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2020-04 14
2020-04 14
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2020-04 06

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Into the Unknown through Convergence

For a long time, scientists have wanted to figure out how the elements which constitute the universe were formed. Still, there is not much known about this mechanism. Heavy-ion particle accelerators now provide a clue to the generative processes as they reproduce what the universe has been going through since its creation. Professor Kim Yong-kyun (Department of Nuclear Engineering) contributed to the establishment of a new heavy-ion particle accelerator RAON by building the most powerful and accurate μSR (Muon spin rotation). Professor Kim Yong-Kyun (Department of Nuclear Engineering) is engaging in the domestic heavy-ion particle accelerator project called RAON. RAON is a heavy-ion particle accelerator propelled by the Institute of Basic Science, which is a machine that can be used to find undiscovered elements or reenact the formation process of existing elements. It will be the first heavy-ion particle accelerator that uses both Isotope Separation On-Line and In-flight Fragmentation methods. Because the machine is so complex, researchers are conducting the project in collaboration with many other accelerator research groups including Radiation Instrument and Sensor Engineering Lab (RAISE), a Hanyang University Research Laboratory led by Kim. Kim’s team has been specifically working on μSR. μ (Muon) is an unstable elementary particle similar to the electron which is created by collision between high-energy protons and the atmosphere. Owing to its greater mass, μ accelerates slower than electrons in electromagnetic fields. μ lets scientists probe the properties of novel materials as it penetrates far deeper into the matter than X-rays. μ exist all around the world, but is useless because of its short meantime of 2.2 μs (microseconds). “That is why we use heavy-ion particle accelerators to create μ,” explained Kim. μ helps probe the properties of novel materials as μSR has become a tool of measurement. (Photo Courtesy of Kim) μSR measures the decay and spin information with μ produced by the accelerators, offering new insights into the property of a matter. μSR is a technique based on the implantation of spin-polarized μ in the matter and on the detection of the influence of the atomic, molecular or crystalline surroundings on their spin motion. Kim’s team is now building the most powerful and precise μSR in the world. “Our μSR is expected to further the development of new semiconductors and superconductors as well as shed light on material science,” said Kim. Ten years ago, when the government first launched the project of building the domestic heavy-ion particle accelerator, no one in the field believed that there would be a notable achievement. However, within a decade, RAON is becoming the cutting-edge convergence technology of basic science. Kim attributes its success to Korea’s competitiveness in interdisciplinary education between basic science and practical studies. “STEM education in Korea is top-notch,” said Kim. “The Department of Nuclear Engineering's curriculum contributed to a certain extent.” Kim ascribed its success to the education system that highlights interdisciplinary studies. Kim advised students to find new possibilities and integrate different interests, saying “You should challenge yourself to achieve what you aim for.” With these initiatives in mind, Kim is pioneering his way into science and technology that is yet unknown. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-03 29

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] A Cause of Parkinson’s Disease Recently Discovered

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The cause of PD is still unknown, other than its suggested correlation with genetic and environmental factors. Professor Lee Sang-hun (College of Medicine) has recently come up with a model that supports the hereditary cause of disease. Professor Lee Sang-hun's (College of Medicine) research presents a new clue about the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is found to be associated with the degeneration of midbrain-type dopamine (mDA) neurons. Lee’s research team found out that the RNA-binding protein Lin28 plays a role in neuronal stem cell development, and that the gene mutation of Lin28 causes the degeneration of mDA neurons. Also, the experiment showed that when the Lin28 mutation was corrected, the symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease disappeared. Lee came up with an in vitro human embryonic stem cell/human induced pluripotent stem cell‐based disease model. The model proposes that the Lin28 R192G mutation leads to developmental defects and modification of Lin28 opens up the possibility of rescuing the patient from the disease. “People normally think that PD is deeply related to one’s age,” said Lee. “This research suggests that it is also highly likely to be a genetic defect. This finding will provide a more accurate diagnosis model.” Lee's team found out that an RNA-binding protein called Lin28 plays a role in the manifestation and treatment of PD. (Photo courtesy of Lee) Researchers spent four years trying to identify the distinct characteristics that two young PD patients shared with each other. The team conducted numerous biological trials to prove their findings. The model was a reward for their ceaseless efforts, taking them a step closer to finally identifying the cause of PD. However, there is still no cure for PD or for many other neurodegenerative diseases. Lee said he intends to develop a practical treatment during his last five years of tenure. “I am now working on projects with bio-venture companies,” explained Lee. “I hope my research enables a more pragmatic approach in overcoming neurodegenerative diseases.” Lee plans to work on pragmatic treatments during his last five years of tenure. Lee asked students to be more ambitious in deciding what they long to achieve. “He who works hard will get the chance to show himself,” advised the professor, leading by example for all young scholars. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-03 26

[Academics]Hanyang University Professor Kim Jong-Ho, Developed a Nanocatalyst that Enhances the Performance of Metal-Air Batteries

Professor Kim Jong-ho Hanyang University announced on March 26th that Professor Kim Jong-ho's team in the Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering of Hanyang University ERICA campus has developed a new nanocatalyst that enhances the performance of metal-air batteries. A "metal-air battery" is a next-generation battery that is charged and discharged through oxygen in the air, which has bigger energy storage, a lower price, and no possibility of explosion compared to the Lithium-ion batteries, and therefore is attracting the attention of the electric vehicle industry. The performance of a metal-air battery that can be charged and discharged is determined by the oxygen's oxidation and deoxidation rate of reaction happening within the cathode. Up until now, expensive catalysts such as platinum (Pt) and ruthenium (Ru) have been used to catalyze the oxidation and deoxidation of the oxygen. However, these catalysts had the problem of reducing the lifespan of the battery, due to its high price and low stability. For this reason, the need for a carbon catalyst with a low price and great performance has been understood. Professor Kim's team coined the "Solvothermal Radical Synthesis," solving the problem through delicately adjusting the nanostructure and vitality of the carbon catalyst. Professor Kim's team attached cobalt atoms or cobalt nanoparticles to porous carbon nanostructures, in order to adjust the interaction between organic-inorganic molecules and precisely control the structure and vitality of the catalyst, thereby enhancing the performance and stability of the catalysts. The metal-air battery produced through the use of this carbon-nanocatalyst has a 30% lower price than the original catalyst, which maintains its stabilized performance above 100%, even after its long charging and discharging. Professor Kim mentioned that "when the carbon-nanocatalyst with a cheap price and high performance is applied to metal-air batteries, it will remarkably reduce the unit cost of electric vehicles," and added, "This research provides a new method to develop a next-generation nanocatalyst material with precisely adjusted structure and performance through molecular controlling." This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea and was conducted with Professor Lee Sang-uck's team from Hanyang University ERICA Departement of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, and the result of the research (Paper Title: Molecular engineering of nanostructures and activities on bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts for Zinc-air batteries) that was published online on one of the top internationally renowned academic journals within the field of chemical and environmental engineering, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, on March 9th. ▲ Synthesis of carbon-based nanocatalyst through effective molecule control <Reference> Related paper: 2020_3_Molecular engineering of nanostructures and activities on bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts for Zinc-air batteries 『Applied Catalysis B: Environmental』 Global News Team Translated by: Lee Wonyoung global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-03 09

[Academics]Professor Shin Hyun-goo Publishes a Research Paper on ‘Targeted Temperature Management for Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients’

▲ Professor Shin Hyun-goo Professor Shin Hyun-goo, and his team of professors from the Hanyang University Hospital, Guri branch, stated that they have successfully published a paper on targeted temperature management for post-cardiac arrest patients on the March edition of the ‘Resuscitation’ journal on March 4th. The research results were published under the title, “Efficacy of the cooling method for targeted temperature management in post-cardiac arrest patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” and his studies suggested that when implementing targeted temperature management treatment for patients who successfully recovered from a spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest, the body surface cooling method and the blood vessel cooling method did not show much difference between the survival rate of the patients and other positive neurological outcomes. Professor Shin stated that, “It is still difficult to decide which method is superior when trying to undergo targeted temperature management, whether it is the body surface cooling method, or the blood vessel cooling method,” and that “the proper method must be chosen according to the patient’s medical conditions, and what is financially efficient for him/her.” He also added that there is a “need to an additional randomized controlled study in a large scale.” Meanwhile, Professor Shin Hyun-goo graduated from Hanyang University’s College of Medicine, and also received his doctoral degree from the same university. He is currently working as an assistant professor at the Department of Emergency Medicine in Hanyang University Hospital, Guri Branch. He is currently active in the medical field as a member of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine and the Korean Council of EMS Physicians, is also an advanced cardiac life support instructor at the American Heart Association, an advanced resuscitation instructor of Korea at the Korean Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitations and a specialized instructor for trauma treatment in Korea. Global News Team global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-03 02

[Academics]Professor Jang Jae-young Developed Thermoelectric Material with Possible Use for Energy Source for Wearable Electronics

Hanyang University Professor Jang Jae-young (36·Photo) of the Department of Energy Engineering and his team recently developed a stretchable organic thermoelectric material that has a self-healable characteristic. Thermoelectric material is a material that converts heat energy into electric energy using temperature difference, that has been so far using materials based on metal or ceramics. When the research outcome created by Professor Jang's team is commercialized, which was introduced on the cover of Advanced Functional Materials, one of the world's most renowned papers on materials academics, it will allow the wearable electronics to recharge the battery by only using the body temperature, expecting a great increase in its hours of usage. Professor Jang Jae-young Professor Jeong Yong-jin There have been active researches being done on high polymer-based thermoelectric materials, which has better flexibility than metal-based materials with difficulties on modifications. However, due to the drawback that an organic material with a soft property of matter can easily lose the characteristic of thermoelectricity when under a physical collision, researchers were having a hard time commercializing the results. Accordingly, to utilize the source throughout a wider area than the energy source of wearable devices, the need for the development of new organic thermoelement was raised, which has flexibility, elasticity and also can self-heal the cracks created through outside impacts. To solve this problem, Professor Jang's research team used functional organic material and provided material design and manufacturing process strategy at the same time, leading to the development of a material showing the best thermoelectricity. The team went through successful doping of conjugated polymer in a form of nano-wire and showed its thermoelectrical characteristic, while also embedding this to thermoplastic elastomer matrix and developing a thermoelectricity material with both a complex form of elasticity and self-healable characteristics. The developed material features great thermal conversion property on low-temperature and small temperature differences, keeping its stable self-healable ability throughout outside impacts such as scratches or cracks. The significance of the research lies in the fact that it has confirmed the possibility of utilization of organic high polymer-based thermoelectricity material as an energy source of wearable devices. Professor Jang mentioned that "this thermoelectricity material will be a great help to the development and commercialization of future electric materials such as electric skin and wearable smart devices," he also added, "the specific technology is also expected to be used throughout the next-generation energy harvesting related field." The research was conducted under the Ministry of Education(Basic Research Support Program-SGER) with support from the National Research Foundation of Korea, co-working with Professor Jeong Yong-jin of Korea National University of Transporation, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering. ▲ Result of self-healable and stretchable organic thermoelectric materials developed by Professor Jang Jae-young's team ▲ Cover of the world renowned paper on materials academics, Advanced Functional Materials <References> ■ Thesis Title: Self-Healable and Stretchable Organic Thermoelectric Materials: Electrically Percolated Polymer Nanowires Embedded in Thermoplastic Elastomer Matrix ■ Writer Information: Professor Jeong Yong-jin (1st writer, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation), Jung Jae-min Doctor Candidate (Hanyang University), Suh Eui-hyun Doctor Candidate (Hanyang University), Doctor Yun Dong-jin (Samsung Advanced Institue of Technology), Oh Jong-gyu Doctor Candidate (Hanyang University), Professor Jang Jae-young (Communications Writer, Hanyang University) Global News Team global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-02 25

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Establishing the Basis for Drug Development

Membrane proteins are proteins that function as the gatekeepers of cells, controlling all interactions between cells. Due to its crucial role in cell activity, the protein is often recognized as the factor in many diseases. However, there have been limitations in figuring out the structure of protein due to its vulnerability in modification, without effective amphiphiles that stabilize the protein. Professor Chae Pil Seok (Department of Bionano Engineering, ERICA Campus) recently made progress in facilitating the research on membrane protein by producing a new type of amphiphiles—the TEMs. Professor Chae Pil Seok (Department of Bionano Engineering, ERICA Campus) developed a new type of amphiphiles. Amphiphiles—more commonly, detergents—are necessary tools to isolate membrane proteins from biological membranes for studies. “Amphiphiles with hydrophobic properties were found to have advantages in the stabilization of otherwise vulnerable membrane proteins,” said Chae. For a few decades, a molecule named DDM (dodecylmaltoside) was primarily used in the research as the amphiphiles. Unfortunately, the molecule could not provide the required stability for a large number of protein. Thus, many scholars devoted themselves to inventing the new amphiphilic molecules that could replace DDM. Many scholars, including Chae, are working on to develop new amphiphilic molecules that could replace the conventional amphiphiles. Chae registered success in such a trend, developing 1,3,5-Triazine-Cored Maltoside Amphiphiles, also known as TEMs. Chae’s team, a joint research team from Stanford University, Texas Tech University, Imperial College London, Copenhagen University, and Tsinghua University, introduced variations in the alkyl chain linkage and an amine-functionalized diol linker by designing and synthesizing 1,3,5-triazine-cored dimaltoside amphiphiles derived from cyanuric chloride. “TEMs have significant potential in membrane protein study for their structural diversity and universal stabilization efficacy for several membrane proteins,” said Chae. The professor expects TEMs to play a crucial role in the development of new pharmaceuticals for terminal illnesses. Chae's team will continue their research on membrane protein and amphiphiles. Chae seeks to continue his research on developing a better amphiphile. “I would like to implement a system that can maximize the stability of membrane protein in aqueous solution,” he said. Moreover, Chae is digging deeper into the process of membrane protein modification, especially focusing on post-translational modifications in his current research on native mass spectrometry with Professor Ying Ge of the University of Wisconsin. Chae is building the groundwork for treating incurable diseases through continuous research on figuring out the structure of membrane protein. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-02 16

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Stepping Stone to Overcome Stratospheric Conditions

Aircraft usually fly at the top of the troposphere or the lower end of the stratosphere. Although there is less turbulence and weather constraints in the stratosphere, launching an aircraft into the stratosphere is difficult because there exists no efficient battery that can stand the harsh conditions of the atmosphere as of now. Here to change this dilemma is Professor Kim Han-su (Department of Energy Engineering) who is working on developing a secondary battery that can withstand the harsh conditions of the stratosphere. Professor Kim Han-su (Department of Energy Engineering) is developing a secondary battery that can withstand the harsh conditions of the stratosphere. In order to survive in the stratosphere, the battery must have high-density (meaning it can store more energy in the given mass) as well as be resistant to low temperatures. Kim’s solution was to use the sulfide electrolyte based all-solid-state secondary battery. The fire-retardant characteristics of the battery ensured the battery’s stability. However, there remained a problem that all-solid-state batteries have relatively lower energy density compared to other secondary batteries on the market. Thus, Kim’s team is currently in the progress of attempting to use high-density lithium in the battery development process to create a battery that has high energy density and is temperature resistant. Kim’s research is especially valuable since the batteries can be used in drones, which are expected to substitute satellites in the future. According to the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), it takes about 30 million won per kilogram to launch a satellite. Scientists expect the drones in the stratosphere to perform the same but in a cost-efficient way. “Most of what we anticipate from satellites can be embodied by drones,” said Kim. “Even though we cannot replace the satellites’ roles in observing outer space, drones can be an alternative in a practical sense.” Kim's research is expected to support future military and commercial drones. Kim expressed his goals in creating a battery that can be utilized for both military and commercial purposes. The common facts of today are the products of yesterday’s research. The effort of Kim’s team will be a stepping stone to an unprecedented technology. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-02 11

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] A Suggestion for the Harmonized Standard of Wireless Devices

In order to sell commercial wireless devices in Europe, the products must meet the guidelines of the Radio Equipment Directive (RED), established by the European Commission (EC). However, most of the guidelines are abstract and expansive, and, therefore, regulation was realistically difficult. To complement this, EC consulted European standards institutes to establish a harmonized standard that corresponds to the RED guideline. The new harmonized standard will be chosen by EC in April, and commercialized wireless products will be regulated in the European market accordingly. Thus, manufacturers will need to prove that their products meet the particular harmonized standard to sell them to the European market in the future. Professor Choi Seung-won (Department of Electronic Engineering), with his recent thesis, ‘Market Access for Radio Equipment Directive in Europe Enabled by the Radio Equipment Directive (RED): Status, Next Steps and Implications,’ suggested a thoroughly researched standard that is competent as a new harmonized standard. Professor Choi Seung-won (Department of Electronic Engineering) has proposed a harmonized standard for wireless devices. The Hanyang Mobile Communication research center has been engaged in the standardization action at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute's (ETSI) Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) technical committee since 2009. Currently, the center is trying to pass its developed standard as the new harmonized standard of EC. Choi's thesis is a part of this ETSI standardization action, aiming to inform both domestic and foreign institutes about the center’s progressing standardization action and its importance. Choi stated that the center has developed a unique wireless device architecture and interface that makes it possible for software restructuring, and these patented architecture and interfaces were applied in the standard suggested by the center. “If our standard gets selected as the harmonized standard, wireless device manufacturers will have to follow our standard, meaning they will have to manufacture the products using our patented technologies,” said Choi. He added that this means manufacturers will have to pay royalty to the center and that is what makes the research of higher value. "Constant effort will be made in the future for our standard to be chosen as the harmonized standard, as well as to commercialize the RRS techniques," said Choi. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr