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2020-07 27 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Customizing Breast Cancer Treatment through Big Data

In 2015, Professor Kong Gu (College of Medicine) was a pioneer in the field of breast cancer research and treatment, laying the foundation for web-based precision by mapping 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences. Kong is now developing a screening system for breast cancer with multiomics and big data, paving the way for customization and personalized breast cancer treatment. Professor Kong Gu (College of Medicine) developed a target gene screening system for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women, causing death to 1 out of 38 women. The cancer is classified into three subtypes, which are Estrogen Receptor (ER) positive, HER2 positive, and triple-negative. The latter two – which make up fewer than 30 percent of all cases – usually have bad prognoses. Through this research project, Kong sought to find the target gene of malignant tumors through multiomics. Multiomics is a new approach where the data sets of different omic groups, such as the genome, proteome, and transcriptome, are combined during analysis. By unpacking 41 data sets from METABRIC, TCGA, and GEO, Kong made a target gene screening system that allows researchers to customize the treatment of potential patients. “It is a platform to provide the individualized surgical target with data visualization,” explained the professor. Data visualization, survival analysis, and target gene screening are three main points in this research. (Photo courtesy of Kong) Kong, who is one of the first Korean scholars to introduce the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, said it was a challenge for him to conduct this research. “Most of what I have studied as a researcher was on biotechnology(BT),” said Kong. The latest research, however, involved informational technology (IT). He said a lot of help was given to him from Kim Hyung Yong, a Ph.D. candidate who majored in bioinformatics for his master’s degree. Kong tried to learn IT himself, as well as to pass his knowledge of breast cancer on to his doctoral student. “It was an opportunity to remind me that the path of learning is long and winding," recalled Kong. Kong said it was definitely a challenge to encounter informational technology (IT) in his research. Kong advised the members of Hanyang to be engrossed in their path. “Stay focused on your interests with constant effort,” advised the professor. “You will eventually become an expert in the field.” Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-07 26 Important News

[Academics][Excellent R&D] How to Ensure Structural Safety During Remodeling

Professor Choi Chang-sik (Department of Architectural Engineering) has developed the technology to ensure structural safety when vertically extending buildings. Unlike previous methods, Choi's method strengthens the existing wall structure without adding to or thickening of the walls; thus, it does not reduce the floor space. Out of all residential premises in South Korea, 55 percent are more than 30 years old (figure from 2018). When a building is decrepit, it can either be demolished and reconstructed or partly remodeled. Choi's research aims to deal with problems that arise while remodeling, especially when doing a vertical extension. Professor Choi-Chang-sik (Department of Architectural Engineering) is explaining the reason why shear walls are important when extending a building. To increase the number of floors of a building, many aspects must be considered. These include the vertical weight that will be put on the walls and pillars, horizontal weight which is related to wind and earthquakes, as well as the flexural strength. The taller the building, the more stress is put on the importance of the horizontal weight and flexural strength. The type of wall that is designed to support these two factors is called a shear wall. Choi's method of strengthening sheer walls differs from the previous adhesion-type method in that it does not thicken the walls or increase the number of walls. He first calculates the necessary thickness of the stiffener and cuts out the same size area from the existing wall structure. The stiffener is then applied onto the vacant area. This method gives the advantage that it will not reduce the actual floor space of the living area. Choi explained that the team has successfully finished the technology development as well as completed testing on real-scale structures. The only thing left is to test it on an actual building. "We are currently facing difficulties because there are not many complexes that are willing to try out the new technology. Furthermore, apartments in general do not prefer remodeling over reconstruction, so it is very hard to find an apartment to apply our method on," said Choi. “People feel vague anxiety about reusing an old structure as the base. However, remodeling involves as much technical verification as reconstruction. I hope people can trust the safety of our remodeling method." Hwang Hee-won whitewon99@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-07 20 Important News

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Building a System for Urban Ecosystems

When engineers did urban planning in the past, the feasibility and economic efficacy that it would bring were the top priorities. Recently, however, there has been increasing attention given to environmental factors, and the research on urban ecosystems has gained popularity within the field of urban planning. Professor Oh Kyushik (Department of Urban Planning and Engineering) is building up a spatial decision support system to maintain and manage urban ecosystem services. Professor Oh Kyushik (Department of Urban Planning and Engineering) is creating a platform for the maintenance and management of urban ecosystem services. Oh’s project aims to make a platform that assists with the decision-making process of the government. “What I am trying to do is to connect developmental and environmental issues in one framework,” explained Oh. The professor presented four standards in providing ecosystem services: resilience, buffer power, carbon storage capability, and heat stress mitigation capability. Considering these four standards, Oh collected research data provided by the collaborating labs and incorporated them in a readily accessible platform with an easy-to-use interface. Oh collected research data provided by collaborating labs and incorporated them into a readily accessible platform with an easy-to-use interface. Previously, Oh has been in charge of two national-level research and development projects conducted by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport. However, this was his first time participating in a project conducted by the Ministry of Environment. "The two ministries have some common ground but see from different points of view,” said Oh. He said he was determined to learn and combine both standards through this project. Oh revealed his will to make his research beneficial by reflecting the views of both the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport and the Ministry of Environment. Oh reminded the members of Hanyang to look with eyes wide open at the past, but more importantly at the future. “I feel the world is changing at a rapid pace, especially after the coronavirus outbreak,” said Oh. The professor said that the field of urban planning is changing in parallel, as it is a discipline that is deeply related to the daily life of the public. Oh advised students to keep a broad vision and to build up extensive knowledge for the future. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-07 20 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Reducing Fine Dust From GDI Engines

The increasing amount of fine dust is threatening modern people’s daily lives. In response to the problem, Professor Park Sung-wook (Division of Mechanical Engineering) has been studying ways to decrease the amount of fine dust in the air while maintaining the efficiency of automobile engines. In his recent research paper titled “Effects of spray behavior and wall impingement on particulate matter emissions in a direct injection spark ignition engine equipped with a high pressure injection system,” Park presented a solution to lowering the amount of fine dust emitted by Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines of gasoline-powered cars. The research focuses on spray visualization, particle number (PN) measurement experiments, injection timing, and an engine load being varied to examine their effects on the way fuel sprays move when being injected inside a combustion chamber, hereinafter referred to as the spray behavior. The analysis was based on time-averaged spray images, spray variations between cycles, combustion, and PN emission characteristics. "The motivation behind this research was the prevalent misconception that diesel cars are the main source of fine dust, when in fact gasoline cars’ GDI engines emit just as substantial an amount of fine dust," said Park. Professor Park Sung-wook (Division of Mechanical Engineering) experimented in order to help automobiles emit less fine dust. (Photo courtesy of Park) What Park considered most important in the research was the PN emission characteristics. He endeavored to find new ways to decrease PN emission in the air instead of reducing the dust's total weight. “What matters the most in reducing fine dust is the size of each dust particle," explained Park. "The combined weight of the dispersed fine dust is secondary - for the size of the particle determines its harmfulness to the human body.” After 5 years’ cooperation with Hyundai Motor Company, Hyundai KEFICO, the Ministry of Environment, and the Ministry of Industry, Park and his team have been able to conclude that when fuel is injected at a high pressure, the flow in the combustion chamber is strengthened, and the atomization of the fuel spray is propelled in action in order to decrease fine dust in the air. “This has been a significant research project during which we have found ways to decrease the amount of fine dust emitted by existing hybrid automobiles and internal combustion automobiles, without having to accelerate the commercialization of electric cars, which would be difficult to do for several more years.” Park said five great students have earned their doctorate degrees through this experiment and thanked his pupils for constantly helping him in times of distress and uncertainty. Park with his student. He thanked his students for helping him through times of uncertainty and distress. (Photo courtesy of Park) Lee Yoon-seo cipcd0909@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-06 01 Important News

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Standing at the Center of Cutting-Edge Technology

Although there have been notable advances in the study of natural science, research related to high pressure has not been active in Korea due to the lack of groundwork technology. Professor Kim Jaeyong (Department of Physics) is opening up the route to high pressure research through the HYU-HPSTAR-CIS High Pressure Research Center, the hub of collaboration between the world-class institutes. Professor Kim Jaeyong (Department of Physics) is paving the way for high pressure research in Korea. The HYU-HPSTAR-CIS High Pressure Research Center was established in 2016 with support from The Ministry of Science and ICT. The research center is in a collaborative relationship with the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS) of the United States and the Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR) of China. The three institutes are consistently sharing their research outcomes by holding joint symposiums and reinforcing researcher exchanges. Kim explained the collaboration as “a successful case of acquiring advanced technologies by bringing in world-class institutes,” referring to the research spirit of the center as “Moon Ik-jeom spirit.” Moon is a historical figure who brought cottonseed from China into Korea, allowing the country to produce and distribute cotton to citizens. Just as Moon did in the past, Kim attained three diamond anvil cells, high pressure devices that enable the compression of a small piece of material with extreme pressure, from HPSTAR in 2016. Within a short period, Kim succeeded in producing a unique version of the cell. The center’s main focus is on hydrogen energy storage. The have recently reported successful results in the reversible storage of hydrogen energy. By imposing high pressure in Ti-Zr-Ni Quasicrystals, the research team was able to keep 4.2 wt of hydrogen at room temperature. Kim hopes that the results will contribute to the commercialization of hydrogen-powered cars. Kim hopes to contribute to the commercialization of hydrogen-powered cars with his recent research. Kim has demonstrated his will to help position the HYU-HPSTAR-CIS High Pressure Research Center as the hub of high pressure research. Kim also encouraged more students to participate in the research. “Our university has sufficient human resources, research conditions, and support systems to conduct the research,” said the professor. “I hope the students can feel the sense of thrill that comes from standing at the center of cutting-edge technology.” Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-06 01

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Effective Use of Photocatalysts to Combat Environmental Problems

Numerous attempts have been made by engineers to apply technology to our everyday problems. Professor Park Jae-woo (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) tackles one of the most critical problems of our time, environmental pollution, using the special characteristics of nano photocatalysts. His research focuses on resolving the problems caused during the reduction-oxidation process of photocatalysts. Through his research, he has discovered that the use of the Charge Transfer Layer (CTL) is significantly effective, and expects the findings to help organic pollutants decompose through photocatalysts, which will lead to a cleaner society. For the past 15 years, Park has been conducting research on the development of magnetic-cored dendrimers and nano-photocatalysts for the purpose of environmental purification. According to Park, nano-photocatalysts have the power to commence oxidation in hazardous substances by separating electrons from holes. This process of oxidation converts substances into water and carbon dioxide gas, which are harmless to the environment. However, despite their striking capabilities, photocatalysts have their shortcomings. In his research, Park focused on compromising with the photocatalysts' technical problem. For the past 15 years, Professor Park Jae-woo (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) has been conducting research on the development of nano-photocatalysts for the purpose of environmental purification. The problem with the use of photocatalysts One of the biggest disadvantages of using the reduction-oxidation of photocatalysts is that electrons have the tendency to return to their respective electron holes. Their tendency to recombine after separation lowered the rate at which photocatalysts oxidized harmful substances, and many researchers have sought out ways to prevent the recombination of electrons with the electron holes. The existing methods such as doping, facet, and core-shell merely slow down the rate at which electrons recombine with electron holes and fail to completely separate them. However, Park has succeeded in permanently separating the electrons using the CTL. How was CTL used? A photocatalyst which utilizes the CTL is comprised of three components: the photocatalyst which forms a pair of electrons and electron holes, the CTL which moves the electrons selectively, and the collector which accumulates and stores the moved electrons. Here, the CTL, being the main component, carries the electrons while inhibiting their passage through electron holes. As a result, the electron is moved from the photocatalyst to the electron collector, and suppresses them from recombining. What makes Park and his team’s accomplishment so unique is the fact that their work did not stop at only delaying the recombination, as previous methods had done, but also entirely prevented recombination by separating the electrons and shutting down the reverse-travelling by maintaining a high level of catalyst reaction. The result of the research “We have conducted two experiments to prove there is an increased activation of catalysts by using the CTL in the mentioned study,” said Park. He continued, “The first, is hydrolysis. A catalyst under the influence of the CTL displayed 78% higher hydrogenative yield than the existing one in the visible ray photography. Then, in the experiment with the subject bisphenol A, which is an organic pollutant, the catalyst showed a very high 93% removal rate after three hours of reaction." Park also believes that catalysts utilizing the CTL can be applied to energy and environment-related fields in an extensive range. Park said, “I want to thank my graduate school students, whose effort and sweat have made all this possible.” Park expressed gratitude to his graduate school students, whose effort and hard work have made the project possible. “It motivates me to reflect on my mindset when I see students working so hard on the research topic.” He especially thanked Hassan Anwer (Civil and Environmental Engineering, Doctoral program) for his devotion to the research. Lee Yoon-seo cipcd0909@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-05 04 Important News

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] From Seawater to Fresh Water

Droughts and water shortages are serious global threats. However, many technical developments are in progress to resolve these problems, and one of them is desalination. Desalination is the process of separating the salt in seawater from the water in order to get usable fresh water. However, the currently available technologies have the problem of sustainability, for they require fossil fuel and costly factories to be constructed. To suggest an alternative, Professor Kwak Rho-kyun (Department of Mechanical Engineering) is researching electro-membrane desalination. Professor Kwak Rho-kyun (Department of Mechanical Engineering) has been working on the topic of electro-membrane desalination for 10 years. Electro-membrane desalination uses the division of positive ion and negative ion when salt dissolves in water. The positive and negative ions are drawn to each pole when voltage is applied. Intersecting the membrane that makes each ion between electrodes pass through, called the exchange membrane of positive and negative ions, salt ions can be collected and removed. What is left is fresh water with the saline ions removed. Kwak has been working on the topic for 10 years, since he was a doctoral student. He said he first began his research inspired by the idea from his Ph.D. advisor that the unusual migration phenomenon of biomaterials such as DNA and ions would also occur in the electric membrane desalination system. His first goal was building a system of electro-membrane desalination to check whether the migration of biomaterials such as DNA and ions appear in the system of electro-membrane desalination, and visualizing the migration of the ions inside. Based on the visualization research, Kwak studied various subjects such as improving the efficiency of existing desalination devices and of treating the produced water. Kwak expressed special gratitude toward his graduate students who have helped him throughout the research process. Kwak said the significance of the study lies in that it developed a promising futuristic desalination technology, enabling Korea to become a global powerhouse to solve the future water shortage problem. Kwak’s innovative research has been highly acknowledged, introduced in journals like PRL and JOFM and others on the topics of desalination and water research. Kwak also expressed gratitude toward his graduate school students who have helped him throughout the research process. “I really want to thank my students. Their hard work was what made it possible to achieve such good research results,” said Kwak. Hwang Hee-won whitewon99@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-05 03

[Academics][Excellent R&D] How Data Science Connects with Society

Data science is the use of the scientific method to obtain useful information from computer data. As it gives new insights into a vast amount of data, there exists an interdisciplinary approach in social science to compensate for what they might have missed through traditional methods with data science. Professor Cha Jae-hyuk (Division of Computer Science and Engineering) developed a platform that accelerates the convergence of the two disciplines. Professor Cha Jaehyuk (Division of Computer Science and Engineering) established a platform that merges data science with social science. Data science is expected to bring about a new horizon in social science as social issues are becoming more complex. “We are now in a hyper-connected society where small changes bring about significant ripple effects,” explained Cha. Traditional social research methods could easily result in biases as they rely on surveys which only take a small amount of data into consideration. Cha expects computational social science to contribute to the analysis of potential risk factors and to establish sustainable policies for vulnerable, multi-dimensional social issues. Cha is currently working to build a platform that integrates data science into social science. The platform consists of three subgroups that make social models through continuous monitoring and data collection. One deals with societal anxiety through analysis of social networking, whereas another group covers disability rights in relation to social mobility. The third digs deeper into public health issues, especially related to infectious disease control. Cha’s role is the general management of the platform. He added that the research is mainly done in association with seven social scientists and nine data scientists. There are the three subgroups which researchers use to create social models through monitoring and data analysis. (Photo courtesy of the Computational Social Science Center) Cha highlighted the importance of the platform as a channel for conversation. “Interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches open the way into problems that are difficult to address through the methods of traditional disciplines,” said Cha. This platform lets researchers from two disciplines share the outcomes and objectives of the study through visualization. Cha also revealed his plans as a director of the Computational Social Science Center. “I have seen researchers struggling due to academic barriers between the two disciplines,” said the director. Cha expects to foster interdisciplinarians who grasps the essentials of both data science and social science and can bridge the gap between the two fields of study. A breakthrough occurs when we bring down boundaries and encourage disciplines to learn from each other. Cha is opening the way to the resolution of social issues through the convergence of data science and social science. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-04 06

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Into the Unknown through Convergence

For a long time, scientists have wanted to figure out how the elements which constitute the universe were formed. Still, there is not much known about this mechanism. Heavy-ion particle accelerators now provide a clue to the generative processes as they reproduce what the universe has been going through since its creation. Professor Kim Yong-kyun (Department of Nuclear Engineering) contributed to the establishment of a new heavy-ion particle accelerator RAON by building the most powerful and accurate μSR (Muon spin rotation). Professor Kim Yong-Kyun (Department of Nuclear Engineering) is engaging in the domestic heavy-ion particle accelerator project called RAON. RAON is a heavy-ion particle accelerator propelled by the Institute of Basic Science, which is a machine that can be used to find undiscovered elements or reenact the formation process of existing elements. It will be the first heavy-ion particle accelerator that uses both Isotope Separation On-Line and In-flight Fragmentation methods. Because the machine is so complex, researchers are conducting the project in collaboration with many other accelerator research groups including Radiation Instrument and Sensor Engineering Lab (RAISE), a Hanyang University Research Laboratory led by Kim. Kim’s team has been specifically working on μSR. μ (Muon) is an unstable elementary particle similar to the electron which is created by collision between high-energy protons and the atmosphere. Owing to its greater mass, μ accelerates slower than electrons in electromagnetic fields. μ lets scientists probe the properties of novel materials as it penetrates far deeper into the matter than X-rays. μ exist all around the world, but is useless because of its short meantime of 2.2 μs (microseconds). “That is why we use heavy-ion particle accelerators to create μ,” explained Kim. μ helps probe the properties of novel materials as μSR has become a tool of measurement. (Photo Courtesy of Kim) μSR measures the decay and spin information with μ produced by the accelerators, offering new insights into the property of a matter. μSR is a technique based on the implantation of spin-polarized μ in the matter and on the detection of the influence of the atomic, molecular or crystalline surroundings on their spin motion. Kim’s team is now building the most powerful and precise μSR in the world. “Our μSR is expected to further the development of new semiconductors and superconductors as well as shed light on material science,” said Kim. Ten years ago, when the government first launched the project of building the domestic heavy-ion particle accelerator, no one in the field believed that there would be a notable achievement. However, within a decade, RAON is becoming the cutting-edge convergence technology of basic science. Kim attributes its success to Korea’s competitiveness in interdisciplinary education between basic science and practical studies. “STEM education in Korea is top-notch,” said Kim. “The Department of Nuclear Engineering's curriculum contributed to a certain extent.” Kim ascribed its success to the education system that highlights interdisciplinary studies. Kim advised students to find new possibilities and integrate different interests, saying “You should challenge yourself to achieve what you aim for.” With these initiatives in mind, Kim is pioneering his way into science and technology that is yet unknown. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr

2020-03 29

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] A Cause of Parkinson’s Disease Recently Discovered

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The cause of PD is still unknown, other than its suggested correlation with genetic and environmental factors. Professor Lee Sang-hun (College of Medicine) has recently come up with a model that supports the hereditary cause of disease. Professor Lee Sang-hun's (College of Medicine) research presents a new clue about the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is found to be associated with the degeneration of midbrain-type dopamine (mDA) neurons. Lee’s research team found out that the RNA-binding protein Lin28 plays a role in neuronal stem cell development, and that the gene mutation of Lin28 causes the degeneration of mDA neurons. Also, the experiment showed that when the Lin28 mutation was corrected, the symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease disappeared. Lee came up with an in vitro human embryonic stem cell/human induced pluripotent stem cell‐based disease model. The model proposes that the Lin28 R192G mutation leads to developmental defects and modification of Lin28 opens up the possibility of rescuing the patient from the disease. “People normally think that PD is deeply related to one’s age,” said Lee. “This research suggests that it is also highly likely to be a genetic defect. This finding will provide a more accurate diagnosis model.” Lee's team found out that an RNA-binding protein called Lin28 plays a role in the manifestation and treatment of PD. (Photo courtesy of Lee) Researchers spent four years trying to identify the distinct characteristics that two young PD patients shared with each other. The team conducted numerous biological trials to prove their findings. The model was a reward for their ceaseless efforts, taking them a step closer to finally identifying the cause of PD. However, there is still no cure for PD or for many other neurodegenerative diseases. Lee said he intends to develop a practical treatment during his last five years of tenure. “I am now working on projects with bio-venture companies,” explained Lee. “I hope my research enables a more pragmatic approach in overcoming neurodegenerative diseases.” Lee plans to work on pragmatic treatments during his last five years of tenure. Lee asked students to be more ambitious in deciding what they long to achieve. “He who works hard will get the chance to show himself,” advised the professor, leading by example for all young scholars. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr