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2018-07 05

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Laying the Stepping Stones for Future Software Technology

From chemistry to physics, scientific fields take great strides every day. This is even more the case for computer science, with the world having embarked on the 4th industrial revolution - a revolution created through an extensive integration of information technology. Technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, and the Internet of Things (IoT) have already been brought to reality to a certain extent. In light of these advances, the improvements in software technology by Professor Won You-jip (Department of Computer Science and Engineering) have received grand recognitions for tearing down the barriers to continuous development. The interview with Won You-jip (Department of Computer Science and Engineering) was held in his office on July 4th, 2018. A rough explanation of Won's research would be as follows: if we modify a standard computer, expanding its memory capacity by 100 times, and increasing the number of Central Processing Units (CPU) to 100, the seemingly improved computer would not be 100 times faster than before. In fact, it would be even slower than the standard version. The essential problem lies in the software; the algorithm for the new computer would have to be redesigned to manage the expanded resources in the most efficient manner. “It would be like driving a supercar on an unpaved road,” explained Won, providing a metaphor to emphasize the pointlessness of developing hardware without the sufficient software to manage it. However, the reality is that the speed of software development has remained rather stagnant compared to the restless development of hardware technology. On this point, Won’s research has received a passionate welcome by the international community for paving new roads for the future of software technology. Althernative designs for CPU management and Input/Output management as proposed by Won's research (Photo courtesy of Won Youjip) In a nutshell, Won provided key technologies for operating systems to support scalability, that is, the ability to add more CPUs, and for them to quickly make full use of the software. To elaborate, he categorized the roles of operating systems into CPU management, huge memory management, and file input/output management, and developed essential technologies for each domain after an analysis of the latest trends and prospective future of their hardware. Won essentially solidified the possibility of scalability, maximized the used of large-scale memory space, and improved the I/O management to prevent operation delays. Won’s research was greatly facilitated with the help of the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), who granted access to their super computer for research and experiments. With their assistance and his dedication, Won has been recognized as the forerunner in his field, having won two Best Paper Awards from conferences held by USENIX, also known as The Advanced Computing Systems Association. Won was awarded two among the three Best Paper Awards ever given to recipients in Korea. No other countries in Asia have ever won the award. USENIX conferences are the most respected and historical in the field, with the programming language JAVA having been introduced in one of their past conferences. Won considered being awardedthe award for best paper at USENIX to be an extreme honor. Once Won introduces the final version of his work, it is expected to allow software to be designed for manycore (computers with many cores) hardware to be built in 50 to 60 years-time. It will support super computers, allowing AI calculations and machine deep learning. Furthermore, it will be applied to servers to maximize the use of their resources, contributing significantly to their efficiency. Won’s findings not only enable future technology, but make it economic and efficient. Won is also a dedicated instructor. When asked of his greatest aspiration, Won answered that his wish is for his students to become the best developers of Silicon Valley. He interacts with his students on a frequent basis, well above the domains of lab work. A piece of advice that he had for his students was to become the best. “Rise above your failures, keep your head up, and become the best in your field,” commented Won. He believes that regardless of the skill or profession, if there is something you want to do, you should "Start digging and get to the bottom of it.” Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2018-05 10

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Weaving Technology into the Fibers of Our Lives

The development of smart technology has brought forth a spectacular display of new products in recent years. Under the common label "smart," smartphones, smartwatches, smart homes and other technology used to gather, process, and analyze massive amounts of data have now seeped into some of the most critical parts of our daily lives. In fact, the only limit on the ways of utilizing this technology is our imaginations. In this sense, Professor Bae Ji-hyun (Department of Clothing and Textiles) has made a new attempt to tear down another wall between smart technology and an essential component of our lives: clothing. Introducing the clothes of the future In essence, Bae’s research is an adaptation of wearable devices. Specifically, she aims to introduce electronic devices to our everyday clothing. Among a diverse array of available options, this research targets the field of healthcare. The idea is that by planting electronic devices in our clothes, we can codify data such as bio-signals, physical movements, or even environmental changes to monitor our health status. Generally speaking, clothing and electronic devices intuitively dawn on us as two very disparate domains. This probably has to do with the nature of clothing, which necessitates regular washing, as well as the imaginable discomfort of having metallic devices attached to our clothes. So how does Bae plan to overcome this fixation? The secret is in the fabric. Bae Ji-hyun (Department of Clothing and Textiles) uses a prototype glove to give an explanation of her research. The functional fibers in the glove allow movements to be detected and transmitted in the form of electrical signals. In the big picture of introducing electronic devices to clothing, Bae’s specific area of research is the development of functional fibers that can act as sensors. Furthermore, she has to design the textile organization in a way that allows it to be woven into a wearable form. By endowing fiber, the most basic unit of clothing, with the ability to react to stimuli such as light, movement, and temperature, we could use clothing to transmit, store, and analyze a variety of changes. According to Bae, the most prominent method to enable this function is by mixing conductive macromolecule particles or nano-particles in the process of weaving the fiber strands. Another common method is to coat ordinary thread, such as nylon or silk, with functional substances. Although Bae’s research is only in its initial stage, the projected benefits of the study raise great anticipation. For one, it will bring an immense improvement to the quality of healthcare for the elderly. This is especially timely considering the growth of the elderly population in our society. Not only will smart clothes reduce the cost of healthcare for retired citizens, it will provide higher efficiency by constantly monitoring and diagnosing the state of the wearer. It can also be used to service the disadvantaged such as the monitoring of infants or people with disabilities. Bae also expressed the hope of adapting this new technology to assist the activities of people working under dangerous conditions, such as soldiers or fire fighters, to improve their safety. As previously mentioned, the ways in which the technology can be used is only limited by our imaginations. (a) The sensor part of the glove woven with conductive fiber (b) The change of resistance value following the movement of the finger (c) Demonstration of a sign language detection system using the conductive-fiber based glove (Photo courtesy of Bae) The background story It has only been a year since Bae was recruited as a professor at Hanyang University. Prior to the position as a professor, she worked at an electronics company. Having earned her degree in textile engineering, Bae became immersed in the relationship between textiles and electronic technology while working at the firm. “Once I saw the connection, there were so many possibilities that became obvious to me," answered Bae. Through her previous firm, she was able to participate in a government project to develop wearable devices, providing her with an insight into the prospect of the technology. According to Bae, the hardest part of her research so far has been the novelty of the field. As is true in the case of most technologies these days, her research requires extensive collaboration with other fields. For the immediate research of smart clothes, the fields of electronic engineering and textiles are crucial. Furthermore, as the target of her research is the field of healthcare, some medical insight is also required. Other than that, convergence with a wide scope of academic fields is necessary in order to consider the subsidiary details of the research, such as the environmental impact of the product or the economic costs of commercializing the technology. However, a lack of public interest in the field makes it difficult for Bae to secure opportunities for cooperation with other fields. Although most of Bae's existing joint research projects are done through external networks, she hopes that internal convergence studies at Hanyang will also take place soon. Efforts as an educator Despite the difficulties of her research, Bae confessed that the hardest part of her job is teaching students. As she had no prior experience of interacting with pupils, she devotes a significant amount of her hours to understanding the needs of her students. “I believe that my current priority is to figure out how to be a good professor to my students,” added Bae. Bae wants to encourage students to maintain an open attitude when communicating with others. “Even in joint research, you need to have respect for others’ expertise in their respective fields, as well as an open mind to approach a common problem from diverse directions.” Bae argued that the same holds true for human interaction, which is an important lesson to take to heart when entering society. In the end, she believes that the synergy created from interactions and convergence is what provides us with the momentum to grow. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Jin-myung

2018-01 14

[Academics]Cleaning the Air, Even of Weapons

Environmental conservation and weapon disarmament may seem to have no relevancy. However, Professor Kim Ki-hyun of Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, in his long battle against environmental degradation, has found a common ground on which both fields could find a way to advance towards their goals. His recent research paper, “Metal-organic frameworks as media for the catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents” introduces the utilization of metal-organic frameworks (MOF), previously used to filter pollutants in the air, to purify the air of toxins emitted from chemical weapons. Kim has already published a number of paper regarding the utilization of metal-organic framework. The key technology behind this research is the MOF. It is essentially a collection of multi dimensional sockets created when linking metals through the means of organic compounds. These nano-scaled sockets act as traps that capture undesired materials in the air. Kim explained that a crucial field of focus in creating MOFs is to use the smallest amount of substance possible to create the largest number of sockets. In practice, there are several options through which it could be put to use, one such option is the absorption mechanism, which is collecting as much pollutants as possible and disposing them. Another option is the catalytic treatment, which collects harmful substances and releases them in a safe form. Kim explained that there are two types of research. One involves numerous experiements and analysis, attempting to create or discover something new, and another tests out theories of other researchers and expands existing studies in depth. He explained that this research fell into the latter category, also known as a review research. “In a large frame, it’s part of a global effort to disarm weapons of warfare. This specific research began on the basis of environmental development technology, which expanded to include harmful materials from chemical weapons.” Kim added that the research came to being when several substances included in environmental pollutants were discovered to overlap from those of chemical weapons. Of the hundreds of existing research on environmental development and disarmament of chemical weapons, he took the revelant ones and “reviewed” them on the basis of his research. Kim explained that working to save the environment had been his calling since before becoming a professor. In the big picture, Kim explained that this study is just one of the many existing illustrations of how MOFs could be adapted and utilized. In the process of attempting to make the air free of pollution, a calling that Kim has had for over 30 years, the MOF was a crucial discovery that supported many of his researches. At the most initial stage, the MOF was designed to capture and reduce CO2 emission in the atmosphere. Now it is used in a number of fields, used for transporting medical substances, handling radioactive materials, and of course, to purify the air of certain substances. It is also applied in the actual market, with Kim having worked with industries of automobiles, electric cigarettes, and farms to eliminate undesired scent in their products and facilities. This research was part of a review to assess the potential scale of MOF utilization. "I think that 'boys be ambitious' is the appopriate phrase for students today" At the request for a word of advice for students of Hanyang, he referred to an old quote, “boys be ambitious”. He explained that it was sad for him to see students so desperate to begin a career and find a job right after graduation. In his days as a university student, many people sought admission to graduate school, with a number of people aspiring to become a professor. However, he now feels that most of the graduate school students in his major these days consist of foreigners, and only a handful of Korean students. Kim thinks that many young students today lack a long term planning of their lives. “I would like to see a little more amibiton from my students”. Lee Changhyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Kang Cho-hyun

2017-12 12

[Academics]A World Without Heart Attacks

Cardiovascular disorder is one of the world’s most prominent causes of death. In Korea, it is only second in line to the most lethal disease, cancer. Naturally, its treatment has been a target of research for a wide scope of experts. To this pursuit, a proud achievement was made by Professor Yoo Hong-ki (Division of Electrical & Bioengineering), who worked with a group of researchers from related fields to devise a new method for treating a major, pervasive threat to human lives. Yoo explained the concepts of his research with great enthusiasm. Key concept: Theranostics A crucial terminology that effectively grasps the concept of this research is “theranostics”. This is a combination of two words: therapy and diagnostics. It refers to the simultaneous process of diagnosis and therapy. Despite the complicated terminology used in the title of the research, it can be simply explained as a new method of treating vascular disorders. An effective illustration could be made by looking at how this applies to heart attacks--the most representative case of cardiovascular disorders. A heart attack is caused by plaques in the coronary arteries or blood vessels around the heart. When solid substances, such as cholesterol, pile up in the vessels, they trigger inflammations that eventually create a tear. Through this rupture, external substances flow in in the blood vessels, creating blood clots that prevent the supply of air. Consequently, the heart muscles die of suffocation. The aim of this research is to locate dangerous inflammations in the overall blood vessels, and treat them at the same time. An illustration on inflammation of the tissues The means to visualize and treat inflammation in blood vessels started from the development of a bio-compatible nanocarrier. These nanoscale agents, equipped with inflammation-fighting drugs and fluorescent matter, were created to carry out two tasks: highlight inflamed areas and deliver the drug. The results were promising, as the carriers effectively produced accurate images of vascular inflammation. Furthermore, they could be maneuvered to target specific areas of inflammation, which minimized any undesired systemic effects of the drug. The success of the experiments showed a big progess in humanity’s efforts to visualize and treat vascular diseases. So far, the subjects of the experiments were laboratory mice, but when this could be applied to humans, it could finally mean the overcoming of one of the deadliest disorders on earth. The beginning and end This research first began as a joint study with a cardiologist from a fellow prestigious university, who also happened to be a close acquaintance of Yoo. In the initial stages, the target of the research was the accurate diagnosis of vascular disorders through the use of molecular imaging, which expanded to include treatment as well. The two brilliant minds saw the possibility for targeted treatment in the same manner of the diagnosis. Afterwards, more experts from a number of fields, from nanotechnology, imaging, to biochemistry, became a part of the research team. Yoo explained that good research requires expertise from a wide scope of related fields. Based on the published research, Yoo hopes to continue the study into clinical experiments, ultimately making it compatible to humans. In this pursuit, there are countless obstacles, with even the approval for experimentation on slightly larger animals requiring strict demands. Yoo looks forward to the application of his findings into clinical trials His personal journey throughout the research The presented research took approximately four years to conduct, and with so many members from different areas of expertise as well as interests, the research was a constant process of discussion and debate, as much as the study itself. Yoo recalled that it was like each person basically speaking different languages. Although this process of synchronizing a common goal was difficult, Yoo answered that it was also fulfilling and exciting, largely due to the expectation of what it could do for humanity in the future. His main priority throughout the research was to help people. What he did wasn’t for the purpose of making people’s lives more entertaining or comfortable; it was rather, about actually keeping them alive. Yoo’s reply for a word of advice for students of Hanyang was largely an extension of his attitude towards his research--to find an underlying passion. For the students insecure about their abilities and decisions regarding career and life, he would like to remind them that being a student of Hanyang itself is an indicator of their great potential. He feared to sound too cliché when he added, “Find what you want to do, and believe in yourself.” Lee Chang-hyunn pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-11 06

[Academics]Making a Heat Storage Device

Professor Kim Dong-rip (Electrical Engineering) is one of the many scholars of the field who seek to create a new material that can efficiently store and release heat energy. His new approach of integrating metal or graphene with erythritol, a phase change material, was a significant breakthrough in this endeavor. The details of his research, "Fabrication of three-dimensional metal-graphene network phase change composite for high thermal conductivity and suppressed sub cooling phenomena" were kindly explained to a great length by Kim. Introduction to Kim’s research field To simplify Kim’s research, it is conceptually an attempt to create a “heat” battery. Just as the common battery stores and provides electricity, Kim is in the process of creating a heat storage device that can absorb and release heat. The underlying motive of this research was the observation of an irony in two types of industries; one field focuses on cooling temperatures, while the other endlessly work to bring temperatures up. For example, a car factory uses a significant level of heat in shaping and wielding various car parts. However, this heat needs to be constantly in check, since overheating of the factory can cause extreme dangers. On the other hand, a facility that provides heat to households are in forever need of more heat to circulate. Now imagine a device that can absorb the heat from the car factory and deliver it to the heating facility. Kim’s three-dimensional metal-graphene network provides the foundation for what material this device will be made up of. Kim explaining the details of his research This field of technology has received a great deal of attention from the international society in recent decades. Similar to Kim, most scientists turn to the development of a new material for achieving efficient heat storage. The three key standards that a heat storage material or a heat storage device must have, are high energy density, high conductivity, and stability. Historically, the traditional material used for this purpose was water, which lacks efficiency in all three standards for commercial use. To elaborate on these standards, energy density refers to how much energy a material can absorb and retain, which in this case would be heat. High conductivity is the speed at which the material can pass on the energy, vital for efficiency in terms of time. Finally, stability is the ability for the material to maintain its’ initial form after repeated use. As the nature of the material’s task involves repeated heating and cooling, it is imperative that there is no degradation after use. Current research in the field has made somewhat a progress concerning energy density, but has not seen satisfactory achievement in the two other standards. The distinction of Kim’s breakthrough The title of Kim’s research explains the breakthrough in this area word by word. Quite bluntly, he has succeeded in the "Fabrication of three-dimensional metal-graphene network phase change composite for high thermal conductivity and suppressed sub cooling phenomena". In the other term, Kim has found a way to create a material (phase change composite) out of metal and graphene, that has high thermal conductivity and stability (suppressed sub cooling phenomena). The term, “three-dimensional” refers to the manner in which metal or graphene is spread throughout this material. The reason for the use of metal was due to its’ high thermal conductivity and general use in the field of mechanics. However, the problem with metal was an inefficient level of energy density. To overcome this limitation, a material called erythritol was introduced. Erythritol is a phase change material (PCM) that is characterized by high energy density and conductivity. It has received a wide range of attention from scholars of various fields for its’ endless potential for utilization. An illustration of how the new material was formed (Photo courtesy of Professor Kim) By mixing granules of erythritol with metal paste and subjecting it to hot pressing, a new material composed of 3D metal network was made. This alteration of metal had high energy density, high thermal conductivity, and stability. Furthermore, the same experiment was done using a material called graphene, which had similar results. Specifically, a 3D graphene network had 95% of energy density as pure erythritol, and thermal conductivity was 4.7 time higher than the conventional graphene. As for stability, experiments were carried over 100 times to reveal that the network was stable and the material solid. Furthermore, the metal and graphene network has high flexibility, which indicates a wide scope of utilization methods while maintaining endurance. In fact, this network is stable enough to be put into commercial use right away, and Kim is currently working with different research facilities and companies to explore how this new material can be put into use. The significance of the results Ultimately, the efficiency of this newfound material will contribute to environmental preservation. As previously mentioned, some industries strive to create heat, while others try to release it. Linking these two fields will create a symbiotic relationship that can also reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. For example, the average car emits the greatest amount of polluting gases in the process between ignition and waiting for the car to arrive at a certain temperature. If we could use a device that can heat the car up, these gases would decrease significantly. Even electric cars, this heating process is very significant cost of energy. In the end, it all comes down to energy efficiency, which Kim has made a great contribution to. Kim described the positive mind as the ability to find the smallest good thing in the midst of a depressing situation. In retrospect, Kim pointed out that having a positive mind had been the most helpful support in carrying out his research. When others fall into despair after repeated failures, a person with a positive mind tries to find the silver lining in all of these moments. Kim emphasizes this virtue in all aspect of life. He was especially concerned with many of the students who came to him for counseling. “Today’s students often feel that they are not enough. When writing resumes and giving self-introduction, they feel that they lack fancy achievements to make them stand out”. However, once he gets to know them, they all have distinct talents. Kim explained that seeking room for improvement is indeed important, but to the extent of self-criticism is poisonous. The one thing that he wants to tell his students is that the greatest drive for success is the positive mind. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Choi Min-ju

2017-10 16

[Academics]Creating the Most Stable Elevators

Like any other industries, the field of engineering is a harshly competitive market. Stepping ahead requires the latest technology, practical design, efficient utilization, and the list goes on. In the area of elevators, it is no longer just about going up and down. It is not even the speed of the transport. Rather, it is about how smooth the ride is. In this regard, Professor Hong Jung-pyo of the Department of Automotive Engineering has paved the way for elevator manufacturers to produce the most stable elevators in his paper, “Advanced method of selecting number of poles and slots for low-frequency vibration reduction of traction motor for elevator.” Professor Hong’s research began with the approach of a prominent elevator manufacturer, requesting a joint research to seek solutions for some of the stability issues that they have had with their elevators. It happened to be a great opportunity, as the number of domestic test towers for elevators were quite limited, and using them required cooperation with a company that owned such a facility. A blueprint of an elevator motor (courtesy of Montanari Elevators) The biggest concern for elevator manufacturers had always been vibration. Specifically, it is the low-frequency vibration that humans are especially sensitive to, which is caused by the generation of power from the motor. As most people know, elevators move through the winding and unwinding of ropes that are connected to a motor. The level of vibration felt in the car box, or the compartment that people actually get on, is determined by the motor. To put in simple terms, the design of the motor decides how shaky the elevator is. Just as the riding comfort decides the price of a luxurious car model, the reputation of an elevator brand is determined by its stability. Hong’s research aimed to analyze the causes of vibration and provide solutions to minimize it. Hong’s research can be conceptualized by understanding a fundamental mechanism of the motor: the poles and slots. Poles refer to magnetic poles, equivalent to the north and south poles from a general conception of magnets. Slots are physical holes in the motor where conductors are placed to allow electrical current to flow. Upon the flow of electricity, the poles and slots create an electromagnetic force that rotates the motor and provides physical power. The combination of the numbers of poles and slots in the motor results in weaknesses in particular areas that cause instability and, thus, vibration. Hong used a mathematical approach to diagnose the problem with various motor models and provided the ideal number of poles and slots to minimize vibration. Professor Hong with his co-author, Kim Doo-Young Hong expressed deep interest in extending his research into similar areas. Like any other field of study, the engineering field is also becoming interdisciplinary. As can be seen in Hong’s study, the research process involved a combination of electrical engineering and mechanical engineering approaches to the motor. The field of electrical engineering and mechanical engineering are now somewhat well-established individually. In contrast, we have little data and research on what happens when they interact with each other. The necessity for research into this field of electro-mechanical engineering has always been demanded, yet barely explored. Hong aims to study the designs and mechanisms of various systems extensively in his further research. As a word of advice to students of Hanyang, Hong commented that hard work is the only thing he can emphasize. As a respected professor, many students come to him for counseling on issues such as pursuit in a field of study, seeking career paths, and various decisions in between. Rather than spending time deliberating, he advises students to find any reason to make a decision. “It’s not about where you end up, it’s about how hard you work after you get there.” He also stressed constant self-development, adding that improving yourself by the smallest bit from one day to another will make you a different person by the end of a year. Lee Chang-hyun pizz1125@hanyang.ac.kr