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2020-02 07

[Academics]Professor Jeong Jae-gyeong Develops a Stretchable Display

On the 6th, Hanyang University announced that Professor Jeong Jae-gyeong (Department of Electric Engineering) developed a ‘stretchable transistor’ technology that can be stretched out and easily change the size. Flexible OLED that is used for foldable cell phones, which became famous as ‘foldable smartphones,’ such as the Samsung Galaxy Fold and Huawei Mate X, is expected to evolve ultimately into a stretchable display after developing as foldable and rollable displays. Following such flows, the technology that Professor Jeong’s team developed is foreseen to be largely meaningful in the display field in the future. Commonly, the flexible display uses polyimide as a breadboard so that it can be curved or rolled. However, polyimide has a drawback that it cannot be stretched since it is a hard material. To overcome the limitation, Professor Jeong’s team made a high-performance oxide transistor over polyimide film and used polyethylene that can be stretched like a rubber band as a breadboard, so that it can be stretched threefold than before and can keep its high electric performances. Also, they planned a structure with a higher duration by replacing the previous silica gate insulator with a hybrid polymer of zirconium, organic matter, and a crosslinker. Professor Jeong said, “The hybrid material and semiconductor processing concept can later be applied to rubber breadboard that can be stretched as one wants in the future. Through this, they might be used not only for the display industry but also for various industries such as tablets, clothing, and human skin.” This research is done with the support of Samsung Electronics Research Funding & Incubation Center for Future Technology’s Next Generation Material / Element Project and the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy’s Element Part Industry Future Growth Basis Project. The research result is published in a world-renowned paper, 「Advanced Functional Materials (IF = 15.6)」 in January. Kim Jeong-o (Department of Information Display Engineering), taking the Ph. D. course joined as the lead author and Professor Hong Yong-taek of Seoul National University joined as a co-author. ■ Title of the Publication: Network structure modification enabled hybrid polymer dielectric film with zirconia for the stretchable transistor application ■ Authors Professor Jeong Jae-gyeong (Corresponding Author, Hanyang University) Kim Jeong-o (First Author, Hanyang University) Hong Yong-taek (Co-author, Seoul National University) ■ Research Principles It developed an oxide transistor array that can have elasticity and can keep high performance by introducing the stress-relief structure that has a different Young’s Modulus. In detail, it synthesized and developed a new hybrid polymer insulator that can keep a good dielectric property by dispersing zirconia ceramics with high permittivity to a high polymer called PVP-co-PMMA in molecular level through the introduction of a crosslink with a silanol group. Through this, it is applied to a high mobility IGTO oxide semiconductor element. With this, it proved a high-performance TFT array concept that is 300% stretchable in a -150℃ process. Global News Team Translation by: Lee Seong-chae global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-02 06

[Academics]Hanyang University-Ground X, Publicly Opened a Blockchain Master's Course on 'Smart Contract and Decentralized Application' Lecture

Hanyang University and Ground X have announced on the 31st that they are publicly opening full lectures on the 'Smart Contract and Decentralized Application' for free, aiming for the general development of blockchain technology and human resources regarding the field. Last year, Hanyang University made an MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) joint business agreement with Ground X and opened formal master's degree lectures for the development of blockchain education and joint research. Korea's biggest company in the messenger industry, Kakao Corporation, supported the work, having the goal of creating education and joint researches that nurture future blockchain developers. The 'Smart Contract and Decentralized Application' lecture was held for a total of 15 weeks, starting from September of 2019, providing an education covering various contents, such as basic concepts and structure of blockchain, motion fundamentals of Ground X's self-developed platform Klaytn, consensus mechanism, smart contracts and more. Areas such as blockchain application training based on real-life examples, or methods to improve the UI (User Interface)·UX (User Experience) of blockchain services were also covered in the lecture. The lecture was held by the Evangelist Engineer of Ground X, Kim Woo-joong. The lecture is open to any student or developers interested in a blockchain platform and blockchain application development, which can be found at the IT technology education platform 'InfLearn' or 'Ground X Youtube Channel'. Kim Woo-joong Ground X Evangelist mentioned that "it was very memorable to give the lecture that covers not only the basic concepts of blockchain but also the experiences and business knowledge based on various scenarios that happen in the real-life business environment." He also noted that "since the whole Hanyang University lecture is opened online for free, I hope that it helps many people that are interested in Klaytn and development and operation of blockchain application." Logo of Hanyang University and Kakao's blockchain affiliate 'Ground X' Screenshot of the lecture that is open to the public on Youtube Watch lecture video of Ground X (Youtube) : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSt0Fu_UtZI&list=PLKqrwxupttYEcJhWAw0E_5RVpDD9LD6Q- Global News Team Translated by: Lee Wonyoung global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-02 05

[Academics]Increasing Mileage of Electric Cars with a ‘Starch Battery’

On January 21st, a co-research team of Hanyang University's Department of Energy Engineering, Chonnam National University's Department of New Material Engineering, and the KIST Energy Storing Research Group announced that they have developed a silicon-based cathode which has a fourfold battery capacity than the graphite cathode that was previously used and can be charged more than 80% in five minutes. If this is applied to electric cars, the mileage can be increased more than double. Current commercialized electronic car batteries use graphite as cathode material but a disadvantage of it is that its mileage is shorter than internal combustion cars, due to small battery capacity. To develop electric cars with longer mileage, silicon that can save energy up to ten times than graphite is now highlighted as a new cathode material. However, the difficulty of silicon commercialization is that silicon rapid expansion of volume and loss of capacity, when charging and discharging are continued. Also, although many ways to enhance the safety of silicon as a cathode material are suggested, high price and complex processes are hindering silicon from replacing graphite. The co-researching team focused on cheap materials in daily lives such as water, oil, and starch to enhance the stability of silicon. They increased a carbon-silicon material by diluting starch in the water and oil in silicon and heating them. A carbon-silicon complex is made through a heating process just like frying something. Through this, the volume expansion of silicon cathode is prevented, when charging and discharging it. ▲ Carbon-Silicon Complex Synthesis Process Micelle is made of an emulsion of water, oil, starch, and surfactant and when it is repeatedly heated and carbonized, a carbon-silicon complex is formed. (Photo courtesy by KIST) The complex showed a battery capacity (1,530mAh/g) that is four times larger than the previous graphite-based cathode material (360mAh/g), and it also showed a characteristic of stabilized capacity after more than 500 times of charging, and of more than 80% charging in five minutes. This is because the carbon complex controls the volume expansion of silicon so that the stability is increased and it gained a large output due to carbon’s high conductivity and rearrangement of silicon structure. Doctor Jeong Hoon-gi of KIST who led this research showed his expectation by saying, “An easy process and great characteristics as such have a high possibility of commercialization and they will be further used in electric cars and Energy Storing System (ESS) when applied to a lithium-ion secondary battery.” This research was conducted by the support of the Ministry of Science and ICT and as a part of KIST’s main projects and climate change response development projects. The result of the research is published in the newest edition of 「Nano Letters」, an international journal of the field of nanotechnology. ▲ An imaginary image of an electric car equipping a carbon-silicon complex cathode, made by mixing and heating the silicon from eco-friendly materials, such as corn and sweet potatoes, which are mixed with oil (Photo courtesy of KIST) Global News Team Translation by: Lee Seong-chae global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-02 03

[Academics]Professor Park Hui-Joon, Increased the Solar Battery Efficiency by Combining Compound Semiconductor and Perovskite

On the 19th, the joint research team of Professor Park Hui-Joon of Hanyang University's Department of Organic and Nano Engineering and Professor Lee Jae-Jin of Ajou University announced that they have developed a 'tandem solar cell' by combining a flexible 'Gallium-arsenic (GsAs) compound' and a 'Perovskite semiconductor.' They used the method that increases the conversion efficiency of electronic energy by using more diverse wavelength lights, laminating a semiconductor compound crystal that absorbs large wavelengths of light, over a thin film of Perovskite that absorbs short-wavelength light. The research team succeeded in creating a thin film of Perovskite with high-efficiency, by using a method of low-temperature solution processing. The tandem battery that is made through putting the film over a gallium-arsenic compound is found to have 15% higher efficiency. A possible increase in the price of the tandem solar battery has also been managed by using low-cost Perovskite, which has the function of increasing the photoconversion efficiency of the semiconductor compound. Professor Park mentioned that "the newly developed tandem solar battery is very light and flexible, which makes it useful for automobiles, drones, wearable devices, as well as the energy source for IoT (Internet of Things) sensors." The research has been conducted with the support of the Ministry of Science and ICT, the Ministry of Education, and the Fundamental Research Business by the National Research Foundation of Korea, and the result of the research was published on the cover paper of an international academic journal, 「Advanced Energy Materials」, on December 19th, 2019. Mimetic Diagram of Perovskite-Gallium·Arsenic Tandem Structure Solar Battery (Provided by National Research Foundation of Korea) Global News Team Translated by: Lee Wonyoung global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-01 28

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Turning Waste into Fuel

Coal is an important energy source, providing for over a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of electricity. Nevertheless, the controversy over it causing air pollution is getting more intense each year. Professor Yang Hyun-ik (Department of Mechanical Engineering), in his recent research titled ‘Development and Demonstration of the Facility to create Green Pellet Using Waste Wood,’ has provided an eco-friendly way to burn coal and further showed the possibility to produce a competent renewable energy source, solely using wastes. The research aims to develop a facility that successfully converts waste wood and sewage sludge into pellets and burn them with coal. Pellets are a type of fuel that is burnt with coal in the process of generating electricity, made by condensing inflammable wood into a pellet shape. This addition is made almost mandatorily because it reduces the exhaust gas and fine dust caused by burning coal. However, Korea has very few facilities that are capable of producing pellets, and using inflammable-quality domestic wood is highly expensive, so currently, reliance on import is inevitable. Yang’s suggestion was to develop a domestic facility that could produce pellets out of waste wood from Korea as well as sewage sludge, thus making competent eco-friendly ‘green’ pellets. Professor Yang Hyun-ik (Department of Mechanical Engineering), in his recent research, designed a facility that successfully converts waste wood and sewage sludge into 'green' pellet. The green pellets are made using the hydrothermal carbonation technology. Much like the process of making charcoal, carbonation technology compresses carbon by heat. Hydrothermal carbonation is one kind of the technology that carries out the process underwater so that it creates no air pollution. Yang says the facility can convert not only specific wastes, like waste wood or sewage sludge, but all kinds of wastes, including food garbage and even human waste into fuel. The completed facility will be installed in the current cooperating company, Korea East-West Power Corporation. The first step is to succeed in a reduced scale production of one ton within two years, and the next three years will be devoted to producing a real-life scale of one-hundred-ton pellets. Once the technology proves successful, Yang anticipates spreading this technology globally. “Everyone says extracting renewable energy from wastes is important, but not many institutions are doing any practical research. In this sense, this technology is extremely important and necessary on a world-wide scale,” said Yang. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2020-01 26

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Bridging the Educational Gap through Welfare

People refer to education as the passport to the future. Nowadays, education is considered a type of welfare—provided from cradle to grave. However, school education cannot help but be emphasized due to its role in society. Here is Professor Song Ji-hoon (Department of Educational Technology) who is leading the research on the execution of welfare in school education. Professor Song Ji-hoon (Department of Educational Technology) is leading an institution that specializes in educational welfare. Song is the incumbent president of the Institute for Educational Research—a Hanyang-affiliated research institute on educational welfare. Educational welfare not only considers the infrastructure of a classroom but also the affective filter of the students. The institute is currently building a masterplan of school education with its point of reference. “We are surveying all authorities related to educational welfare,” said Song. There exists controversy on welfare catching up with one’s political stance. Educational welfare cannot escape from this dispute as well, especially in terms of providing the educational environment. “There are two types of welfare: universal welfare and selective welfare,” explained Song. The institute aims to verify educational policies from a utility point of view. For instance, people show different opinions on complimentary school uniforms. What the institute does is to make a report that evaluates the policy from both points of view. The goal is to avoid both reckless management and stigmatization—which are the double-edged swords of the two standpoints. Song also seeks to afford the emotional equilibrium to students through educational welfare. “Success in education derives from immersion,” defined the professor. “Students should be interested in what they learn and who they learn from.” Song emphasized the need for the right atmosphere, which is a key in narrowing down the educational gap. “The institute aims to pave the way for better conditions where students enjoy their school life.” Song proposes both physical and psychological welfare in bridging the educational gap. Nelson Mandela said that education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Song’s efforts are being carried over to a long-range plan where education serves as a way of resolving the social polarization in substance. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2020-01 21

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Finding the Key to Detailed Information of the Ecosystem

How can we tell a drop of pure honey from sugar-mixed honey? How do we tell which of the pesticide is responsible for the corrupted soil? Or the correct place of origin of beef? All of these are possible by analyzing the ‘stable isotope ratio’ of the compound. Recently, ERICA Campus’s Institute of Ocena and Atmospheric Sciences successfully developed the nitrogen stable isotope analyses technology. It is the first in Korea, and one of the very few world-wide. Professor Shin Kyung-hoon (Department of Marine Science and Convergence Engineering, ERICA Campus) of the laboratory explained that there is a wide possibility of how the technology can be employed in various fields. Professor Shin Kyung-hoon (Department of Marine Science and Convergence Engineering, ERICA Campus) successfully developed the nitrogen stable isotope analyses technology. An isotope of an element is an atom that has a different number of neutrons than the other normal atoms. For instance, almost all carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, but about 1 percent of the carbon on Earth has 6 protons and 7 neutrons. Amongst them, stable isotope is a specific group of isotope that are not radioactive. The aforementioned 'stable isotope ratio' refers to the ratio of the atomic abundances of a specific stable isotopes within an element. So what is the significance of developing the technology that analyzes this stable isotope ratio? According to Shin, the ratio for each atom is generally constant throughout every elements in Earth's biosphere. However, they show slight, but notable, differences between the kinds, and a subtler difference between individual entity. “It is these subtle differences that carry the valuable information,” said Shin. “Take ecology, for example. Although each species has its basic internal isotope ratio, depending on the environment, the exact ratio differs slightly for each organism. In other words, by analyzing the stable isotopes ratio, we can figure out the environment it lived in, such as habitat, food, and trophic position. Ultimately, it gives us a correct and detailed information about the ecosystem,” said Shin. On the surface, what the technology can do is, it can also be applied in many other fields. In forensic science, it could be used to identify the used poison or the used weapon. It can also effectively place the place of origin of food products, and can even be used in archeology to find out what ancient people ate. “The stable isotope ratio analyses technique has endless possibilities of joint study, and a few of them are under way already. We have the machine set and are more than ready to cooperate. I hope more researchers of different fields come up with an interesting idea from their field, and use our machine to find out the answer,” said Shin. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2020-01 15
2020-01 14

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Opening a New Method to Save the Environment through Discovering a Nanocatalyst

The Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering is divided into 5 different sub majors, such as Nano Technology, Bio Technology, Information Technology, and Environment & Energy Technology. Overall, it deals with discovering and creating new materials, which are related to various industries throughout the world. Professor Kim Jong-ho, researching at Hanyang University NanoChemistry Lab at ERICA Campus, has recently discovered a method of substance production and functionalization during his research. Professor Kim uncovered a new method to compose a multifunctional nanocatalyst called PdO@WO₃ and the according substance. PdO@WO₃ has never been reported in the academic world and it also serves a perfect role as both a light photocatalyst and an electrocatalyst. ▲ Professor Kim Jong-ho of the Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering of ERICA Campus has recently discovered a method of substance production and functionalization. The material that Professor Kim has discovered is formed through the direct conversion of a PdO nanocluster that has a catalyst function and an ultrathin 2D tungsten oxide (WO₃) nanosheets. This newly found nanosheet serves as a light photocatalyst that converts light energy into chemical energy, while also effectively initiating C-C coupling reactions. PdO@WO₃ can also be used as an electrocatalyst as mentioned above. It is viewed that PdO@WO₃ can be used as a new tool to reduce environmental problems. For example, many medical supplies and medicines such as anticancer drugs go through C-C coupling reactions to be produced. This chain reaction requires a light photocatalyst action of a chemical element called palladium (Pd). The action is usually initiated by mixing palladium into a solution, which makes the material almost impossible to recover after mixing. However, when using the new method created by Professor Kim, the solution becomes a heterogeneous mixture, thus allowing the recovery of the nanomaterial that still maintains the functionality as a catalyst. Palladium is one of the rare-earth materials, known for having a higher price than gold. The ability to use this material again would drop the unit price of the medical supplies and medicines greatly. Moreover, it would also help to improve our natural environment, because the mining of such materials is one of the great factors of environmental destruction. PdO@WO₃ can also be used for creating a next-generation battery to replace the existing lithium-ion battery. The lithium-ion battery has an explosion hazard and low efficiency, which is currently used the most in electronic cars. The demand for the next-generation battery, especially the ones such as the metal-air battery is increasing more than ever. The zinc-air battery that is created through the cathode electrochemical catalyst function of PdO@WO₃ has higher energy density, with no possibility of any explosion hazard. When the zinc-air battery technology becomes commercialized, developing electric cars that can replace cars with an internal combustion engine is expected to become much easier than before. ▲ a) A mimic diagram of C-C coupling reactions conducted using PdO@WO₃ as a light photocatalyst. b) The result of Oxygen Return Reaction conducted using PdO@ WO₃ as the electrocatalyst (Provided by Professor Kim Jong-ho) The discovery of Professor Kim (Thesis title: ‘Ultrathin WO3 Nanosheets Converted from Metallic WS2 Sheets by Spontaneous Formation and Deposition of PdO Nanoclusters for Visible Light-Driven C-C Coupling Reactions') was made possible through the failure of separate research. In the beginning, PdO@WO₃ was simply a byproduct of an experiment with another purpose. However, Professor Kim did not stop after faced with the failure. Instead, he thoroughly analyzed the result and continued various experiments on the newly created material. In the end, Professor Kim redefined the byproduct as a catalyst, after establishing a new method of conversion of the material. Professor Kim stated, “I discovered a new scientific knowledge from the result of an experiment that I thought of as a failure. I also want the students of Hanyang University to not be afraid of the result and to gain new knowledge within it.” The research took a total of two long years; one that ended up with the failed result of the former experiment, the other spent on analyzing and establishing PdO@WO₃. The NanoBio Chemistry Lab of Hanyang University, where Professor Kim's research was done, has continued its studies on creating eco-friendly nanocatalyst material. Professor Kim gained the original patent on the conversion method of PdO@WO₃ and published the work on a scientific journal. He is now considering the publication of how PdO@WO₃ can be applied and used for the metal-air battery. Global News Team global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-01 09
2020-01 08

[Academics]Professor Shin Heung-soo’s Team Has Developed a New Stem Cell Delivery Method Inspired from Lotus

Professor Shin Heung-soo Hanyang University announced on the 7th that a team led by Shin Heung-soo, a professor at the Department of Bio Engineering, recently developed a stem cell delivery technology that can more efficiently treat a wide range of wounds caused by burns as such. Professor Shin developed a method that can produce large quantities of ‘stem cell three-dimensional spheroid’, known to be efficient in treating wounds and deliver them evenly to a wide range of areas. The technology is expected to be widely used to treat patients with extensive area wounds such as burns and ulcers when it can be commercialized in the future. Stem cells are being researched to treat various incurable diseases by injecting it into the human body since they possess functions such as self-replication, differentiation possibility into various cells, growth factors, and immunosuppression factor secretion. However, stem cells had the disadvantage of significant decrease in cell function since the environment around the cell differs from the environment in the body when incubating in vitro system and the limitation that local transmission in the human body is possible in the form of an injection, but it cannot regenerate the tissue in a wide area of damage. Professor Shin’s team derived ideas from lotus and solved these problems. He created a biomaterial that small rooms in hundreds of micrometer-scale, formed on a large scale regularly on the surface, to replicate the structure that each seed is fixed inside lotus seedpod. He formed three-dimensional spheroids by making stem cells extracted from human fat tissues to be brought together. Dealing with the process that the fixed seeds inside lotus become released outside due to external forces, he designed the stem cell spheroids formed in each room to be released externally when biological material expands. As a result of animal model testing, the three-dimensional spheroids produced through this process could be transplanted into a wide-range skin wound easily and showed a cure effect that is improved twofold. Professor Shin said, “This research can increase the survival rate of cells transplanted in the human body by refining the delivery method of stem cell treatment that a lot of people are interested in. It is a meaningful original technology to increase the efficiency of cell treatment with a small number of cells.” This work was researched together with Professor Choi Yu-seok of the University of Western Australia and Professor Moon Seong-hwan of Konkuk University College of Medicine, and the result of the research is listed on the December volume of ‘Biomaterials’, the magazine of authority in the biomaterials field. The research was funded by the Mid-sized Research Support Project and Natural Simulation Innovation Technology Development Project of National Research Foundation, Ministry of Science and ICT. ▲ A biomaterial for the stem cell spheroid delivery and production, based on the lotus-simulated biomaterial. (Left) A mimetic diagram of hydrogel that has a lot of rooms alike lotus, produced with micro-process technology (Middle) A mimetic diagram of stem cell spheroid that has a three-dimensional structure formed in each room through stem cell (Right) A process that spheroid is being delivered through external stimulation for transplantation Global News Team Translated by: Lee Seong-chae global@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-01 06

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] When Exception Becomes a New Finding

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international, collaborative research program that clinched complete mapping and understanding of human genes. HGP offered clues to the resolution of diseases through genetic modifications. The base editors – which inserts, deletes, modifies, and replaces targeted DNA in a genome with engineered nucleases – are technological embodiments that integrate follow-up studies from HGP. Professor Bae Sangsu (Department of Chemistry), who has pointed out unreported issues in Adenine base editors, shared his insights with us. Professor Bae Sangsu (Department of Chemistry) published his new findings of Adenine base editors in Nature Biotechnology. Base editing technology has undergone technological innovations in the last decade. The CRISPR gene editing is the third-generation base editor following zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) gene editing and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) gene editing. The method allows the cell’s genome to be cut at the desired location by using a simplified version of the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defense system. The CRISPR gene editing was selected as the 2015 Breakthrough of the Year by Science. The base editing systems are now more influenced by nucleic acid sequences. A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of base-pairs signified by a series of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine, which determines the biological characteristics of a living organism. Cytosine base editors (CBEs) and adenine base editors (ABEs) are the two major base editors that efficiently enable base substitutions. Recently, some researchers have reported their observations of unexpected ABE-induced cytosine conversions in mouse embryos. These conversions were thought to be exceptional cases. However, Bae’s research team found out that ABEs convert cytosine to guanine or thymine in a narrow editing window and a confined TC*N sequence context. These figures present cytosine editing by ABEs. (Photo courtesy of Bae) “What we found is that cytosine conversion in ABE is a systematic consequence in a certain situation,” said Bae. “Our findings are like bugs in smartphone applications.” This research has proven that the ABE cytosine deamination activity is relatively minor compared to the canonical ABE adenine deamination activity, but is an independent one. “It is clear that CRISPR-based base editing technologies have advanced the genome-editing field,” said Bae. The professor is looking forward to making a better tool by overcoming these unexpected results. His research team is working to develop ABE which does not convert Cytosine as an improvement study. At the same time, Bae is also involved in developing a more efficient CBE through his findings. Bae is trying to carry on his research into the advancement of both ABE and CBE base editors. Some say that even a minor error may turn out to be the one thing necessary to a worthwhile achievement. Bae’s effort to systemize exceptions are set to support the quality of human life by enhancement in base editing technology. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun