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2018-04 19

[Academics]Architecture as the Outcome of Thought Towards the Truth

As structures are among the chief artifacts that any civil society leaves behind, the history of architecture reflects the story of human civilizations in many different ways. Jeong Jin-kouk (Deparment of Architecture), who mainly deals with modern architecture, finds the understanding and study of architecture crucial as it is a way of enriching human lives. Greatly influenced by Hubert Damisch, Jeong began his study of modern architecture which led him to focus on the works of Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier is considered one of the pioneers of modern architecture, and 17 of his projects have become UNESCO World Heritage Sites. When Jeong encountered his first Le Corbusier building, he was overwhelmed with shock and awe, which intrigued him to the point of wanting to understand how the building alone could leave him in such emotional state. Along with many other reasons, this was the beginning of his studies and the creation of his academic paper titled “The ‘New Type of Church’: From Le Corbusier’s Church at Firminy” which focuses on the last three works of the renowned modern architect, particularly on Church Firminy. “Architectural promenade is the observer’s pathway through the built space and is the central element of Le Corbusier’s architectural and city planning designs. In short, it is the sequence of images that unfolds before the eyes of the observer as he or she gradually advances through the structure.” (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) One interesting fact about the paper is that the content is laid out following Jeong’s perspective as he takes his first few steps along the architectural promenade. In this way, Jeong tried to truly understand and match his flow of consciousness along with that of Le Corbusier’s by doing an in-depth analysis from the structure itself, rather than simply applying external theories to explain the new type of church. This flow is conveyed through different concepts of the church’s worship space, ecstasy, the site, box of miracles, and spontaneity. Worship space & ecstasy Shaped in the form of a truncated cone, the Church at Firminy is a structure that is only made out of concrete with four different, precisely calculated facades that change according to different orientations. The shape of the natural sunlight coming through the openings on the walls is manipulated both quantitatively and qualitatively to maximize special effect. The light reflection of the Orion constellation on one of the walls also adds to the visual delight, leaving its visitors lost in an indescribable mix of senses. Many have suggested that this comes from religious factors as it is a religious space, whereas Le Corbusier himself simply tried to explain it in terms of plastic arts by referring to it as an "ineffable space." An ineffable space is a space that cannot be explained with any verbal terms. In other words, an “ineffable space aims to reach a high emotional state, in which the spirit can develop feelings such as ‘the joy of getting outside myself.' ” According to Jeong, the concept of “the joy of getting outside of myself” “can be defined as an ecstatic state in terms of Sergei Eisenstein’s developed theory of Montage.” Here, ecstasy is based on geometry of vision, rather than any religious symbols or theological emblems. As Le Corbusier said, “The human head … is a box into which one can pour pell-mell the bits of a problem. Let it ‘float,’ ‘marinate,’ ‘ferment.’ Then one day, out of a spontaneous burst of inner being the click is produced. … It is born.” (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) The site & the box of miracles Another factor that contributes to the state of ecstasy is the “floating box of miracles.” Here the Box of Miracles is the empty concrete square like the worship space of the Church at Firminy. Jeong simply added floating, because Le Corbusier, who emphasized the importance of the harmony and balance between structure and its surrounding environment, as well as the right angles of the two, “lifted up the Box of Miracles from the ground in order to make it to float for the religious building in Firminy.” “The Box of Miracles was originally invented at the beginning of 1950s as a Spontaneous Theatre, and was considered of equal value to the space of worship in a religious building.” In other words, the key point of a Box of Miracles is at spontaneity itself which, according to Le Corbusier, defines the nature of creativity. The Worship Space of the Church at Firminy (Photo courtesy of pinterest.com) Spontaneity The term spontaneity here must be distinguished from improvisation, as the latter literally does not require any form of prior contemplation. The Spontaneous Theatre has meaning in the sense that it is an area where people can truly express their feelings through creative acts and inspiration. Le Corbusier’s conceptualism of spontaneity which is the core essence of creativity, is based on patient search for the maturity of an idea. “Once idea becomes fully mature and reaches its perfect point, the solution emerges ‘at one time’ and ‘at a stroke,’ so to speak, spontaneously.” Hence, without thought and patient search, spontaneity simply becomes meaningless. According to Jeong, the Box of Miracles, also known as the Spontaneous Theatre, works as both a common denominator and point of uniqueness for the Church at Firminy when comparing it to the other two final works of Le Corbusier. It is because although the Box of Miracles are present in all structures, the one at the Church at Firminy is floating, and the architect’s constant contemplation on how to integrate the structure into the site gives up different geometry of vision and system of expression, making it a "new type of church." Park Joo-hyun julia1114@hanyang.ac.kr

2018-04 02 Headline News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Controlling Hydrogen in a Chemical

During the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics, Hyundai allowed free trial rides of NEXO, their new fuel cell vehicle, to twenty thousand people, deriving huge attention and public interest on the new innovation of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. A total of 733 vehicles were reserved on the 19th of March which was the first day of sale by pre-order. This attention to fuel cell vehicles has also increased the interest in the methods the consumers can receive their fuel: hydrogen. Professor Suh Young-woong (Department of Chemical Engineering) introduced a novel method of the transfer of hydrogen through his research, "2- (N-Methylbenzyl) pyridine: A Potential Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier with Fast H2 Release and Stable Activity in Consecutive Cycles." Suh's research paper was published in the ChemSusChem journal. Hydrogen is the main fuel cars like NEXO require in order to run. However, researchers face an immense difficulty when working with this sensitive gas. Hydrogen is great when powering the car itself. However, the transport of this gas requires much pressure and delicacy. For example, if hydrogen is made in Ulsan, it needs to be transported to major cities such as Seoul, since people will need to charge their cars. In order to transport this hydrogen, the gas needs to be pressured under 700 bars (the unit of measuring pressure), with specially produced tanks. This presents the danger of enormous explosion as well as economic problems. Collaborating with three other universities to alleviate these current concerns, Suh helped introduce a new chemical substance that can store and release hydrogen safely. This new chemical material allows hydrogen to inflow and release within itself at a certain temperature. This results in a massive improvement over the current status as it can transport much more hydrogen in a single tank, with much more safety. Moreover, they can release hydrogen from the chemical at 230 degrees Celsius, while the present technology requires a temperature of 270 degrees Celsius. This chemical material can even be reused up to a hundred times, which even makes it more efficient. The image of the new chemical structure The two arrows are showing the inflow and the release of Hydrogen. (Photo courtesy of Suh) This research took each of the three teams one and a half years to finish. They had to go through endless trial and error procedures with seven different chemicals. “There wasn't any preliminary research we could have referenced. Some chemicals didn't work, and some chemicals would work but released hydrogen at the same 270 degrees Celsius,” reminisced Suh. As a result of their efforts, Suh was able to find a method that could inpour and discharge hydrogen from the chemical. This chemical is not yet fully developed in its validity. However, this is the closet chemical that is on the verge of commercialization. "Communicate with a lot of people and practice reading and writing!" Suh is currently researching not only the storage of hydrogen, but the creation of hydrogen itself. His research team is working on producing hydrogen from biomass, which is organic matter whose residual energy can be harvested to produce consumable energy. He is trying his best to develop technology related to hydrogen, an alternative fuel the whole world is anticipating. “As a professor, I want to produce a lot of outstanding researchers to conduct better research in society,” said Suh. “And to all Hanyangians, I wish for each and every one of you to find your own unique path and to fully dedicated yourself to it!” On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-03 26

[Academics]The Beauty of Dynamic Tensions

A. S. Byatt is the famous British writer known in Korea for winning the Park Kyong-ni Prize last year. Peter Mathews (English Language & Literature), who has been interested in her work for more than 15 years, recently wrote an analytical article "Dynamic tensions in A. S. Byatt’s 'A Lamia in the Cevennese'" which focuses on the pattern she often uses. “I came to Hanyang 8 years ago to balance my research and teaching,” smiled Mathews. "A Lamia in the Cevennese" (1998) is part of a short story collection named Elementals: Stories of Fire and Ice (1998). In this collection, A. S. Byatt challenges the traditionally associated negativity in "cold philosophy" or "intellect." Therefore, she creates dynamic tensions between logic and emotion, reality and myth, and so on. In many works of literature and art, passion is often referred to as the birthplace of art and motivation, while logic and intellectuality are perceived as things that deter such beauty. Byatt writes against the conventional assumptions and expectations of the readers. Specifically, in the story "A Lamia in the Cevennese" (1998), the main character, an artist named Bernard Lyccet-Kean, moves to southern France to find a lamia in his pool. Lamia here refers to a mythical creature that is half women and half snake. She tries to seduce Bernard when he shows no interest in romance but in art. In this way, Byatt associates Bernard with both "cold" and "hot," creating the dynamic tension. She uses various measures to bring such tension throughout the story. For instance, Byatt creates tension between myth and reality by portraying lamia, a mythical creature, threatening to but eventually failing to enter Bernard’s reality. Such tension persists throughout the collection. "I think of writing simply in terms of pleasure. It's the most important thing in my life, making things. Much as I love my husband and my children, I love them only because I am the person who makes these things." From the interview with The Guardians, A. S. Byatt. (Photo courtesy of British Council) Mathews aimed to “try and find a key and pattern in understanding her work.” He used Byatt’s other works at the beginning of the Elementals to build a structure that applies to the story about the lamia and Bernard, which is in the latter part of his essay. Taking the relatively short time of only four weeks to write, as he was on his sabbatical last year, he had to read all of the articles that were written on A. S. Byatt and re-read some of her writings to put this essay together. “When you are working in this field, you draw a lot from what you read along the way,” mentioned Mathews. The piles of books that filled his library-like office silently supported his statement. Mathews was inspired to become a professor in English Literature in a class that he took in his second year of university. “That was the first time I was inspired to study something in depth. From there, I followed my inclinations,” smiled the professor. Now, he is getting a step closer to his teenage dream of becoming a writer. “I just finished a story, my first serious adult story, as of this morning,” said Mathews. The title is 'Patrick White Square' , and it imagines a world where his home country of Australia is a world power, such that all British kids have to read Patrick White (a renowned Australian writer), like how in reality Australian kids currently have to read British novels. With his academic interest in literary theory, Mathews plans to keep on writing articles and essays in the field. Art collections, endless shelves of books, and guitars in his office seem to tell a lot about who Peter Mathews is: a delightful and dedicated scholar. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-03 26

[Academics]Constructing an Image of a Region

Everyone has a certain image of a location, whether they received this image directly or passively. In the study of tourism, this image is also a field that needs to be studied in order to understand the behavior of tourists. Professor Kim Nam-jo (Division of Tourism), showed this relativeness through his article "Destination Personality, Destination Image, and Intent to Recommend: The Role of Gender, Age, Cultural Background, and Prior Experiences." Kim developed the research with his student, Kim Woo-hyuk. “This research started with the popularity of ‘Gangnam Style,’ when the location Gangnam caught the world’s attention,” Kim started off. "Gangnam Style," a popular song by Korean artist Psy, was a big hit, ranking second on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart. Along with the popularity of the song, the interest towards this particular location named Gangnam also drew interest from foreign tourists. Therefore, Kim and his student, Kim Woo-hyuk, started research on the interpretation and the image of this particular area. Kim's research attempted to comprehend the characteristics of this area and the image tourists have of it. “There are two types of images tourists receive,” explained Kim. An organic image is an image a particular individual receives without intention. For example, people living in or around Seoul are mostly familiar with Gangnam through their everyday experiences such as interactions with the news, transportation, or the people around them. This allows a natural formation of an image of Gangnam. In contrast, an induced image is made through the opposite manner. It is created when an individual intentionally seeks out information about a particular region. “When these two images combine, the image of the region Gangnam could be strengthened and lead to the creation of a destination personality. This destination personality can lead to an actual effect of visiting the region,” said Kim. As tourism is not a study that has direct cause-and-effect relationships, they had to spend additional time and effort verifying the existing logical structure. They re-examined and demonstrated the structure based on standards such as the destination personality, image, and intention of the tourists. Moreover, they connected their proven logical structure to satisfaction and loyalty, to search for a point to emphasize when promoting Gangnam. This type of research required actual responses from tourists, which were collected though surveys and in-person interviews. Kim had surveyed 20 questions and interviewed around 320 people. Kim enjoys his busy, everyday life. Through this research, Kim was able to prove the logical structure they had initially started with, through the example of Gangnam, known to foreigners through the song "Gangnam Style." Currently, Kim is conducting research on Gyeong-ju. Due to the recent earthquake that occurred, Kim is studying the changes in the area's image after the incident. “It’s only a small region of Gyeong-ju that was damaged from the earthquake. However, the overall image of Gyeong-ju has become negative,” explained Kim. Seen through this example, Kim is working on a strategy that could be made to solve this kind of prejudice. Kim is not only conducting research, but he is also actively working as the President of the Tourism Sciences Society of Korea. He is enjoying every project he is involved in, and is planning on continuing to do so. “A lot of students aren’t sure of their passion or their future career in our school. Even though you aren't sure, there is definitely something inside you that makes your heart pound. I hope every Hanyangian can find and specify their dreams and bring them out to the bigger world. Widen the prospects of your thinking skills!” On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Jin-myeong

2018-03 20

[Academics]Offering Insight into South Korea's Political-economic Discourse

Ever since the founding of nation-states, a state’s politics, especially regarding national security and the economy, have always been two of the top categories of importance for it to survive and gain recognition among other competing states. Hence, proper analysis and assessments of these fields are crucial to predict and enforce future regulations and laws that would have major effects on the direction the country will take. This has once again been emphasized by Yong-Soo Eun, (Department of Political Science) who recently published an article titled “Introduction: making sense of Korean discourses and the East Asian regional order,” in the Special Section of the renowned journal the Pacific Review. This article about South Korean perspectives on the evolving regional order in East Asia is a unique project that underwent three years of preparation by collaborating with eight other professors, researchers, and historians. “We believe that South Korea plays a crucial role in East Asian regional politics, because South Korea is in the top 10 world economic and military powers, and is also well-developed in both technological and societal fields based on democracy,” said Eun. "I always had an interest in our society. Studying about our society led me to study foreign policies, which again led me to publish this article with eight other intellectuals in the field." Although there had been many other studies and research papers regarding East Asian regional political analysis in the past, Eun’s paper is special as it is the first and only existing study that focuses on South Korea’s perspective and stance based on discourse analysis. An example of a discourse analysis case in this article is how Korean intellectuals perceive the recent Japanese Constitutional reform issue, or how they perceive China’s rapid economic growth and its influence on China-U.S. relations. After analyzing the discussions made among the Korean intellectuals and politicians, it then suggests a more reasonable direction or stance South Korea should take on the matter. The article is based on the premise that looking into such discussions rather than a certain policy itself is crucial in deciding foreign policies. This is because when implementing a foreign policy, it is necessary to be able to “sell” the ideology and reasoning behind it, even to the point where citizens who lack knowledge regarding the field can understand, accept, and support it. Furthermore, the article especially draws attention to South Korea and particularly to its discourses, expanding upon constructivist theoretical insights and shows how they matter in foreign policy-making and state behavior. Of course, as there are innumerable factors that can impact a state’s politics, the article mainly focuses on the security-economy nexus. Park Joo-hyun julia1114@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-03 05

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] The Result of a Small Curiosity

For centuries, cancer has been mankind’s mulish enemy that has taken away countless lives. Scientists and researchers are unceasingly putting effort into developing a cure for cancer, including Choi Je-min (Department of Life Science) who recently paved another road to effectively treating cancer in his paper “Regulation of chitinase-3-like-1 in T cell elicits Th1 and cytotoxic responses to inhibit lung metastasis.” First, starting his research from a small curiosity for a certain component in our cell called chitinase, Choi unveiled the secret related to the immune system for cancer and accomplished the first step of creating a drug for the disease. "My research began from the question 'why?'" Chitin may sound familiar due to its presence in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crabs, lobsters, and shrimps and some insects and molluscs. A derivative of the word is chitinase, which is a component that reshapes or dissolves and digests chitin for animals. Such a component also exists in the human body, which has no specific function of its own. Knowing this fact, Choi was eager to find out why it still exists in our body and what it does. Without a function, the component lost its name and has come to be called ‘chitinase-3-like-1.’ “If it is completely useless, why do we have it? When such a question arises, we biologists experiment in one of two ways: remove it or increase its amount. In this case, I decided to remove it to see what happens in the testing mouse. Since chitinase is used to protect the body in plants, I guessed that it would have something to do with our immune system.” After removing the component from the mouse, Choi’s discovery was surprising. The type of cell called T cell which plays a key role in cell-mediated immunity, specifically Th1 and CTL, were greatly activated. In other words, chitinase-3-like-1 were acting as the deactivator of the T cells, which play a central role in battling cancer. Choi had two model mice in his experiment, one with the component and the other without it. He inserted cancer cells in both mice and compared the outcome. Expectedly, the mouse without the component showed much lower development of cancer while the other showed the opposite. This means by removing chitinase-3-like-1, which allows the T cells to be activated, immunity for cancer considerably increases. “The experiment let me figure out that if chitinase-3-like-1 are removed from our body, it could work as an excellent anticancer treatment.” Quenchingly, his question was answered by the result of his experiment. Choi and his students are conducting their research on chitinase-3-like-1. Based on his finding, Choi took another step to develop an anticancer drug. Since it is impossible to remove DNA from the human body, there had to be another way to remove the component from our body. Therefore, he went ahead and worked to create a drug that restrains the chitinase-3-like-1-creating DNA from producing more of the component. With a technique called RNA-interference which removes the undesired or mutated RNA in the body, Choi targeted the chitinase-3-like-1 RNA after converting it to RNA from DNA and attempted to remove the undesired component to increase cancer immunity. Using a technique called peptide-based drug delivery, Choi attached the RNA version of the component with peptide bonds in the drug and aimed to spread the medicament throughout the body. This resulted in deactivation of the chitinase-3-like-1-creating DNA and thus an escalation of cancer immunity. “Although it could take about a decade before this drug becomes commercialized and widely used, it could be a breakthrough once it does. The underlying prinicple of my research is always to produce a useful outcome that could actually be put into use and not just end in the lab. I could say that our establishment philosophy ‘Love in deed’ fits well with my goal,” smiled Choi. He emphasized that it is always important to sometimes question the basic things, even the things that are already proven to be a fact. Through his research and experiments, Choi wants to discover more unknown facts. Choi will continue his research to experiment with cells and create more drugs to be used practically. "'Love in deed' in the laboratory!" Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hayang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-02 28

[Academics]What Makes People Prosocial

Have you ever wondered what makes some people particularly social and not others? Kim, Sanghag (Department of Sociology) tried to identify the relationship among empathy, attachment to parents, and prosociality. Prosociality refers to behaviors that are intended to benefit others. Kim mentioned that there was not a lot of research done to figure the relations among the aforementioned three aspects of human psychology. To make matters worse, research on empathy predominantly focused on older children from around 11 to 15 years of age, as morality was conceived as a cognitive process. Kim is enthusiastically explaining about his work. That focus has recently shifted to younger children – as young as just a few months old – and the findings in the differences in emotional empathy at such an early stage have emphasized the importance in the influence of nurture on empathy and the prosociality of a person. Kim stressed that one of the strengths of his recent paper titled, ‘Relational Antecedents and Social Implications of the Emotion of Empathy: Evidence from Three Studies’ is the quality of data that the team has collected over the course of 12 years. In order to discern the link among empathy, attachment, and prosociality, the research team had used three forms of studies: family study, play study, and the parent-child study. In the studies, a child’s empathy for either the mother or father was elicited under a scripted, stimulated distress paradigm, where the parents acted upon a detailed script to see the child’s reaction. The entire process was recorded for later coding, capturing the child’s expressions of emotion through facial, verbal, and behavioral means. The child’s attachment security was measured under the Strange Situation Paradigm (SSP) and the Attachment Q-Set. In the former measure, the child was left with a stranger and the action was analyzed through coding; while in the latter measure, the parents were asked about the attachment security. The last and probably the most important measure, the child’s prosociality was measured in a peer context in order to determine whether the child took turns when playing, askings for things nicely, and so on. The solid line represents a significant effect, and the dashed line represents a nonsignificant effect. Graph A represents the mother– child dyads and B for the father– child dyads. Further explanation is below. Photo courtesy of Kim Through such vigorous research from middle class families with various educational and ethnic backgrounds to high risk families with financial issues, Kim and the research team were able to draw lines between the factors. Attachment here turned out to be a moderated mediation. Moderated mediation is a statistical term where the effect of an independent variable A on an outcome variable C via a mediator variable B differs depending on the levels of a moderator variable D. In this context, the effect of ‘empathy’ on the outcomes ‘prosociality’ depends on the level of the moderator's ‘attachment security’, as you can see in the graph. There is an arrow pointing to the solid line between empathy and prosociality. What is surprising about the finding is the impact of empathy on prosociality, which is stronger when the attachment level is lower. This goes against the common perception that the better the relationship between the parents and a child, the better the child behaves in society. However, this does not necessarily mean that children are more prosocial when they have a bad relationship with their parents, but that the impact of empathy is noticeably stronger under an undesirable context. “This research will provide supporting evidence that prosocial behavior and empathy is at least partially due to the environment, as infants are a good subject to see the effects of nature and nurture. They do not have any other contaminating factors that the researchers have to take into account,” said Kim. "Don't be afraid to take the path that nobody else chooses. With the know-hows acquired from the deserted place, you will be able to succeed in the well known fields too," encouraged Kim. Kim, unlike most social science researchers, is highly interested in what induces positive aspects from people such as happiness, morality, and identity. “Social science and social psychology to be specific, are great tools in explaining to me and the people around me. What we feel, acknowledge, and learn is what makes this area so fascinating for me,” smiled Kim. He plans to continue his research further on the three key words both in Korea and in the United States. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2018-02 04

[Academics][Excellent R&D] From Harmful to Useful

It is undoubtable that global warming and air pollution are two of the most serious and urgent problems that countries all over the world need to worry about as members of the planet. However, due to the industrial development and the necessities of life, goals and promises of reducing harmful gas are not successfully being met by the majority of the countries that pledge to do so. Sang Byoung-in (Department of Chemical Engineering), in an attempt to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, has suggested a way to make use of the bountiful resources around us in his research by the name, ‘Power to Gas Technology for Stability of Future Energy Provision.’ "The amount of carbon dioxide can be effectively reduced by capturing it and turning it into a useful gas." Previously, there has been an approach suggested to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It was to capture and store it, then bury it deep underground or under the ocean ground so that it would not cause any pollution in the air. This method is not being pervasively used because of the unfitting geological condition of Korea and its tremendous cost considering the amount of carbon dioxide that needs to be handled. To counteract this complication, Sang researched methods to utilize the captured carbon dioxide. By capturing the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and separating hydrogen and methane in it, a new source of energy is created. Since methane gas is used in almost every aspect of our society, Sang’s research could greatly contribute to alleviating the current situation concerning air pollution and energy depletion. “Hydrogen could also be derived, but methane is a better option as it has a much wider range of usage and that it is far easier to store. Hydrogen would require costly equipment to deposit, unlike methane, which could be stored within affordability.” There are several reasons why methane gas is such a good product out of carbon dioxide. Since methane gas is commonly used in our daily life, converting carbon dioxide into methane gas would be both economically and environmentally favorable. It also means this new source of energy will be extremely convenient and effortless to supply. Since 90 to 100 percent of Korea is covered with methane gas pipelines, the newly generated energy will be conveniently supplied through the current infrastructure. Moreover, unlike other gases such as hydrogen, methane gas is easy to store because it does not require a special tank for storage. Hydrogen is difficult to store due to its minuscule molecular size, demanding special tanks of higher price. Most importantly, methane gas is incomparably more widely used—for power, heat, mobility, and more. By turning carbon dioxide into mathane, useful energy can be generated. (Photo courtesy of Sang) Furthermore, Sang’s research also focuses on cultivating the microorganism that produces methane on its own only by feeding on carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Such a microorganism is called hydrogenotrophic methanogen (methane-producing organism that feed on hydrogen), which could be cultivated in water of 55 to 65 degrees Celsius. Inside water, just by absorbing carbon dioxide and hydrogen, the microorganism could produce methane. The problem is, these microorganisms are quite fastidious and challenging to harvest. They are strictly anaerobic, meaning they cannot survive once they encounter oxygen. To overcome this challege, Sang is currently researching to successfully nurture the microorganism. In addition, his further goal of research is to cultivate methanogen that does not require hydrogen. The reason why the microorganism feeds on hydrogen is because they need electrons in it. However, Sang wants to cut down the cost of nurturing these microorganism by removing hydrogen in their production. To provide what they need for survival, Sang will research deeper on feeding the microorganism directly from the electrode so that the process of microorganism producing methane would be more effective in terms of cost and productivity. Sang and his students in his lab are researching to evolve microorganism that feeds on electrons. Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-01 31

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Producing Energy by Wearing Clothes

Clothes that create electricity is not something in a movie anymore. In the midst of searching for various renewable energy, Professor Hong Jin-pyo (Department of Physics) created a new energy source that is created through friction in a single thread, as demonstrated in his research, ‘Hierarchically Nanostructured 1D Conductive Bundle Yarn-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerators.’ Hong conducted his research on energy-producing threads. When designing a wearable device, people generally think of light and slim devices attached on one’s clothes or body, usually charged by a solar heat system. This is referred as a two-dimension technology, as an object is placed upon another object. This does have its own benefits but also contains deficits such as weight and energy sources. Therefore, Hong created a one-dimension energy source – a thread that is used when weaving clothes. “Once a material is attached to clothing, the efficiency lacks uniformity,” explained Hong. He invented a thread that can produce energy itself, without having to attach anything onto a particular piece of clothing. The threads that make up the clothing could create energy itself. This thread, also named as a ‘triboelectric nanogenerator’, is a structure made from the notion of friction that we experience in our daily lives. For example, when we rub a balloon to our hair, friction occurs, resulting in a form of spiky hair. This phenomenon occurs when an electron is moved from one object to another, when these two objects continuously collide with each other. Depending on the characteristics of an object, one object would lose electrons and the other would gain electrons, meaning some sort of slight energy is formed. In this thread, polymer and aluminum are used; the former collects the electrons and the latter releases the electrons. Therefore, once the body wearing the clothing weaved from this thread moves, energy is created. The microscophic strucuture of a thread. (Photo courtesy of Hong) This triboelectric nanogenerator is still in the midst of its research. As this thread is extremely thin, Hong’s research team created a conductive bundle yarn so that they could have more strength. Moreover, he attached polymer-like nanostructures onto a single thread, so that the thread could have an increased surface area of energy production. Once energy is created through a larger surface area, bigger energy could be created within a single thread. This whole process is also known as a tribo electric effect. This one-dimension thread has a bright future in front of them, as technology closer to human are fondly being conducted on. “Once a sensor could be attached onto the thread, even more tasks could be done. This sensor could send whatever information they require to the owner’s smartphone, once the sensor adapts a Bluetooth function,” commented Hong, when asked about the future of this invention. He wished that this function would be able to let citizens to have control of their IoT (Internet of Things, a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, object, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers) through their energy producing clothes. "Keep trying! No matter what!" As Hong has not majored in clothing and textiles, he is not yet an expert of clothing, but has not been afraid of pioneering this area. “I had been proceeding my research in semiconductors at first. As new technologies evolved, I believed it was important to keep up with these changes to improve what I have been initially doing,” reminisced Hong. As he had achieved an unexpected success through his passion, he also gave the same advice to all Hanyangians. “Don’t make excuses. What really matters is whether you tried your best or not. I wish all of you can improve yourself through endless challenges!” On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju and Lee Jin-myung

2018-01 21

[Academics]Combination of Machinery and Medication

Diseases such as myocardial infarction, which are related to the blockage of blood vessels, are threatful diseases to both the suffering patients and the doctors who cure them. As vessels require great sensitivity and attention in the process of treatment, professor Jang Gun-hee (Department of Mechanical Engineering) proposed an alternative way in his article: ‘Magnetic Helical Robot for Targeted Drug-Delivery in Tubular Environments.' Jang has been working on this robot for 9 years. “Once one’s blood vessel is blocked, doctors have to use a thin tube made of medical grade materials, called a catheter,” Jang started off. With the catheter, doctors have to push it through the vessel to find the blocked area, inject a liquid for dissolution, then drill it out. This process itself is indeed difficult as they mostly have to depend on a doctor's experience and skills. However, doctors face another difficulty, with their own health affected during the procedure. "Doctors have to face countless radiation when curing a patient, since they have to keep track of the position of the catheter though x-rays. The doctors even wear clothes made of lead to obstruct the radiation, but still is not enough,” explained Jang. In order to solve this dangerous progress, Jang’s research team created a micro robot. This micro robot is made to swim within a vessel of seven to eight millimeters, to transport and emit the designated drug to the intended spot to dissolute the clot, and to drill itself on the clot, just as the catheter would do. This micro robot is moved by the magnetic field created outside of the body, allowing the doctors to be less exposed to radiation. Jang commented, “Once this method is in commercialization, doctors would be able to remote control the robots outside of the operating room, while having better controls within the surgery.” A picture describing the structure of a micro robot (Photo courtesy of Jang) From the midst of the interview, Jang explained the motivation of his research. “My mother’s coronary artery had been blocked 10 years ago and, doctors, therefore, had to insert a few catheters in her body. As this is a genetic phenomenon, I gave attention to the process and then realized the difficulties of these surgeries,’ reminisced Jang. Studies on magnetic robots have been ongoing since the past, especially in Switzerland and Germany. However, their research was mostly concentrated on the swimming itself, while Jang’s research team had to make the robot in command of various movements, which had to go through various trials and errors. Jang and his students are standing beside the machine they have made by themselves. Jang’s research team had to import pure iron from China, produce the frame in another factory, and transport this four-ton-machinery to school in order to materialize the machine required to magnetically steer the micro robot. Students had to coil the iron by hand, assemble the pieces together, to complete building this two-meter machine. Jang emphasized the importance of the activeness of Hanyangians through this example. “I continuously tell my students ‘no one can achieve anything if we can’t’. I hope students make a higher goal and achieve their dreams even if it takes a long time because they all have the capability do to so.” On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun