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2018-01 14

[Academics]Cleaning the Air, Even of Weapons

Environmental conservation and weapon disarmament may seem to have no relevancy. However, Professor Kim Ki-hyun of Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, in his long battle against environmental degradation, has found a common ground on which both fields could find a way to advance towards their goals. His recent research paper, “Metal-organic frameworks as media for the catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents” introduces the utilization of metal-organic frameworks (MOF), previously used to filter pollutants in the air, to purify the air of toxins emitted from chemical weapons. Kim has already published a number of paper regarding the utilization of metal-organic framework. The key technology behind this research is the MOF. It is essentially a collection of multi dimensional sockets created when linking metals through the means of organic compounds. These nano-scaled sockets act as traps that capture undesired materials in the air. Kim explained that a crucial field of focus in creating MOFs is to use the smallest amount of substance possible to create the largest number of sockets. In practice, there are several options through which it could be put to use, one such option is the absorption mechanism, which is collecting as much pollutants as possible and disposing them. Another option is the catalytic treatment, which collects harmful substances and releases them in a safe form. Kim explained that there are two types of research. One involves numerous experiements and analysis, attempting to create or discover something new, and another tests out theories of other researchers and expands existing studies in depth. He explained that this research fell into the latter category, also known as a review research. “In a large frame, it’s part of a global effort to disarm weapons of warfare. This specific research began on the basis of environmental development technology, which expanded to include harmful materials from chemical weapons.” Kim added that the research came to being when several substances included in environmental pollutants were discovered to overlap from those of chemical weapons. Of the hundreds of existing research on environmental development and disarmament of chemical weapons, he took the revelant ones and “reviewed” them on the basis of his research. Kim explained that working to save the environment had been his calling since before becoming a professor. In the big picture, Kim explained that this study is just one of the many existing illustrations of how MOFs could be adapted and utilized. In the process of attempting to make the air free of pollution, a calling that Kim has had for over 30 years, the MOF was a crucial discovery that supported many of his researches. At the most initial stage, the MOF was designed to capture and reduce CO2 emission in the atmosphere. Now it is used in a number of fields, used for transporting medical substances, handling radioactive materials, and of course, to purify the air of certain substances. It is also applied in the actual market, with Kim having worked with industries of automobiles, electric cigarettes, and farms to eliminate undesired scent in their products and facilities. This research was part of a review to assess the potential scale of MOF utilization. "I think that 'boys be ambitious' is the appopriate phrase for students today" At the request for a word of advice for students of Hanyang, he referred to an old quote, “boys be ambitious”. He explained that it was sad for him to see students so desperate to begin a career and find a job right after graduation. In his days as a university student, many people sought admission to graduate school, with a number of people aspiring to become a professor. However, he now feels that most of the graduate school students in his major these days consist of foreigners, and only a handful of Korean students. Kim thinks that many young students today lack a long term planning of their lives. “I would like to see a little more amibiton from my students”. Lee Changhyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-01 08 Headline News

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Big Data and the Key to Handling Them

In the society where social networking is becoming more and more inseparable from people, an ever-increasing number of users are getting involved. As a consequence, the ocean of big data in corresponding area is expanding its capacity, and there has been a need to efficiently analyze and organize the data. In his Big Data Science Laboratory, Kim Sang-wook (Department of Computer Science) has been continuously researching the topic. In his recent paper “High-performance graph data processing on a single machine,” Kim has proposed a method to increase the performance of data processing and to efficiently arrange the mass of data. A graph or a network is a complex arrangement of nods and edges, which are the components of an online world such as its users and webpages and the relationships they have, respectively. In a social network, for example, each user will be labeled as a nod and the relationships that users have with other users or webpages will be marked as edges. “Where could this graph be used? Numerous types of data could be modeled in the form of this graph. For example, Facebook users and their friends, bloggers and their neighbors, and the recommender system of search engines such as Youtube, Amazon and more are all related to the graph of nods and edges.” Depending on who views what how many times or which page receives the most views, weights could be added onto the edge between the user and the page, zooming out of which will form a complex web of a graph. Big data is usually calculated in a matrix, the process which is made more efficient by Kim. (Photo courtesy of Kim) How Kim made the graph data processing more efficient is by creating three constructive approaches. First, he made matrix multiplication of data simpler and easier by balancing the load over each thread blocks of the matrix. When there is a poor balancing of load input in each row of the matrix, the multiplication process could take a long time and the performance might not be excellent. With the balanced threads of the matrix, however, even distribution of workloads would resolve this problem and it would be much less time-consuming compared to the previous method. Second, Kim created a graph engine, which is a storing software that handles data in a productive manner. In order to analyze a graph, the data must be saved in a disc first. In doing so, the tool that helps the disc to save the data more efficiently is the graph engine, which Kim proposed in his paper. “The strength of our laboratory is that we research on two aspects of data. By researching the performance-wise aspect of the data and also the analytical aspect, we leave no chance of missing a single detail of matter.” Thirdly, Kim introduced a placement algorithm that could simplify the arrangement of nods in a graph engine. Previously, when a graph undergoes a process of analysis in a graph engine, the data was put in the exact same order as it entered. Clusters of irrelevant nods could cause a delay in the data processing, which Kim solved by discovering that by sorting the nods of similar traits together, the overall performance of graph processing could show a big difference. With the same data, different outcomes could be derived by finding out the advantageous groupings of nods. With his current research of graph engine and graph modeling, he could use them as stepping stones to move onto his next research. Kim’s future research is directed toward community detection and recommender systems. With the modeled graph of data, analysis of the data could easily be made and the members of a social community with similar interests could conveniently be detected. On a similar note, a recommender system could be improved by analyzing what a user likes, clicks, views, buys, or prefers with the graph: a more accurate recommender system could be developed. With the building blocks he has worked on, Kim will be building on more as he carries on his future research. "Characteristics of the data could be figured out by analyzing the graphs." Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-01 03

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Calculating the Effects of the English Rule and American Rule

Have you ever lost a lawsuit? There are two ways to resolve the financial issues concerning legal costs after the resolution. The first method is called the English Rule, where the loser of a lawsuit pays the winner’s legal fees. The other one is the American Rule, where each party handles their own legal cost. Since the 1990s, there has been a general consensus among economists that the former improves the quality of a lawsuit and reduces trial costs. Yoon Jung-mo (Professor, Department of Economics & Finance) was the one to propose the question, ‘is it really?’ in his recent article, ‘Estimating the Effects of the English Rule on Litigation Outcomes.’ When asked if he has anything to tell his pupils, Yoon said, "you are all doing excellent, so I wish you can stop worrying," with a warm smile on his face. Every government aims to reduce the number of lawsuits, especially Korea and the United States. The increased number of court cases lead to increased government and societal spending on legal institutions and its personnel. The key to amend such issues is to reduce the real number of law suits to alleviate the burden of the court and increase the case quality, which is determined by the chance of a plaintiff winning the case and the amount of the settlement. Therefore, according to the long research in the economics field that concluded the English Rule, a lot of people argue for the rule. Currently, Korea is running based on the American Rule, but the law limits the amount of money that can be covered by the loser of the case. The prevalent textbook conclusion is mostly derived from the comparison of the Florida case, where they switched from the American Rule to the English Rule in 1980 and then flipped back in 1985. Because measuring the economic impact of a legal system can sometimes look like comparing apples to oranges, the case of Florida provided the perfect background for legal economists to analyze the impact. Yoon mentioned that there are two main significances that the paper proposes. First is that there are more proofs accumulated after the 1990s when the consensus was initially made. The initial paper studies the cases before 1980 and cases between 1980 to 1985. However, it neglected the cases after the second change of the rule, which could have critical impact to the interpretation. Also, Yoon and his co-author implemented a new way of making a conclusion. Traditionally, the economic impact is measured and reported as a fixed number. However, this cannot entail all the complex probabilities behind the result. Using the bound analysis method, researchers can predict the best and worse case scenarios and give a range of possible influences. The second significance is that Yoon and his co-author took the cases that were settled during the process into account. As only a few litigations continue to the very end of the judicial process, it is very important to consider the changed behavior of people according to the increased or decreased amount of pressure resulting from the verdict. Yoon is enthusiastically giving an explanation about his paper. Yoon’s scrutinized analysis, however, contradicts what has been believed for a long time. When it comes to the trial outcomes, the range derived from the bound analysis does not signify any relevance between the change of legal system and the trial cost. It does increase the amount of settlement, while decreasing the number of settled cases. “The hardest part of continuing such rigorous research was to overcome the constant skepticism,” said Yoon. According to him, it takes a long time for a researcher to complete a paper and for the paper to be accepted in a journal or presented in a conference. Believing in himself and moving forward regardless of the incredulity, Yoon will continue further to conduct research. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2017-12 26

[Academics]Insensibility of Hosting the Olympics and Its Hidden Negative Impacts

When the IOC (International Olympic Committee) officially announced Pyeongchang, South Korea as the host of the 23rd Olympic Winter games on July 6 of 2011, the whole nation was overwhelmed with joy. However, where does the joy and glory arise from? Despite all of the positive economic effects that hosting the Olympics produces, there are also negative opportunity costs and hidden expenses. Professor Ahn Yong-do of the Division of International Studies reveals the hidden costs of hosting the Olympics that the national media do not promote through his paper: “The Leontief Matrix, the Keynesian Cross, and Economic Insensibility of Hosting the Olympics: A Survey of the Korean Experience.” Ahn analyzes the hidden opportunity costs of hosting the Olympics through his paper. There are various feasibility studies (an assessment of the practicality of a proposed national plan) to evaluate the benefits and costs of hosting mega-events like the Olympics, Asian Games, and World Cup. For example, state-run research institutes use the Leontief Matrix or Keynesian Cross models to analyze the costs and benefits of hosting such events. Leontief Matrix is an input-output model which predicts the proper level of production of goods and services while the Keynesian Cross describes the relationship between an aggregate demand and the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). However, there are extensive flaws in such research methods, which Ahn depicts. “Such research methods are extremely inappropriate for national research institutes to utilize when predicting the benefits and costs of mega-events like hosting the Olympics. These events are macroeconomic, while the methods mentioned above are a closed-system and microscopic,” explained Ahn. Along with its problems of economic scope, the data accumulated by such research is exceedingly outdated and are also exorbitant to run the test. “The best option is to utilize the holistic cost-benefit analysis as a feasibility test which discovers and calculates all the hidden opportunity costs of hosting such events,” said Ahn. The most important criteria to consider when deciding to host an event in accordance with the national budget is the long-term productivity of the social overhead capital. “Let’s assume that we have a limited budget in our nation and we can either choose to build childcare facilities in a number of companies or to host the Olympics. Unlike what the media promotes, an increase in the GDP and job creation effects are merely similar between those two activities. Then, considering the long-term effects, obviously building childcare centers would be more plausible,” explained Ahn. Hosting mega-events like this year's Olympic games is not practical in the long-run, according to Ahn. Ahn also described another real-life example from the 2002 FIFA World Cup that proves macroeconomic risks in hosting mega-events. “In order to host the World Cup, South Korea constructed 10 stadiums in Sangam-dong that still require the national budget of 5 billion won as a fixed cost annually. However, when citizens use the airport highway, we have to spend our own money at the tollgate to support its construction costs which the government must have secured as its mandate budget. Comparing these two incidents, building an airport highway is more productive than hosting the World Cup in the long-run since we do not utilize the stadium as much as we demand highway usage,” described Ahn. The journey to produce this paper was arduous according to Ahn. Because the contents of the paper criticize the media and the government and their behaviors of covering people’s eyes, the procedure to find data to disprove the governmental decision was difficult. “I had to discover evidence for this paper through sometimes unofficial, desperate ways since the national research institutes would not provide the data passively. Thus, my research began in 2002 and was finally brought to a conclusion, just recently,” reminisced Ahn. Even though Ahn’s major is business management, his passion towards economics is extensive. “I am not an economist, but an economic learner. Economics is the most logical study in political science subjects which maintains my passion to reach forward,” said Ahn. Currently, Ahn’s goal is to produce his own version of books on the principles of economics in a groundbreaking way, similar to Paul Samuelson. “Students of Hanyang University are intelligent and passionate. But, I hope they stay out of the library and experience real life, which is the source of creativity!” Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-hyun

2017-12 12

[Academics]A World Without Heart Attacks

Cardiovascular disorder is one of the world’s most prominent causes of death. In Korea, it is only second in line to the most lethal disease, cancer. Naturally, its treatment has been a target of research for a wide scope of experts. To this pursuit, a proud achievement was made by Professor Yoo Hong-ki (Division of Electrical & Bioengineering), who worked with a group of researchers from related fields to devise a new method for treating a major, pervasive threat to human lives. Yoo explained the concepts of his research with great enthusiasm. Key concept: Theranostics A crucial terminology that effectively grasps the concept of this research is “theranostics”. This is a combination of two words: therapy and diagnostics. It refers to the simultaneous process of diagnosis and therapy. Despite the complicated terminology used in the title of the research, it can be simply explained as a new method of treating vascular disorders. An effective illustration could be made by looking at how this applies to heart attacks--the most representative case of cardiovascular disorders. A heart attack is caused by plaques in the coronary arteries or blood vessels around the heart. When solid substances, such as cholesterol, pile up in the vessels, they trigger inflammations that eventually create a tear. Through this rupture, external substances flow in in the blood vessels, creating blood clots that prevent the supply of air. Consequently, the heart muscles die of suffocation. The aim of this research is to locate dangerous inflammations in the overall blood vessels, and treat them at the same time. An illustration on inflammation of the tissues The means to visualize and treat inflammation in blood vessels started from the development of a bio-compatible nanocarrier. These nanoscale agents, equipped with inflammation-fighting drugs and fluorescent matter, were created to carry out two tasks: highlight inflamed areas and deliver the drug. The results were promising, as the carriers effectively produced accurate images of vascular inflammation. Furthermore, they could be maneuvered to target specific areas of inflammation, which minimized any undesired systemic effects of the drug. The success of the experiments showed a big progess in humanity’s efforts to visualize and treat vascular diseases. So far, the subjects of the experiments were laboratory mice, but when this could be applied to humans, it could finally mean the overcoming of one of the deadliest disorders on earth. The beginning and end This research first began as a joint study with a cardiologist from a fellow prestigious university, who also happened to be a close acquaintance of Yoo. In the initial stages, the target of the research was the accurate diagnosis of vascular disorders through the use of molecular imaging, which expanded to include treatment as well. The two brilliant minds saw the possibility for targeted treatment in the same manner of the diagnosis. Afterwards, more experts from a number of fields, from nanotechnology, imaging, to biochemistry, became a part of the research team. Yoo explained that good research requires expertise from a wide scope of related fields. Based on the published research, Yoo hopes to continue the study into clinical experiments, ultimately making it compatible to humans. In this pursuit, there are countless obstacles, with even the approval for experimentation on slightly larger animals requiring strict demands. Yoo looks forward to the application of his findings into clinical trials His personal journey throughout the research The presented research took approximately four years to conduct, and with so many members from different areas of expertise as well as interests, the research was a constant process of discussion and debate, as much as the study itself. Yoo recalled that it was like each person basically speaking different languages. Although this process of synchronizing a common goal was difficult, Yoo answered that it was also fulfilling and exciting, largely due to the expectation of what it could do for humanity in the future. His main priority throughout the research was to help people. What he did wasn’t for the purpose of making people’s lives more entertaining or comfortable; it was rather, about actually keeping them alive. Yoo’s reply for a word of advice for students of Hanyang was largely an extension of his attitude towards his research--to find an underlying passion. For the students insecure about their abilities and decisions regarding career and life, he would like to remind them that being a student of Hanyang itself is an indicator of their great potential. He feared to sound too cliché when he added, “Find what you want to do, and believe in yourself.” Lee Chang-hyunn pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-12 04 Headline News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Obesity, Everyone’s Enemy

Regardless of gender, age, and nationality, obesity is a health problem that is affecting an increasing number of people. While most people think obesity merely has to do with dietary habit, it shows close relations with metabolic diseases and cancer. In other words, obesity is not just caused by the consumption of large calories, but there are other possible factors to it. Kim Yong-hee (Department of Bio-Engineering), whose interest lies in obesity and the ways to prevent and cure it, discovered an innovative way to counteract obesity in his paper “Visceral adipose tissue macrophage-targeted TACE silencing to treat obesity-induced type 2 diabetes,” which was coauthored by two of the graduate school students of the department: Song Yoon-sung (2nd year) and Yong Seok-beom (3rd year). Kim explained that by targeting the inflammation caused by the excess fats, obesity can be treated. The existing method used to treat obesity was to suppress appetite by touching the nerve system, for it was mainly believed that the root cause of obesity was excessive-consumption. However, Kim discovered in his laboratory that obesity has to do with inflammation within fat-storing tissues, which are called adipose tissues. Inside a patient’s body, the excess fat that cannot be stored in the adipose tissue spreads to its surroundings, which then causes inflammation when in contact with other types of cells. A type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests foreign cellular debris called macrophage are largely responsible for obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. A breakthrough in Kim’s research is that obesity can be treated by preventing the accumulation of fat within the body, by controlling the inflammation through gene delivery, not by suppressing appetite. In such a scenario, the gene delivery system Kim and his students have invented in the laboratory refers to the targeted gene delivery system that is capable of selectively targeting the visceral (relating to the intestines) adipose tissue macrophages, which are the major cause of inflammation because they produce a type of protein called cytokine. The excess fats that cannot be stored in the adipose tissue spread to their surroundings, and when they come in contact with cytokines, that is when the inflammation springs. By targeting the inflammation, which is the root cause of obesity, the treatment for obesity is made possible. There have been several clinical studies that have highlighted the significance of inflammation regarding obesity, but few therapeutic approaches have been suggested. Through his research, Kim and his students have proposed a therapeutic strategy of targeted gene delivery that could safely treat the disease without any side effects. This strategy is also favorable in treating type 2 diabetes, which primarily occurs as a result of obesity. It is preventable by staying at a normal weight through regular exercise or dietary changes. This could also be the way to prevent obesity as well, which, in other words, means that the cause of the two diseases have the same outset, which is the inflammation within the tissues due to being overweight. Therefore, Kim’s proposal of therapeutic approach for obesity can also treat type 2 diabetes. Targeted gene delivery strategy could kill two birds with one stone. Building on his current studies, Kim’s future research aims to create more formulas for drugs that could treat obesity. “Liposuction is an extremely dangerous surgery because it sucks the good fats as well. Obesity is surely preventable or even cured for those who are not severely obese. However, those who are super-obese, their genes could transform into obese genes and this can affect their children. So, the targeted gene delivery approach can optimally be used in the future.” Kim specifically chose the topic of inflammation of obesity because he wanted to find a narrow gate and open it wide. Since not many solutions for obesity inflammation have been discovered, he wanted to delve into the studies of this topic and create a cure for the countless people waiting for treatment. Kim always aspires to study and research on topics that is subject to a breakthrough outcome. "I am interested in finding cures for diseases that do not have many treatments." Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kabg Cho-hyun

2017-11 28

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Inventing Eyes for Robots

Augmented Reality, self-driving cars, and facial recognition are no longer a technology of future. Such advanced technologies are deep in our daily lives. In order for machines to properly function as they are meant to, they need something called ‘machine vision’. Machine vision (MV) is the technology and method used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry. And the field that encompasses the subject is Computer Vision, which Lim majors. For December’s Researcher of the Month, News H interviewed Lim Jong-woo (Professor, Department of Computer Science) who recently won a major government project to acquire the source technology for such field. Lim is enthusiastically explaining how the technology can be applied in real lives. For example, with the structure modeling, calculating the altitude of a person's eye level (when wearing an AR/VR glasses) would be possble. The final goal of this four-year project is to develop a high-level video situation recognition technology based on structural modeling and geometrical analysis of images acquired in extremely congested situations such as the real environment. Structural modeling of a video means to draw lines and actually structure the surrounding environment within the video, either in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional form. Up to current technology, a system can process a single object in the video or occasionally multiple objects. However, it is not yet developed for computers to recognize and analyze a ‘congested’ video with dozens of moving objects, which is often the case in real life footage. “If developed further enough, a computer would be able to track irregular paths taken by a suspect from CCTV video and alert us,” mentioned Lim. (Left) Estimation of the structure of a space through existing technology (Right) Provisioned result of structure estimation (Photo courtesy of Lim) One of the ultimate goals of the project is to also integrate multi-object detection and tracking with the environment. “There are a lot of people trying to integrate detection and tracking technology,” said Lim. Because it is highly improbable for researchers to set a model human face for the computer to detect all human faces, integrating such technology with tracking a moving person is even more intricate and difficult. Nevertheless, if it does become reality, computers will be able to read the context of a specific video. For instance, because they can recognize each person, it would be able to write a storyline and understand relationships between characters in a show or a movie. As mentioned in the earlier part of the article, computer vision is a crucial part of augmented reality and autonomous cars. In the case of AR, the computer must be able to structure its environment to decide where to put the virtual object. Also, by such mapping, the machine can change its perspective in accordance with the user’s change of perspective. Furthermore, autonomous cars require even higher accuracy of computer vision in order to detect obstacles and prevent unwanted accidents. Unlike the facial detection of a camera app on our cellphone which is not really a matter of life and death, technology related to transportation has higher standards for that reason. "I aim to research for use, rather than a reasearch for research." Another surprising aspect of this research project plan is that the team will upload their findings on the web, free of charge as an open-source. When asked why not commercialize it, Lim answered “It is mutually beneficial for us to have the crowd test our algorithm and give feedback to us, as we cannot test it in every environment. Also, it is a trend to release algorithms open-source, because most of them fall short to be commercialized yet.” The research has begun this August and will be continued until the end of 2020. News H is looking forward to observing Lim’s progress and the social impact his team will bring. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-11 20

[Academics]Conducting on a Sturdy Building

The current society is suffering from various natural and man-made disasters starting from terrors to earthquakes, such as the recent earthquake that panicked the citizens in Pohang. When a strong impact is made upon the ground, buildings require enough solidity to endure damage in order to protect the people. For a stronger, safer building, professor Yoo Doo-yeol (Department of Architectural Engineering) introduced an improvised concrete in his paper, ‘Effect of fiber geometric property on rate dependent flexural behavior of ultra-high-performance cementitious composite’. Yoo wishes to make sturdy structures for the citizens' safety. Most buildings are made of concrete, and it takes a huge part on the safety of a building. Concrete is initially vulnerable in tension, so there are already improvised versions of concrete commonly used in North America. The new model contains Micro steel fibers within the concrete to prevent the concrete from breaking into two big pieces. Through the steel fiber, the concrete only results in having micro-cracks even when a sudden weight is stressed upon the concrete. In this already improvised concrete, Yoo made a further research to strengthen this concrete in both quasi-static (a state in which something is almost still, but not completely) and impacted states. A ‘quasi-static’ state refers to an ordinary state with only mere impacts such as the vibration of footsteps everyday. These two states require a different sturdiness for different purposes, and the researchers concentrate on improving both of these conditions. Yoo focused on the aspect ratio of the micro steel fibers installed in the current improvised concrete. Aspect ratio is a numerical figure of the division of the diameter from the length of the fiber. Once this aspect ratio was changed in a quasi-static state, Yoo found out that the solidity was maintained and the energy absorption force was strengthened even when the amount of micro steel fibers were reduced. With the same amount of micro steel fibers with the changed ratio, Yoo was able to discover that the energy absorption force almost doubled within a shocked state. The results made through different aspect ratios. Micro-cracks can be seen within the pictures. (Photo courtesy of Yoo) Yoo emphasized the importance of this improvised matter. “Protecting the citizens within the buildings is becoming an urgent matter as countless accidents are occurring more frequently. The current structures lack enough safety to minimize the loss of lives.” The breaking of cement is distinctly more critical than the cracks in cement. Therefore, thorough research is required to make a sturdy building. “We had difficulties in capturing the process when the cement was impacted,” reminisced Yoo. The test cement is fully demolished within 0.001 second (a millisecond), and he had to capture all of the procedures within that millisecond. No kinetic equipment is available in Korea. As a result, he had to proceed with his research research by using the equipment from the University of British Columbia. Despite their mechanical hardships, Yoo made an innovative result in the field of architecture. 2017 is only his second year as a professor in Hanyang University. As the field of architecture is conservative, his final goal is to make practical application with his research. “Various factors such as durability and energy absorption force need to be considered when building a structure as it is directly related to the people living inside the building. This is only the beginning. I still have a lot more factors to work on, but I will continue my research enthusiastically until my studies can be applied to daily structures,” commented Yoo. Yoo will continue on with his goal to make a practical application with his discovery. On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-11 15

[Academics]Advent of Geometrically Controlled Micro-tissue

When certain parts of a human body are damaged, the only treatment is to take medication to either halt the worsening or alleviating the agony. However, medical technology to fully recover the organs by developing thermally expandable hydrogels (a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, often used for the care of wounds) is becoming potential. Professor Shin Heung-soo of the Department of Bioengineering has lighted upon the possibility to control the cell patterns to harvest geometrically regulated micro-tissue through his research “Microcontact printing of polydopamine on thermally expandable hydrogels for controlled cell adhesion and delivery of geometrically defined microtissues.” Shin has been researching in the geometrically controlled micro-tissue field for 20 years, attempting to discover the full recovery of human tissues and organs. The fundamental finding of this research is that human cells can function through metabolism and, thus, can also generate spontaneous curative powers. “The main theme of our research is that we discovered our own method to discharge the damaged cells and entirely recover and replace them back to where they belong,” said Shin. The research team utilized the hydrogels to transfer the cells by patterning the polydopamine. PD (polydopamine) is an important substance in this research which is formed by oxidation of dopamine often used for coating various surfaces. Until now, the medical industry’s best option to treat damaged cells or organs made up of them was to inject cells floating inside a culture fluid (the fluid used as a medium for growing microorganisms). However, Shin’s research is now stepping ahead to actually maintaining the patterns and shapes of actual cell structure and transferring them into the human body. “My research can resemble the method of a paper tattoo. When you get a paper tattoo, you apply a paper with a desired picture, drop water on it, and, after some time, the picture is embedded onto the skin cells. My discovery works the same way in that the paper is hydrogel,” stated Shin. The main focus of this research is that not only is the hydrogel transferring the basic patterns but also shapes. The transfer of shapes in the three-dimensional form, requires a specific code and environment of the cells’ patterns and placement. Through experiments with artificial models and mice, the research was proven to be valid in that micro-tissues were readily translocated in vivo to the subcutaneous tissue of mouse. A diagram of Shin's experiment proves that micro-contact printing of polydopamine on hydrogels has worked out by the successful transfer. (Photo courtesy of Shin) This extensive research took one year to complete by Shin and his two doctoral students. The research began with their considerate worry concerning the aging society. “As the population is aging with a higher average life expectancy, people are constantly suffering from chronic diseases and degenerative conditions. To solve this problem, instead of stopping diseases from worsening, I began this research,” said Shin. Before Shin’s research, the only possible method to entirely cure or recover damaged organs was by internal organ transplant. However, the medical and technological fields can now expect to cure endemic, chronic diseases eternally. “I have researched in this field for about 20 years under the belief that science and medicine will be able to treat humans for good,” revealed Shin. "Discover your own path that nobody has walked on. You will be able to find the light when your ideas are developed with your efforts and concerns!" Shin’s ultimate hope is to furnish his developed micro-tissue technology to easily accessible places like hospitals and pharmacies. “In this Fourth Industrialization era, I can now graft new technologies like 3D printing skills or big data to produce efficient and exquisite results,” emphasized Shin. “Even though South Korean society highlights the importance of living a stable, routinized life, I believe that our Hanyangian students have inexhaustible ideas and potential. I hope our future generation will be able to utilize their ideas and dream bigger!” Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2017-11 10

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Kim Doo-seop (Department of Sociology)

As of last year, there were more than 1.71 million foreign residents in Korea, which is 3.4% of the total population. The number of marriage migrants, also known as multicultural marriages, is also a large part of the total population at around 150,000. Professor Kim Doo-seop (Department of Sociology) has built a foundation for migrant research since establishing the ‘CSMR Multiculture Institute’ in 2011. This year, Hanyang University SSK Multicultural Research Project was selected as a project to enter the large-scale stage. ▲On the 6th, News H met Professor Kim Doo-seop (Department of Sociology) and discussed the contents of the SSK multiculture research project and the selected items to enter the large-scale stage. An ongoing process of building data on foreign migrants Unlike conventional wisdom, Korea is becoming a country where various cultures coexist. As mentioned above, nearly 4% of the total population are foreign residents or marriage migrants. Socio-scientific research on this phenomenon is crucial but various data such as related literatures should be preceded. Since 2011, Professor Kim's research team has built a foundation for migrant research through archives and database construction. In addition, he published four academic books on marriage immigrants and migrant workers, ten books on foreigners' statistics, and 54 papers in domestic and international journals. He has also internationally carried out other academic activities such as academic conferences, joint seminars, a colloquium, and academic presentations. Recently, as a result of the examination by the Korea Research Foundation, the SSK multicultural research project of Hanyang University was recognized as a significant research project with its importance and timeliness and selected as a large-scale research progect. This selection has been applied since last September and will receive research funds of 580 million won per year over the next four years. The name was also changed from 'CSMR Multicultural Institute' to 'CSMR Multiculture Management Center'. Professor Kim 's research team will expand the research project. A leap forward as a hub for immigrant and multicultural research First, the archive for migrants and DB construction, which have been done in the past, will continue to be supplemented. By August 31, the research team has collected about 1,300 related papers in the CSMR archive and will be adding future papers and constantly supplementing the search menu. The research subjects have also been expanded to set targets for collecting data on ethnic minorities abroad. Until now, archives and databases have been organized mainly on problems related to domestic issues such as multicultural families, marriage migrants, migrant workers, multicultural children, foreign students, etc. By expanding the study's target groups and diversifying the construction data, the center pursues stepping up to a global DB center for multiculture. In addition, the center plans to expand exchanges with scholars and research institutes in Korea and abroad and also exert their active efforts to nurture students by linking with the in-school research institute and graduate school curriculum. In line with the name of the Multiculture Management Center, they will ultimately make a leap into the hub of multicultural research and immigrants who have formed networks with major research institutes and scholars in the world. ▲ Professor Kim Doo-seop said, "We will contribute to policy alternatives and social consensus through future research." Professor Kim said, "The center provides a center for research on migrants through document archives and DB construction" and added, “It is meaningful to promote research through various interdisciplinary approaches and to form an international network of migrants and multicultural researchers. " Furthermore, he stated that the ultimate goal of the study is to contribute to the accumulation of demographic knowledge on migration and multiculturalism that Korean society faces and to provide policy alternatives and social consensus through ongoing activities of the Multiculture Management Center.