lower position, not remembering the fact that they, too, once stood at the same position. This saying contains the teaching that no matter how well your being is, you should not look down upon the others because you are demeaning yourself in the past as well. Moreover, another critical proverb that makes you ponder about your own behavior is “a stool-stained dog rebukes a mud-stained dog.” This proverb aims to condemn those who have big faults yet tries to reproach those with minor faults, reminding them their own places. ▲ "A frog forgets about its tadpole days" Didactic proverb is the most abundant one of all, delivering a teaching as the core meaning. This type is rather instructive than admonishing, setting the truth and affirming what is right or wrong. For example, “knock on the stone bridge before crossing” is underscoring the importance of always being cautious, even with the most easy and familiar task because overlooking an easy task can result in a mistake. Adding on, “downstream can only be clear when upstream is clear” emphasizes the fact that those who set examples have a great impact on those who learns from them, meaning only when they act right will the followers learn good acts. Therefore, it is of their duty to demonstrate good deeds first. Furthermore, “a bull’s horn should be drawn at a breath” gives an advice that a task should not be procrastinated and be carried to action without further do—when a bull’s horn is drawn, heat is applied onto the horn to make the process quick and easy, at least when the heat is still effective, suggesting that the work be done when there is higher energy or will. Moreover, experimental proverbs give a prediction about a situation, based on the occurrence of a similar situation in previous and the lesson derived from it. To exemplify, “a theft brings cramps on his own feet” is a proverb that anticipates a situation, where a person feels too guilty about his own sin that he unintentionally exposes it by himself. This saying is referring to the situation in which someone who committed a bad deed flinches everytime a similar issue is mentioned and acts abnormally, eventually hinting that he is guilty for it. Also, “underneath the lamp is the darkest” predicts that the solution to a problem is not always far away, indicating that you should always be watchful in close approximates. ▲ "Underneath the lamp is the darkest" Lastly, jocular proverbs are expressions that function like similes, by using them as a comparison to a situation. “Pillaging and eating a flea’s liver” is comparable to a situation where someone who is affluent is benefiting from someone who is much underprivileged. Since a flea is an extremely small insect, taking out its liver to eat is pillaging off someone who owns very little, almost exploiting them. Additionally, “licorice in pharmacy” virtually means “an indispensable thing” due to the omnipresence of licorice in any oriental medicine stores. Thus,if something is said to be the licorice in pharmacy, it means that thing is always present in a place or situation. In short, proverbs can be used to describe a situation briefly in one expression or to make a witty comparison. Stemming from the daily lives of our ancestors, each and every proverb conveys a valuable meaning and teaching that we can easily encounter in our daily lives as well. Jeon Chae-yun

2016-11 14

[Special]Volleyball Superstar Kim Yeon-koung

An accurate spike is a crucial attacking strategy in a volleyball game where higher the ball-contact point to the hand is, the better it is for players to score an easy point. Likewise, maintaining a positive spirit during the game is just as essential when one single point can determine the outcome. Possessing these two necessities as an outstanding volleyball player, Kim Yeon-koung stands out amongst international women athletes as one of the best volleyball players in the world. After dominant years in the domestic league, Kim has made Korea proud by reaching the international level of professional women’s volleyball. 'Kimvincible' ▲ Kim plays as an outside hitter (Photo courtesy of OSEN) It is nearly impossible to list all the achievements and honors that Kim has achieved in her volleyball career so far. Yet, there is one that describes her the best – the highest paid volleyball player in the world, including both male and female. When she entered Europe for the first time, she was signed a contract for 1.2 million euros. Also, wherever she went, from Korea, Japan, to Turkey, the team that she played for always won the league titles, giving her the nickname of 'Kimvincible'. She has won the most valuable player awards in the three nations as well as in international tournaments like the London Olympics in 2012. Kim plays as an outside hitter, the main attacker on the court. Her height of 192 centimeters stands out as the most powerful weapon in leading the attacking plays. The overwhelming ball-spiking point and blocking point give her an absolute advantage in stacking up points for her personal statistics. She usually scores about half of the points that the entire team makes in a single game. Also, as a high-spirited player, Kim leads the teams, both professional league and national teams in acquiring positive environment on and off the court. Korea, Japan, and Turkey Kim began playing volleyball after being influenced by her older sister, a volleyball player then. However, she was only 170 centimeters when she graduated from middle school, making it difficult for Kim to play regularly in her team. Instead of leading the attacks on the team, she had to take the position as a libero, a player that focuses mainly in receiving and defending. This unexpected hardship pushed Kim to practice even harder, starting her day at five o’clock in the morning and training until eleven o’clock at night. Then, miraculously, she grew about 20 centimeters more in high school and ended up changing her position to an attacker. The persistence in training was finally awarded and Kim was selected to represent Korea in the national team. At about the same time, Kim was drafted as the first pick by the Heungkuk Life Pink Spiders in the 2005 Korean V-League Draft. Before Kim signed with Heungkuk Life, the team was lowest ranked in the league; however, as soon as Kim played that year, the team won the V-League title and she won the most valuable player award as a rookie. A few years later, Kim moved to Japan to start a new challenge with JT Marvelous in the V-Premier League. After leading the Japanese team to its league titles, Kim gained international attention as many coaches described her as the 'player of the century'. Then, she went further to become the best player in the world by joining the Turkish team, Fenerbahçe in 2011. As the highest paid player in the world, she has proven the worth by winning European tournaments and Turkish league titles with the team. Today, Kim continues to play for Fenerbahçe, leading the team for more success in the future. Playing for the National Team Kim has starred in Korean television shows to promote women’s volleyball in Korea. As the best player in Korea, she has shown candid affection and strong leadership for the national team. Even though Kim had a chance to be naturalized in Turkey after undesired conflict regarding the contract with the Heungkuk Life, she decided to endure the suffering to stay and play for Korea in the Olympics and other international tournaments. The results were incredible. The Korean team won gold medal in the 2014 Incheon Asian Games and silver medal in the 2012 London Olympics. These honors were not achieved solely by Kim but it is undeniable to say that she has brought the team together as one. ▲ Being only 28 years old, Kim has bright prospects for the future. (Photo courtesy of MoneyToday) Park Min-young

2016-11 07

[Special]The Life of Korean High School Students

This year's suneung, the Korean university entrance examination, is on November 17th, which only leaves one weekend. Right now, at this moment, Korean high school students, especially the seniors (3rd year students), are exerting themselves in a final push to prepare for the test. High schoolers brace themselves not only for suneung, but also for midterms and finals in each semester, taking classes from early morning to late afternoon, and studying well into the night. This, at first glance, seems tough- but most Koreans who study in Korea go through and overcome this tedious livelihood. A Day of a Korean High School Student 6:30 a.m.~7:50 a.m. Waking up and preparing to go to school. Most Korean students are required to wear school uniforms, which include PE clothes. Nowadays, however, more casual clothes are provided to enhance comfort for students. In some schools, seondobu, the student committee for enforcing school rules, is present with teachers who are in charge of student supervision to check students’ dress and hair. Students in each class take turns doing jubeon activities, which requires arriving school early and being the last to leave the classroom. Their job is to clean and tidy up their homeroom. High school students wear uniforms in Korea. (Photo courtesy of 7:50 a.m.~1:00 p.m. Classes start. After the homeroom teacher’s short announcements and words of encouragement for the day, jaseup is held, which means that some time is given to students to do some self-studying in the morning. After jaseup, classes begin. Students stay in each of their designated classrooms which is decided before the beginning of each year, and wait for teachers come to the classroom to teach. The education curriculum for Korean students is divided into two different parts: i-kwa (Natural Sciences) and mun-kwa (Liberal Arts). Students can choose between these two divisions, regarding their preference, skill, and future careers. However, the long tradition of i-kwa and mun-kwa will end in the school year of 2018, being merged into one curriculum. The subjects that students typically learn are Korean language and literature, English, mathematics, science (biology, chemistry, physics and earth science), social studies (such as history, economics, and ethics), and a second language (Chinese, Japanese, French and more). On Wednesdays, there are special hours that allow students to engage in club activities, such as the school news broadcasting system, the school press, bands, or sports clubs. On the other hand, students who are not associated in any clubs are able to engage in other activities, such as cooking, watching movies, or drawing cartoons. 1:00 p.m.~2:00 p.m. Lunch break. School lunch is equally distributed to students in the student cafeteria, or the homeroom if there is no dining area in the school. After eating lunch, male students tend to play soccer or basketball in the school yard. Girls like to chat with their friends or go around the field for a walk. Others visit their friends in different homerooms. Some students use this time to study more, or get some sleep. Korean school lunch. (Photo courtesy of 2:00 p.m.~5:00 p.m. Three more classes are held. After they end, the homeroom teacher comes in and gives some additional announcements and dismisses the students. When the teacher leaves, pre-arranged groups of students take turns to clean up the class as designated cleaners for the week. 6:00 p.m.~10:00 p.m. Yaja session. Students participate in yaja, studying by themselves after school, or go to hagwons (private academies) to complement their learning. There are also after-school lessons provided by teachers as well, usually at a much lower fee than private academies. Yaja session is held in each classroom or in a separate building or room. Students study by themselves, doing their homework, revising, or preparing for the next day's classes. Yaja session in high school. (Photo courtesy of The Sun Shines at the End of the Marathon Living as a Korean high school student is extremely burdensome because of high competition, an immense workload, a tight schedule, and the stress arising from the pressure and the uncertainty of whether they would be able to enter their dream university or not. However, many Koreans treasure memories from their high school days. They reminisce that those days were the time of their lives when they put in their best efforts and achieved the huge accomplishment of entering university. In addition, because high school students need to depend on one another to find the strength to carry on, Koreans typically make lasting best friends in those years. As the saying goes, “The night is darkest before dawn”, students’ hard endeavors are not in vain. Their work would be rewarded as a lasting reminder of what they earned through their efforts to reach whatever dreams they aspire towards. Jang Soo-hyun

2016-11 07

[Special]Dining Etiquette in Korea

Diverse cultures formed within the deep roots of each nation’s history result in a variety of ethnic codes of conduct. Among these cultural behaviors, a dining etiquette is considered vital to exteriorize ethnic lineaments. In Korea, the Confucian teachings brought into the Joseon Dynasty have contributed substantially to modern-day dining etiquettes. However, the distinctive features of the Korean dish also contours the endemic Korean dining etiquettes that engender the harmony of the Confucian and Korean values. Blend of Confucianism and the Korean Culinary Arts Korean cuisine pursues the harmony of taste, color, fragrance, and temperature. Thus, when served on a dining table, the main and side dishes should be arranged in the right sequence that ponders the au fait harmony of the dishes. The conventional way of arranging the dishes is called bansang-charim. Rice, soup (also called guk), kimchi, and paste sauce must be distributed in front of every individual diner at the table. Then, the main dish, which should unconditionally remain hot, must be displayed in the middle of the table. The side dishes, also called banchan, should be set in an ordered array of hues. Tenebrous-colored plates should remain near the main dish, while the lighter-colored dishes should be placed spherically around the main plate. The whole theme of the cuisine is decided by the taste and fragrance of the main dish, which adjures the cook to exquisitely scheme the entire dishes and harmonize them with the main plate. Photo of a bansang-charim (Photo courtesy of Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea) These harmonious characteristics of the Korean cuisine are then blended with Confucianism to concoct the distinctive etiquette. The Confucian book that many historians refer to when researching for origins of the Korean dining etiquettes, is “Sasojeol”, written in 1775 by Lee Deok-moo from the Joseon Dynasty. The book advises the appropriate proprieties for bureaucrats and the people of Joseon in a Confucian manner. Among these proprieties, dining etiquettes are considered fundamental to people behaving as a rightful citizen of Joseon Dynasty. The main values of Confucianism are in, ui, ye, and ji. The term in indicates the sequence of spreading love and appreciation for people. If the behavior of caring for others is spread among the intimate group of people, it would be possible for these values to spread out to the bigger communities. Then, people will begin to cherish each other, respect the elderly, and eradicate the immoral behaviors. Ui means the rightful standard of the ethical behaviors and people’s compliance to it. The standard of ethics develops through time, and people have the capacity to comply and understand what ethics is. Third, ye signifies the formal and normative standards of people. It is distinguished from ui, in that ui defends for ethics while ye stands for rational validity in social activities. Lastly, ji indicates the intelligence of people to differentiate what is right and wrong. The Korean dining etiquette concentrates on the value ji, because practicing the rightness and learning the distinction between the virtue and the wicked were possible only when they were fulfilled on a daily basis. Thus, dining manners taught individuals of the rightfulness through strict etiquettes three times a day. Furthermore, the conversation and teachings between people at the table enabled them to learn acquire the well-conditioned, ethical knowledge. Though extremely intricate, the Confucian values that Koreans pursued emphasize the decorum, reverence, and solicitude for others. This cultural dining etiquette of Korea signifies the prudence of people to appreciate and respect others, even at the dining table. Caligraphy of the Confucian values: in, ui, ye, and ji (Photo courtesy of Joongang Daily) Korean Dining Etiquettes of the Modern Day The dining etiquette of Korea today still cherishes the Confucian values, while the practical manners have been developed throughout the course of time. The main themes of the etiquette now emphasize respect for the elders, making gentle and edifying conversation, and exhibiting appropriate manners using the correct culinary tools and consuming dishes in the correct order. There are total of eight main rules abided by Koreans at the dining table. The first rule is that Korean food is only eaten with chopsticks or spoons, and only one set of tools should be used at a time. Then, the elders at the table must be seated and their spoons or chopsticks should be poised for eating, before the rest of the people may begin the meal. Also, solid food, such as rice or banchan, are not eaten until the palate is first wetted with a spoonful of soup or the juices of kimchi. In addition, when a guest is invited to a meal, the host first should raise his or her dining tool to urge the guest to eat. The specially prepared dishes should be placed nearer to the guest. Then, at the end of the meal, the host shall not put his or her dining tools down until the guest does so. The last rule is that after the meal, the spoons and chopsticks are placed neatly and evenly down on the dining table. Students of Gunyang University learning the modern-day dining etiquettes of Korea. (Photo courtesy of Newsis) Originated from the Confucian teachings and accustomed to the Korean culture, dining etiquettes of Korea emphasize the significance of appreciating others. Values such as respect for the elders, hospitality for guests, harmony among neighbors, and exchange of appreciation are the true beauty found in the Korean customs centered around shared meals. Kim Ju-hyun