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2017-11 15

[Academics]Advent of Geometrically Controlled Micro-tissue

When certain parts of a human body are damaged, the only treatment is to take medication to either halt the worsening or alleviating the agony. However, medical technology to fully recover the organs by developing thermally expandable hydrogels (a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, often used for the care of wounds) is becoming potential. Professor Shin Heung-soo of the Department of Bioengineering has lighted upon the possibility to control the cell patterns to harvest geometrically regulated micro-tissue through his research “Microcontact printing of polydopamine on thermally expandable hydrogels for controlled cell adhesion and delivery of geometrically defined microtissues.” Shin has been researching in the geometrically controlled micro-tissue field for 20 years, attempting to discover the full recovery of human tissues and organs. The fundamental finding of this research is that human cells can function through metabolism and, thus, can also generate spontaneous curative powers. “The main theme of our research is that we discovered our own method to discharge the damaged cells and entirely recover and replace them back to where they belong,” said Shin. The research team utilized the hydrogels to transfer the cells by patterning the polydopamine. PD (polydopamine) is an important substance in this research which is formed by oxidation of dopamine often used for coating various surfaces. Until now, the medical industry’s best option to treat damaged cells or organs made up of them was to inject cells floating inside a culture fluid (the fluid used as a medium for growing microorganisms). However, Shin’s research is now stepping ahead to actually maintaining the patterns and shapes of actual cell structure and transferring them into the human body. “My research can resemble the method of a paper tattoo. When you get a paper tattoo, you apply a paper with a desired picture, drop water on it, and, after some time, the picture is embedded onto the skin cells. My discovery works the same way in that the paper is hydrogel,” stated Shin. The main focus of this research is that not only is the hydrogel transferring the basic patterns but also shapes. The transfer of shapes in the three-dimensional form, requires a specific code and environment of the cells’ patterns and placement. Through experiments with artificial models and mice, the research was proven to be valid in that micro-tissues were readily translocated in vivo to the subcutaneous tissue of mouse. A diagram of Shin's experiment proves that micro-contact printing of polydopamine on hydrogels has worked out by the successful transfer. (Photo courtesy of Shin) This extensive research took one year to complete by Shin and his two doctoral students. The research began with their considerate worry concerning the aging society. “As the population is aging with a higher average life expectancy, people are constantly suffering from chronic diseases and degenerative conditions. To solve this problem, instead of stopping diseases from worsening, I began this research,” said Shin. Before Shin’s research, the only possible method to entirely cure or recover damaged organs was by internal organ transplant. However, the medical and technological fields can now expect to cure endemic, chronic diseases eternally. “I have researched in this field for about 20 years under the belief that science and medicine will be able to treat humans for good,” revealed Shin. "Discover your own path that nobody has walked on. You will be able to find the light when your ideas are developed with your efforts and concerns!" Shin’s ultimate hope is to furnish his developed micro-tissue technology to easily accessible places like hospitals and pharmacies. “In this Fourth Industrialization era, I can now graft new technologies like 3D printing skills or big data to produce efficient and exquisite results,” emphasized Shin. “Even though South Korean society highlights the importance of living a stable, routinized life, I believe that our Hanyangian students have inexhaustible ideas and potential. I hope our future generation will be able to utilize their ideas and dream bigger!” Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2017-11 10

[Academics][Excellent R & D] Professor Lee Sang-hoon (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine)

Chronic diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, dementia, and degenerative arthitis, cannot be cured and should be managed for life. To treat this, stem cells are being studied in medicine. Professor Lee Sang-hoon (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine) has been conducting research on embryonic stem cell research for treatment of chronic diseases at the Medical Research Center (MRC) of Hanyang University since 2008. He will carry out further research until 2024. ▲ On November 6th, News H visited Prof. Lee Sang-hoon (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine) and talked about stem cell and tissue regeneration research. (Source: Professor Lee Sang-hoon) Increased understanding of stem cells The relationship between chronic diseases and stem cell research is inevitable. First, in order for the disease to be treated, it is necessary to restore the cells that have been damaged by the disease. The reason why chronic diseases are not treated is because the damaged tissue is an organ that can not be recovered by the human body itself. Neurons and brain cells are destroyed, or genetic problems do not occur due to specific hormones, making a cure impossible. But there is a possibility. If the patient's stem cells can be cloned and cultured well, the cells can theoretically be differentiated into desired cells. Professor Lee has studied the theoretical techniques in detail. In 2008, Hanyang University MRC (Medical Research Council) conducted a research on the basic mechanism of stem cells under the name 'Stem Cell Control Research Center'. In detail, stem cells are cultured, and the number of stem cells is differentiated into tissue cells. Professor Lee conducted a 'stem cell behavior control study' that controlled this behavior. Since the study of stem cells at the time was at the beginning stage, he has been working on the mechanism of how a series of processes take place. Based on the research, he will carry out this research project. First of all, this research project will continue the basic mechanism research. In addition to the existing understanding, he will improve the understanding of stem cells, the understanding of the differentiation process, and the plan to apply it to other fields such as stem cells. ▲ Professor Lee's team will continue to study for higher stem cell understanding. (Source: Professor Lee Sang-hoon) Clinical application, industrialization and internationalization Through this project, his research team will receive a total of 7 billion research grants for seven years, one billion annually. As a new name, Hanyang University MRC 'Tissue Regeneration Promotion Research Center's goal is to develop cell transplantation and gene therapy technologies for Parkinson's disease, mass-production of stem cells with excellent therapeutic effects, and research on the development of affected parts using astrocytes. Parkinson's disease causes the destruction of dopamine-producing substantia nigra, which is intended for clinical application of cell transplantation or gene therapy. Mass production of stem cells can be used for clinical treatment, so mass production and industrialization are also important targets. Finally, research using stellate cells is also an important goal. When diseases such as dementia or Parkinson's disease are destroyed, not only the destroyed cells but also the surrounding environment becomes bad. Some of the environment is astrocytes. By transplanting stellate cells made by differentiating stem cells, it can improve the surrounding environment of the brain and help regenerate brain tissue. In this way, internationalization of research results through clinical application and industrialization process is being prepared. In addition to the domestic medical industry, it is also possible to enter the overseas markets in cooperation with Indonesian companies. In addition, research on the basic mechanism will be carried out continuously, so that degenerative diseases, which were chronic diseases in the future, will be gradually transferred to the treatment side.

2017-10 29 Headline News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] The Faster, Simpler, Easier, the Better!

Today, we live in the world where everything is becoming mechanized, meaning the field of electronics and mechanics are infinitely evolving. Conspicuous or not, there are small and big changes around us that make our lives more convenient and more efficient in various ways. Professor Hong Jung-pyo (Department of Automotive Engineering), in his paper, “Simple size determination of permanent-magnet synchronous machines” has established a milestone in the field of both electronics and mechanics, by proposing a means of simplifying the process of designing and developing machines. Hong’s research can determine the direction of the process of motor’s development. When designing and producing an instrument, engineers go through trials of experiments, trying to pick the best formula by observing the results of each experiment. Such a process demands laborious amounts of time and cost, which under certain circumstances can be unaffordable. A perfect, well-constructed device or motor has been made through stages of trial-and-error so far, being tested on their performance in each stage. However, with Hong’s proposal of simulation experiment, this entire step could be greatly reduced, simply by executing the experiment with the simulator. When working on a motor, it is important to harmoniously combine the techniques of both the electrician and the engineer. However, what is more important is, the two fields should not be seen separately. The two perspectives commingled as one will bring the best result, whereas if they are regarded separately, failures can arise, and it would be difficult to figure out where the problem originated from. The simulator Hong proposed in his paper acts not only as a catalyst in making the process of developing machines faster, simpler, and easier by exempting the trial-and-error step but also allows to preview an outcome of integrated viewpoint. “For a better understanding, imagine this picture. There is a device I’m trying to make, and I want to equip this circle-shaped part. After doing so, I still think I can improve the final product somehow, so I will try dismantling the part I just added and equip this oval-shaped part. When doing so, I have to carefully remove the circle-shaped part and re-equip the oval-shaped one and then compare the two results to see what the best combination is.” This process of trial-and-error and comparison, which is time-consuming, is what Hong wanted to resolve with his research. With the simulator, engineers can simply enter the input and compare the different outcomes and go for what is the best much more conveniently. Everything that moves, including cars, elevators, and airplanes, are all powered by electric motors. In the future, the range of usages will increase infinitely which means there will be experiments after experiments for the development of motor-based objects. In each case, Hong’s research can greatly reduce the development process and offer the direction of choices for better outcomes. His future research goal is to create a unified solution of electronics and mechanics, which will boost the usability of the machine itself. Hong’s research will be a constructive contribution to engineers. Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Park Young-min, Kim Youn-soo

2017-10 23

[Academics]Wastewater Treatment Facility to a Potential Power Plant

"Biomass is the only replacement for fossil fuels," said Jeon with certainty. Biomass is defined as living or recently dead organisms and any byproducts of those organisms, plant or animal. It can be used to produce renewable electricity, thermal energy, or transportation fuels (biofuels). In his recent review article, "Recent progress in microalgal biomass production coupled with wastewater treatment for biofuel generation," Jeon reviewed the technologies required to successfully integrate the two seemingly different areas: wastewater treatment and cultivation of microalgae. Jeon is enthusiastically explaining his recent article and progress of related fields. In order to generate biofuel, a substantial amount of biomass is required. Biomass is found in the natural world, such as in food crops. However, and often times, they are rare and have a low energy yield. Microalgae overcome all of the stated shortcomings. Known as one of the fastest growing life forms on earth, microalgae are found in fresh water or marine systems but can also survive versatile environmental conditions. In other words, microalgae have optimal conditions to be converted into energy. This potential energy source requires abundant Nitrogen and Phosphorus along with diverse minerals, and surprisingly enough, wastewater is a source of such nutrients. With the adequate pre-treatment of wastewater, a sewage disposal plant can turn into a ground for the mass cultivation of microalgae. This particular review article written by Jeon and his colleagues discourse on the advantages and disadvantages of recent progress and research around the world on such point. The reason why Jeon's research team can write such a review article concentrated on the relationship between microalgae and wastewater treatment is because the very research team discovered that wastewater can be used as a type of microalgae farm. "I personally dream to change such disposal plants into energy plants," said Jeon. He mentioned that 0.5% of the national electricity is spent on the wastewater treatment facilities. What if that facility can generate the amount of resource they use? Or even better, utilize the infrastructure to produce even more energy? "Sewage plant is located in every other neighborhood, unlike other power plants such as nuclear or coal plants. If sewage plants can create energy, the town will be a self-sufficient town." A chart explaining the relations among microalgae cultivation facilities, microalgal biomass and how water is purified while generating biofuels. (Photo courtesy of Jeon) In becoming one of the leading labs in the field, Jeon emphasizes looking through the keywords. As a college student, Jeon believed that ‘environment' and ‘energy' are going to be one of the most conversed topics in the future. Environmental engineering and eco-friendly energy came naturally into his pathway, which led Jeon to where he is now. Mentioning the fact that Korea can produce only ca. 0.3% of biogas than that of Germany's, Jeon suggested that the environmental engineering field in Korea still needs further research and development. "The field is very future-oriented," said Jeon. "Among the many topics that are and going to be significant in the coming days, renewable and environmentally friendly energy are some of the areas that engineers can contribute to." Jeon plans to keep working on his dream to convert wastewater facilities into energy-independent, and energy-creating social infrastructure. Jeon is holding a cylinder with microalgae in his lab. Kim So-yun dash070@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-10 16

[Academics]Creating the Most Stable Elevators

Like any other industries, the field of engineering is a harshly competitive market. Stepping ahead requires the latest technology, practical design, efficient utilization, and the list goes on. In the area of elevators, it is no longer just about going up and down. It is not even the speed of the transport. Rather, it is about how smooth the ride is. In this regard, Professor Hong Jung-pyo of the Department of Automotive Engineering has paved the way for elevator manufacturers to produce the most stable elevators in his paper, “Advanced method of selecting number of poles and slots for low-frequency vibration reduction of traction motor for elevator.” Professor Hong’s research began with the approach of a prominent elevator manufacturer, requesting a joint research to seek solutions for some of the stability issues that they have had with their elevators. It happened to be a great opportunity, as the number of domestic test towers for elevators were quite limited, and using them required cooperation with a company that owned such a facility. A blueprint of an elevator motor (courtesy of Montanari Elevators) The biggest concern for elevator manufacturers had always been vibration. Specifically, it is the low-frequency vibration that humans are especially sensitive to, which is caused by the generation of power from the motor. As most people know, elevators move through the winding and unwinding of ropes that are connected to a motor. The level of vibration felt in the car box, or the compartment that people actually get on, is determined by the motor. To put in simple terms, the design of the motor decides how shaky the elevator is. Just as the riding comfort decides the price of a luxurious car model, the reputation of an elevator brand is determined by its stability. Hong’s research aimed to analyze the causes of vibration and provide solutions to minimize it. Hong’s research can be conceptualized by understanding a fundamental mechanism of the motor: the poles and slots. Poles refer to magnetic poles, equivalent to the north and south poles from a general conception of magnets. Slots are physical holes in the motor where conductors are placed to allow electrical current to flow. Upon the flow of electricity, the poles and slots create an electromagnetic force that rotates the motor and provides physical power. The combination of the numbers of poles and slots in the motor results in weaknesses in particular areas that cause instability and, thus, vibration. Hong used a mathematical approach to diagnose the problem with various motor models and provided the ideal number of poles and slots to minimize vibration. Professor Hong with his co-author, Kim Doo-Young Hong expressed deep interest in extending his research into similar areas. Like any other field of study, the engineering field is also becoming interdisciplinary. As can be seen in Hong’s study, the research process involved a combination of electrical engineering and mechanical engineering approaches to the motor. The field of electrical engineering and mechanical engineering are now somewhat well-established individually. In contrast, we have little data and research on what happens when they interact with each other. The necessity for research into this field of electro-mechanical engineering has always been demanded, yet barely explored. Hong aims to study the designs and mechanisms of various systems extensively in his further research. As a word of advice to students of Hanyang, Hong commented that hard work is the only thing he can emphasize. As a respected professor, many students come to him for counseling on issues such as pursuit in a field of study, seeking career paths, and various decisions in between. Rather than spending time deliberating, he advises students to find any reason to make a decision. “It’s not about where you end up, it’s about how hard you work after you get there.” He also stressed constant self-development, adding that improving yourself by the smallest bit from one day to another will make you a different person by the end of a year. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr

2017-10 02

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Producing Energy Through a Single Thread

'Lack of energy’ is an issue the whole world is focusing on. Various countries are searching for effective renewable energy and new materials that could replace the current energy sources. Professor Kim Seon-jeong (Department of Biomedical Engineering) discovered a new material every researcher was looking for. Kim's paper, “Harvesting electrical energy from carbon nanotube yarn twist” introduces the world’s first new material, which can produce energy through slight movements. Kim explains the concept of his new material Professor Kim’s research team started its first project in 2006 on artificial muscle. However, after his research, Kim realized its limitations as they were only able to move through an external energy source. Therefore, he thought of a new idea that the muscle would be more effective when it is able to produce energy by itself. Carbon nanotube is a new material which is a type of conductor and has a diameter of only a few nanometers. This material was made as a thread in the artificial muscle. However, when these threads were finely twisted into one direction, they were able to produce energy by itself through its contraction and relaxation without an applied voltage. Being made into a spring, their length can be changed as much as 30 percent on average. This new material, named as ‘twistron harvester yarn’, allowed a chance for the muscle to move by itself without a separate power source. This twistron harvester yarn looks and acts as if it were an ordinary thread. This states that making clothes out of this material is possible. Once this comes into realization, this would give a boost in making wearable devices, as producing electricity without an energy source is possible. Moreover, this thread is possible to use inside water, giving another possibility of an effective alternative energy. This has already been tested in the East Sea of Korea. Kim’s research team made a model consisting of a glass bottle connected with an electrode, the thread, a balloon, and an equipment that could measure electricity. As the twistron harvester yarn contracted and relaxed, electrical energy was verified from the ocean. Kim showed great passion in the research he was conducting. This research on the twistron harvester yarn was his fourth research. He has been working on artificial muscles for the past nine years before he started this research. “I didn’t start this research solely to find the twistron harvester yarn. I felt the limitations within the research I conducted earlier and was seeking for development,” reminisced Kim. He explained that he wasn’t the only person who conducted the research. Eight teams from three different countries worked on this new material for two years to deduct a better result. “We had a meeting through Skype every week, along with frequent visits to each team. Everyone had great passion and interest towards this research, and I believe that shows the firmness of this research,” said Kim. "Reach towards your own interest!" Kim also emphasized the attitudes Hanyangians should have towards their life. Even though he mainly teaches graduate school students, he wished all students could find what they truly wish to do. “Find something unique of your own. Find something you enjoy, and then you will be able to continue on with whatever you are doing. There are countless routes for all students. I wish students would keep challenging themselves to make the greatest results of their own,” wished Kim. Just as his words, Kim will continue with his work with great passion, for even better convenience for global citizens. On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Youn-soo

2017-09 27

[Academics]Low Energy Consuming Utilization of Chemical Sensors

When a chemical sensor is embedded into a mobile device, the significant sensing properties are amplified by low costs, high response, great stability, and robustness. However, there is one property of a chemical sensor that hinders technicians from utilizing it with a mobile device--unbearable power consumption. In his paper, “Self-heating effects on the toluene sensing of Pt-functionalized SnO2-ZnO core-shell nanowires,” professor Kim Hyeon-woo of the Division of Material Science and Engineering proposes a self-power sensor that allows low energy consumption of 31 μW at 5 V. Kim is explaining about the novel discovery of his research. In order to apply chemical sensors to mobile devices, the temperature of the sensor should be high enough to be generated. However, in the process of raising the temperature, the magnitude of energy consumption is vast. “Chemical sensors have extreme advantages such as cheap costs, small size, excellent stability, and robustness. However, the high energy consumption prevents scientists to consider them as an option for mobile devices,” said Kim. To reduce the energy consumption, Kim and his fellow researchers have exhibited a self-heated nanowire sensor through this study. “For the reduction of energy usage, we synthesized Pt nanoparticle-functionalized SnO2–ZnO core–shell nanowires. The shells of these wires utilized for the chemical sensor are thicker than usual. This allows a larger self-heating ability and a higher sensor response,” explained Kim. SnO2–ZnO is a synthesis of tin dioxide and zinc oxide that results in a strong core-shell (class of materials which have properties intermediate between those of small, individual molecules and those of bulk, crystalline semiconductors). The total energy required for this chemical sensor to be self-heated was 31 μW at 5 V. “This novel discovery was possible due to the groundbreaking nanowires that allowed the sensor to self-heat even at room temperature,” said Kim. Thus, this research, has ultimately suggested the potential application of chemical sensors into mobile devices, fully utilizing their peculiar sensing properties. “The sensor industry in South Korea will now be able to gain international competitiveness by exporting this novel sensor, which is currently in the process of development,” proposed Kim. Kim is holding a sensor that he's currently developing. The academic life of Kim has been devoted to nanostructure and sensors. His original research area was on nanostructure (a structure, especially a semiconductor device, that has dimensions of only a few nanometers). “I have always studied nanostructure, and I realized that the practical application of this leads to sensors,” explained Kim. Gas and radioactive sensors are Kim’s further research subjects, which he looks forward to utilizing in real life in a few years. “Pragmatic application of dramatic discoveries in research is difficult, but I will try my best to improve this industry,” revealed Kim. Kim Ju-hyun kimster9421@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-09 25

[Academics]A Tactile Sensor for Texture Recognition

With computers today, auditory and visual senses can be materialized—through sound and screens. The other three of the five senses, on the other hand, have not yet been on the platform of materialization because they require a somewhat more delicate mechanism and are harder to deliver with technology. Professor Park Wan-jun (Department of Electronic Engineering), in his paper, “A tactile sensor using single layer graphene for surface texture recognition”, presented and elaborated on a tactile sensor that could distinguish different materials, which opens many doors for future technology. It is hard to imagine the sense of touch being delivered with a machine because it is usually perceived as something only humans are capable of. But why can sound and sight be materialized by computers but not touch? The answer is, electronic signals for sound and vision are made possible in the aspect of engineering, while that of touch is not. What Park presented in his paper is a small chip-like device that enables perception of touch for surface texture recognition. The output of Park's research, which is a chip-like electronic device. (Photo courtesy of Park) The first thing he had to do, according to Park, was to turn the sense into electronic signals. Only then can the machine read what is being conveyed. Once the signal of touch is conveyed to the device, it will analyze the signal and distinguish what kind of texture it is. The subtle and clear differences in terms of texture between various kinds of surfaces can be perceived and distinguished by the tactile sensor, detecting the microscopic scale of differences. There is a single layer of graphene embedded in the device, which creates a different resistance variation each time a surface comes to interaction. It is what functions as the main player in telling apart different surfaces because it is what creates the different signals. The signal is then sent to the computer by the chip, which is to be analyzed and categorized into different kinds of textures. “Just as there is virtual reality (VR) for sight, a touch-version will be possible with this device,” anticipated Park. “A tactile display is also possible with this device, as the signal for touch is now readable by the computer. If you put your hand on the tactile display device, you can actually feel whatever the object or texture input in the computer is,” envisaged Park. This technology is also applicable in the medical field. Those who lost their sense of touch in certain parts of their body by burns, for example, will be able to regain their sense by implanting this small device in the portion of injury. Now that the signals of touch can be read by the device and since senses can be transmitted in the form of signals, delivery of the sense of touch is made possible. The inserted chip will send signals to the brain and this will enable the patient to feel what is being touched. “In recap, this research of mine has provided a human-sensorlike device that will enable transmission of the sense of touch in terms of engineering. Now I’m currently working on machine learning by categorizing and classifying different textures into groups and making the device absorb the data. The ultimate goal of my research is to complete materializing the sense of touch from the perspective of engineering so that further technologies could be developed based on my research,” planned Park. Park's further research is set on mechanizing the sense touch. Jeon Chae-yun chaeyun111@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-09 11

[Academics]Making a Better Environment to Live In

Until the 21st century, the world has gone through excessive amounts of civilization. People were able to make various visible developments while failing to keep the environment without pollution. Professor Kim Ki-hyun of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, therefore, focused on the environmental problems through his paper, “Biochar as a Catalyst”. Through the paper, he introduced a new material that could better purify various impurities. Biochar is a compound word of ‘bio’ and ‘char’, which is biology and charcoal. This material is a type of waste that is produced when you burn any biological materials that possess carbon. Just as charcoal is made when you burn trees, biochar is made when you burn biological materials. Through this not-so-helpful looking waste, people can purify the environment. When soil is polluted with something, such as oil, pesticides or heavy metal, biochar can be effectively used to absorb these contaminations. They combine well with toxic substances; therefore, it allows purification of soil only though scattering these materials in the soil and skimming them out again. The picture of the process of making biochar. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim introduced his overall research related to biochar. He studies various metal organic frameworks, which are much like biochars, used to purify polluted environments. “There are over 20 thousand types of metal organic frameworks, and I am currently working on which framework will be the most effective when purifying pollution,” explained Kim. Moreover, he talked about electronic cigarettes which are a relatively newly introduced invention. As there isn’t a proven result of the components within the electronic cigarette, Kim is working on the methods to discover the dangers of them. Kim said, “There isn’t a precise database related to electronic cigarettes. They could also consist of numerous cancer-causing agents and harm, just as original cigarettes does. I intend on discovering these substances and, furthermore, purify them.” Kim, however, does not solely research on this one material. He pays attention to the general issues within the society. His main interest lies on various aerial issues such as air pollution, fine dust, indoor pollution and stenches. Kim said, “There, indeed, are a lot of problems regarding pollution related issues. However, there are also a lot of methods that can be used to solve these problems. My goal is to make effective solutions through comprehensive research.” He explained that the biochar mentioned in his paper is only a small example of his overall goal. He intends to research on more new materials and solve various social issues. Kim hopes people could have correct information on the environment. Kim hopes that people would have a better understanding of environmental pollution. “When the dust level exceeds 100 microgram per 1 cubic meter, the Ministry of Environment suggests to refrain from going out. However, when people wear masks right after they smoke to protect themselves from fine dust, they breathe in eight hundred to nine hundred micrograms of dust. Due to excessive amounts of information, people sometimes make contradictory actions,” explained Kim. He wished that more environmental education would be made in the pursuit of proper knowledge. He added that Hanyang University students should give more interest towards the environment. “Let’s keep the air clean, with correct information!” On Jung-yun jessica0818@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Park Young-min

2017-09 04

[Academics]Chlor-alkali Electrolysis in Use

Professor Park Joo-yang of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering is an expert in the field of engineering. His paper, “SWRO brine reuse by diaphragm-type chlor-alkali electrolysis to produce alkali-activated slag” discusses a novel method of breaking down the brine after the desalination process. After the desalination process, what is left over is the brine (salt water with twice the concentration) and fresh water. Letting the brine out back into the ocean would cause a destruction of the ocean life cycle because thousands of tons of water is desalinated everyday and the concentration of salt would cause trouble for ocean farms. Through electrolysis process of the brine, chlorine gas and hydrogen gas are produced and this would be reused in diverse ways such as tap water. Park is explaining about the break down of brine process. Electrolysis process would leave chlor-alkali which would be used to produce alkali-activated slag used for pavements. Through the activation process of the alkali with the slag, it would turn into hard substance which is then processed to make pavement blocks. Since it is produced out of what should be discarded, it is economically efficient and is very durable, and also environmentally friendly. Some of the problems that Park is facing is that the research studies regarding this plant is almost reaching the developed level but has difficulty in terms of industrialization. Since brine has been let out into the ocean until nowadays which resulted in low handling expenses. For Park’s team to collect the brine and run the electrolysis process costs way too much even considering the fact that the slags would be produced at a reasonable cost. Handling costs outweigh the expenses of economic and environmental costs which makes it reluctant for companies to invest in producing such power plants. Park is continuously working to produce more environmentally friendly and cost efficient products through electrolysis processes although it may be a hard task to implement it. “I believe that continuously working in a field of expertise would open the doors for many opportunities,” concluded Park. “Continuously working in a field of expertise would open the doors for many opportunities.” Kim Seung-jun nzdave94@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju