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2019-11 18

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Highly Sensitive, Power Efficient H2 and H2S Gas Sensors Adoptable to Mobile Forms

Professor Choa Yong-Ho (Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering) has written a thesis titled, "Facile tilted sputtering process (TSP) for enhanced H2S gas response over selectively loading Pt nanoparticles on SnO2 thin films," which depicts the development of highly sensitive gas sensors that are driven by ultra low power (ULP). Having began the research with the development of gas sensors of various mechanisms through the syntheses of gas inductors in 2010, it was developed through the Fundamental R&D Program for Core Technology of Materials and the NanoMaterial Technology Development Program hosted by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF). Around 10 patents were registered, and some portion of the technology was transferred to Gastron. Professor Choa Yong-Ho (Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering) anticipates the development of various gas sensors including hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide sensors to apply to real life. A typical gas sensor has a heater built in in order to increase its sensing capabilities. However, this has resulted in an increase in power consumption that has limited mobile application and the manufacturing of small sized gas sensors. The research team led by Choa developed ultra low power gas sensors driven in room temperature of 25C, which satisfies the rising need of ultra low power, as well as highly sensitive hydrogen (H2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors. While the use of natural gas is increasing day by day, the current state of homes and industrial settings are increasingly prone to gas explosion and pollution. Methods such as the ability to sense gas leakage, the ability to measure and record gas concentration, the recognition of it, and the ability to control and warn of the various pollutants discharged from combustion apparatus are in dire need as of now -- since it is impossible to detect or distinguish the type of gas or the dangers that they entail through only the human sensory organs. H2S gases are generated as a by-product of a petroleum purification process or in the manufacturing processes of glue, leather, and raw fluorescent material. The gas sensor that detects hydrogen sulfide can stop the interior breathing of cells, paralyze central nerves, and show symptoms of asphyxiation, due to its strong toxicity. Therefore, H2S gas requires successive monitoring in order to achieve local industrial development and to create a safe atmosphere. The international world is responding by actively implementing regulations regarding industrial atmosphere control and pollution emissions. The following images (from left) are an integrated wireless smart sensor module, a gas detection graph, and the sensing graph on a mobile display. (Photo courtesy of Choa) In addition, the world is rapidly shifting its focus to hydrogen energy as our interest for low-pollution alternative energy is on the rise, along with the growing concern for environmental pollution and exhaustion of fossil energy. However, hydrogen has drawbacks in itself in that it goes through spontaneous combustion or explosion when combined with oxygen in the air. Until a system is developed, hydrogen fuel can only be widely used when the system promptly detects the leakage of hydrogen and prevents the outflow of it in the first place by devising a safety measure in the production, storage, and usage of hydrogen. Choa’s research team have created a chemical resistance sensor that changes according to gas concentration, as well as a thermochemistry sensor that selectively reacts to target gas to generate heat in the reaction and applies this to the sensing. The thermochemistry sensor has the benefit of minimizing power consumption thanks to its form which signals itself generating voltage. Kim Hyun-soo - soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-09 23

[Academics][Excellent R&D] A Step Toward Coexistence of Cultural Properties

Did you know that there is a national treasure near Hanyang University? Salgoji Bridge, the longest bridge during the Joseon Dynasty period, was excavated by Professor Ahn Shin-won (Department of Cultural Anthropology), the current head of the ERICA Institute of Cultural Properties and the chief of the Hanyang University Museum. He is now leading the Ganghwa-gun designated cultural heritage comprehensive maintenance plan, which aims to recognize and analyze the present conditions of 60 city-designated cultural assets and plans to preserve, restore, and utilize them. Professor Ahn Shin-won (Department of Cultural Anthropology) is leading the Ganghwa-gun designated cultural heritage comprehensive maintenance plan to analyze and restore the heritages. The purpose of this project is to establish a comprehensive maintenance and restoration plan of Ganghwa-gun's city-designated cultural properties, to utilize them as baseline data for preservation management and application. This is a 10 month-long project which began in July of this year and is expected to finish in May of next year. The restoration project covers 60 cultural properties, including 17 tangible cultural assets, 34 monuments, and 9 cultural heritage materials. Although it is important that our cultural heritage is preserved and maintained, making use of them is an even more important project. The comprehensive maintenance plan is a scheme to preserve cultural heritage even more efficiently. In order to carry out such a plan, there must be research done on how the present condition is. The comprehensive maintenance plan is an extended study of archeology, according to Ahn, who majored in the field. It is possible that ordinary citizens do not know the value of the excavations, which is why they must be preserved, utilized, and openly known. The city-designated cultural properties are not managed well, according to Ahn, and there are many cases where the direction boards have been mislabeled, or the roads to cultural assets are rocky and difficult to access. This is why diagnosing the current conditions of the cultural properties is important in order to take the necessary measures to better improve their state of preservation. A picture of Bunori Dondae Fort (left) and Bugilgot Dondae Fort (right) from a field study (Photo courtesy of Ahn) Executing the Ganghwa-gun designated cultural heritage comprehensive maintenance plan to preserve local cultural properties can be an exemplary case in regards to utilizing cultural assets. It can also instill the idea of protecting our cultural properties in people's minds. “We need to make sure that our children grow up in an environment where preserving our cultural heritage is not a campaign, but a basic,” said Ahn. He also emphasized the importance of preserving intangible cultural assets such as folk games, pansori (a genre of Korean musical storytelling), or religions. The ERICA Institute of Cultural Properties has long deliberated on how to improve the cultural assets alongside people in their lives and have successfully taken the lead in this sector. They are now working on how to incorporate cultural properties in stages as early as urban planning at Hanam-si. It is unprecedented in Korea that city planners and experts in cultural assets work together, according to Ahn. Cultural properties is not something grandiose. "We must think of them as our family so that we naturally protect them," said Ahn. Analysis on the present condition of the 60 cultural heritages is finished, and now, Ahn is working on the report that describes how to preserve them and how to utilize the cultural properties. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-09 09

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Development of Computer Vision Algorithms for Spatial Recognition of Videos

The Next-generation Information Computing Development Project is a research project executed by Hanyang University and six other research teams, which has been ongoing from September of 2017 and will end on December of 2020. There are two main parts of the research, and Professor Lim Jong-woo (Department of Computer Science) took charge of the first part, titled "fundamental study of vision algorithms for spatial recognition of videos." The focus of Lim's research was to develop computer vision algorithms for spatial recognition of videos. Professor Lim Jong-woo (Department of Computer Science) is taking part in the Next-generation Information Computing Development Project. The object of this research was to develop a computer vision algorithm to comprehensively recognize accurate three-dimensional information of surrounding environments and to detect and predict the location and movement of important figures through the various videos achievable in routine environments. With the basis on geometrical probabilistic computer vision algorithms that have been the subject of research as of now, the research team of six has been striving to develop an original technology that can successively perceive and comprehensively infer information on the environment and major objects inside the video. The first theme consists of geometrical environment information recognition, and the other is detection and tracking of principal objects. Devices with cameras equipped are usually used for taking photos or videos. This research plans to overcome the limitations of the existing methodology, which is the information quantity of the environment map and updating method. They developed a stochastic algorithm that can effectively accumulate long-cumulated information and extract three-dimensional street information of the overall environment by maximizing the information that can be earned from the video. The ultimate goal is to make sure that research output is applied to robots, wearable devices, and autonomous cars by developing an algorithm that accurately model the movements of objects. Original image and restored distance map from blurred image (Photo courtesy of Lim) Object detection technology is emerging and is recently being more widely used in research with deep learning to increase the accuracy of detection. To resolve the issue of difficulty in detecting, clearly due to complex interactions between objects, sudden movements or frequent covering of objects, Lim and his research team sought to develop a deep learning based object detecting technology. Lim has looked into geometric vision for about 10 years. He started motion estimations with a camera at Honda research, until in 2011, when he developed a service that enabled the technology to expand to indoors, as part of the street view team of Google. He continued with geometric vision research at Hanyang University from 2012. Now that the first part of research has been completed, Lim revealed that there is still a ways to go, as it is tough for a computer to recognize as well as humans. Nevertheless, aimed functions were developed and published as a thesis. Lim advises people interested in looking into deep learning to learn in a systematic fashion and study carefully. “Deep learning is a strong tool, but it is not almighty.”

2019-08 12

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Lengthening the Service Lifespan of Building Structures

The paradigm of architecture is changing. The construction market used to focus on efficiency and speed, but the modern era values structures with high durability and long lifespans. Professor Lee Han-seung (Major in Architectural Engineering) developed the Durability Health Monitoring System, which collects information on the state of the corrosion of iron and whether chlorine ion and carbon dioxide have penetrated through a sensor installed inside concrete structures. This is groundbreaking technology that was published in the prestigious science journal Advanced Materials on April 15th, 2019, titled "A Colorimetric Multifunctional Sensing Method for Structural-Durability-Health Monitoring Systems." Professor Lee Han-seung (Major in Architectural Engineering) was featured in HY-ERICA magazine's 2019 summer edition, and he also received the 2019 HYU Academic Award. Lee majored in architecture materials and construction in the department of Architectural Engineering, and his main research interest is concrete materials. He is the director of the Innovative Durable Building and Infrastructure Research Center, created as part of the Engineering Research Center (ERC) business to develop material, construction, monitoring, and maintenance technology to enhance the durability of structures. Fourteen professors from eight universities are working together to focus on their research into four major topics: durability diagnosis monitoring sensors, durability design, protection and repair construction methods, and a maintenance and asset value comprehensive evaluation system. Concrete, which is most often the preferred material in construction projects, deteriorates when it comes into contact with chlorine ion or when the substance gradually permeates through the hardened surface. In a ferroconcrete structure, the iron will rust once chlorine ion infiltrates. And once chlorine ion pervades, the iron expands, and the concrete is destroyed. This phenomenon equals the end of the lifespan of the concrete structure. Lee wanted to be able to gauge how much chlorine ion has penetrated a structure, which would require monitoring technology with a sensor. His research team developed the Durability Health Monitoring System, which tells through wireless communication modules whether iron is corroded or chlorine ion and carbon dioxide have seeped through. A thin film type sensor is buried in the concrete infrastructure beforehand, in order to activate the durability monitoring system. The infiltration of carbon dioxide and chlorine ion inside a concrete structure is a tantalizing the problem, but Lee developed a sensor using optics. His solution was to prevent it from reaching the iron inside the concrete, through the use of the Durability Health Monitoring System. Structures built 30 to 40 years ago need to have their durability diagnosed and maintenance needs assessed, just as humans are obligated to undergo health check-ups at similar ages. There are two ways of monitoring a structure's health. One is to execute structural heath monitoring, in the way a seismometer warns of the danger of earthquake through vibrations. Another is to increase usage by making it convenient to use its waterproof system, air conditioning and heating, electricity and more. “My final goal is to extend the service lifespan of building structures to 200 years," said Lee, with a confident smile. Lee emphasized the importance of fusion research and incorporating Fourth Industrial Revolution technology with architectural engineering. He applied optical science when he put sensors on optical fibers to recognize the intensity when either carbon dioxide or chlorine ion has entered, in real time, by looking at the change of colors. “Securing durability is also eco-friendly," said Lee, when pointing out that long lifespans of structures decreases co2 and prevents the exhaustion of resources. He stressed that a structure that can stand longer is more beneficial financially, and in the life cycle perspective. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-08 06

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Development of Organic Semiconductor Gel for High-Resolution Organic Electronics

Organic semiconductor gel was first developed by Professor Kim Do Hwan (Department of Chemical Engineering) and his research team that opened doors to the dramatic performance enhancement of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices. His paper “Universal Route to Impart Orthogonality to Polymer Semiconductors for Sub-Micrometer Tandem Electronics” was published in the world-famous journal Advanced Materials as the cover acticle in July. Professor Kim Do Hwan (Department of Chemical Engineering) explained in detail the organic semiconductor gel, the keyword from his research. Among existing semiconductors, silicon semiconductors are used representatively in many facets of the semiconductor and display industries. However, silicon is too brittle and requires expensive processing such as vacuum deposition. In 1977, Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa found the first organic semiconductor made of carbon and hydrogen, uncovering the first organic matter that electricity flows through. In this sense, organic semiconductors were in the spotlight as the next generation of semiconductors, but they still could not substitute silicon semiconductors which allowed electricity to pass through at high speeds. That was, until about five years ago when high-performance organic semiconductors were created, enabling the speed of electricity transfer to become comparable to that of silicon semiconductors. However, another problem emerged as existing organic semiconductors could not adopt successive solutions and photolithography processes simultaneously, because organic semiconductors may dissolve or become damaged during patterning processes. Here, photolithography refers to the semiconductor patterning technology which uses UV light as in the process of silicon semiconductors. Kim and his research team investigated how organic semiconductors could keep the established solution processing, while maintaining the optoelectronic performance, as well as adopt the patterning process of silicon called photolithography. Ultra-High Definition (UHD) OLED microdisplay with a hyper-resistant organic semiconductor gel basis to realize AR or VR. (Photo courtesy ot Kim) They created organic semiconductor gel to apply a new conversion methodology that can be applicable to conventional photolithography processing as well as sequential solution processes while keeping the performance level of existing organic semiconductors. “Gel” refers to semi-Interpenetrating Diphasic Polymer Network (semi-IDPN), which is a three-dimensional, high-density, entangled structure between organic semiconductor and organosilica chains. Organosilica is a silica network that includes organic chains. Through the newly created organic semiconductor gel, the research team found that organic semiconductors can be made from sequential solution processing and patterned into desired sizes via photolithography. Kim (second from the left) and his research students who participated in this study. The results of this research are expected to widen the application of new technology into various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic image sensors and neuromorphic electrodes, as successive solution processing and photolithography processing are now applicable. “The performance of VR and AR devices that used to arouse giddiness and motion sickness due to low resolution is expected to advance drastically with the application of organic semiconductor gel,” said Kim. The virtual reality that we thought only possible in movies has now become closer than ever to real life, with ultrahigh-definition (UHD) OLED microdisplays and high-performance VR and AR devices coming alive with the development of organic semiconductor gel. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2019-07 23

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Precisely Investigating Catalytic Reactions

Professor Lee Sang-uck (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering) has recently developed a computer simulation methodology, also known as One Probe Non Surface green’s function (OPNS) to precisely understand the catalytic reaction of energy production storage using catalysts. In order to exchange existing catalysts that use rare-earth elements into ones that use cheaper carbon material, one must understand the catalyst reaction of carbon materials. Lee’s research and thesis titled “Unraveling the Controversy over a Catalytic Reaction Mechanism Using a New Theoretical Methodology: One Probe and Non-Equilibrium Surface Green's Function” contributed to developing a methodology of accurately interpreting catalyst reactions and to the development of a new and cheaper carbon catalyst. Professor Lee Sang-uck (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering) is explaining the logic of the One Probe Non Surface green’s function (OPNS) methodology. The first step of the research was to interpret the traits of catalysts in a particular material. He used the most prevalent methodology for interpretation, but was faced with a theological problem: while chemical reactions and catalyst reactions must accurately consider the flow of electrons, the widely used method does not give such considerations. For instance, the former would consider the reaction of the parallel state when it should interpret the reaction of a non-parallel state. Using the High Performance Computing server (HPC), which is a super computer with around 360 cores, it was possible to solve quantum mechanics that mathematized natural phenomena. Lee is pointing to the High Performance Computing servers (HPC) that were used for the research. Research typically consists of understanding a natural phenomenon and expresses the research results in the form of a formula. Through coding, natural phenomena can be simulated in a computer, and that enables researchers to interpret any phenomena. Lee specifically utilized quantum mechanics computer simulations to understand the conduct of electrons and atoms, thereby solving the problem of the existing methodology. Such computer simulations can be applied in semiconductor materials or energy materials. Computer simulations have the advantage of allowing simultaneous screenings using several computers when developing high performance matters. Lee and his team suggested a guideline to understanding and predicting the new property of matter, and developing a new matter after adopting a computer simulation technique to electrons and energy materials. This thesis in particular suggests a way to clearly establish the reaction mechanism to know how catalytic reactions occur when developing poles for solar cells. While previously it was impossible to perfectly reflect all experiment environments, Lee developed a new methodology that took into account most of the real experiment atmosphere and developed a definite catalytic reaction mechanism. Also, a way to attach electric fields in computer simulations for catalyst reactions with voltage was made possible through the new findings. A catalyst reaction is a chemical reaction, thus requiring electrons to move; however, no methodology was available that took into account the movement of electrons. This new methodology is one that can interpret chemical reactions, with respect to the flow of electrons. Lee was designated Researcher of the Month with the development of the OPNS methodology to precisely investigate catalytic reactions. “What we do is basic research for the future process of developing real things. There was a need to concretely understand what happens within the development of lithium batteries, solar cells, and fuel cells, which is why we strived to develop a methodology to accurately interpret such theories,” said Lee. He went on to emphasize the need for parallel effort in experiments and computer simulations in order to achieve innovations, and the use of a clear methodology to enhance data credibility. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-06 04

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] New Synthesis of Metal-metalloid Material with Improved Catalyst Efficiency and Durability

Professor Song Tae-seup (Department of Energy Engineering) published “Electronically Double-Layered Metal Boride Hollow Nanoprism as an Excellent and Robust Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts” in the scientific journal Advanced Energy Materials on February 12th, 2019. Beginning with theories at the end of 2017 and proceeding from experimental analysis to demonstrations for a total of a year and half, this research was a joint effort between many excellent domestic and foreign researchers. Metal-metalloid compounds as water oxidation catalysts A catalyst is needed in order to create hydrogen and oxygen through water electrolysis. For this catalyst, metal-metalloid materials based on transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, and iron are actively being researched. The strong electro negativity of metalloids allows transition metals to have a high level of vitalization, giving them exceptional properties as a water electrolysis catalyst. The research team succeeded in making a synthesis of cobalt nickel boride (V-CNB) with doped vanadium using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method of construction on metal-metalloid materials of hollow structure. The vanadium metalized using the ALD facilitates the catalysis by spreading electrons to the surface and the interior. It also allows stable generation of hydrogen even in the electrolyte, which has a high PH, by blocking the dissolution of metallic elements. The metal-metalloid catalyst material shows higher durability compared to the previous catalyst of noble metals, and increased hydrogen production energy efficiency by more than 3 percent as well as lowered the unit cost of catalysts by more than 50 percent. Professor Song Tae-seup (Department of Energy Engineering) explained the need for a high durability and low priced catalyst material. The rising need for high durability catalyst material with a low unit price The price of "green hydrogen" produced through water electrolysis and photoelectrolysis is currently much more expensive than the "grey hydrogen" which is produced through the refining process and gas reforming. The reason can be traced to a very low efficiency system. Korea’s efficiency of water electrolysis companies is lower than that of other developed countries', which are 68 and 80 percent respectively. In order to facilitate the realization of hydrogen economy and secure the competitiveness of domestic water electrolysis companies, development of the catalyst material with high efficiency, a low unit price, and high durability is essential. Hanyang University, KITECH, and Seoul Women’s University synthesized the catalyst materials and proceeded with precise analysis, and analyzed the characteristics of electrochemistry. Hanyang University, KIST, and the University of Cologne in Germany made progress with simulation experiments that could support the theories and technologies, and Density Functional Theory (DFT) was calculated. The new findings Independently, using metal-metalloid material is not stable within the electrolyte due to the dissolution phenomenon of the metal element. Therefore, the focus was on improving the chemical and physical stability of the metallic element within the electrolyte, and advancing the efficiency of the metal-metalloid with quadruple elements. The ALD method of construction was used to evenly mix vanadium inside the metal-metalloid. The research not only suggested a new synthesis method of metal-metalloid material that includes quadruple elements, but also proposed an alternative that could improve the catalyst efficiency while at the same time enhance durability. This technology can be adopted for various energy elements of the next generation and contribute to the creation of future new growth engines including photoelectrolysis of water, secondary batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. Song stressed the importance of catalyst techniques related to future generation energy storage devices and hydrogen production as leading future energy industries. The next step In Jaunary, the Korean government announced the "Hydrogen Economy Vitalization Roadmap" which proposed the objective per hydrogen industry value chain until 2040. As evident in the steps taken by the government, the development of technology that will help lower the unit cost of hydrogen production is crucial in order to boost the hydrogen economy. The eco-friendly green hydrogen especially needs a reduction in the production unit price. Song plans to proceed with in-depth technological research to expand the domestic energy industry with sustainable clean energy. As time passed, he realized the importance of challenging oneself to research various other fields along with the flow of the generation. He advised Hanyang students, “If the foundation is not robust, you cannot build a great house above it. The basic studies that students encounter during their undergraduate studies will be the very foundational foothold in society.” Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Park Geun-hyung

2019-05 13

[Academics][Researcher of the month] Silver Nanoclusters for Solar Cells Advanced in Stability and Efficiency

Professor Bang Jin-ho (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, ERICA Campus) recently published his research "Ag(I)-Thiolate-Protected Silver Nanoclusters for Solar Cells: Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Look into the Photoelectrode/Electrolyte Interface," and was chosen as the researcher of the month for ERICA Campus. This research uncovered a new synthesis route that ensures better stability and extends the excited state lifetime of silver nanoclusters. Such research findings are expected to take our society one step closer to developing nontoxic, environmentally-friendly solar cells. Professor Bang Jin-ho (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, ERICA Campus) secured the safety of solar cells and advanced the efficiency of light conversion. Silver is an environmentally-friendly material that easily absorbs light. However, silver is in a more unstable state than gold, and a new synthesis route was needed to improve its stability. In order for silver to be used in solar cells, the electron needs to be in a floating state for a long period. This so called floating state is known as the excited state lifetime, which is the length of time that the electron beamed by light stays in a high energy state. A longer excited state lifetime is necessary for more opportunity for electron transfer to occur. So what is the new synthesis route? The research team found out that if pH is reversible back and forth, then it is possible to create a ligand frame if pH is turned into acid, and back to normal if pH is raised. The ligands that cover the surface of the silver nanoclusters stabilize it. With the shell protection provided by the ligands, stability and the excited state lifetime can be enhanced. The new synthesis route helped overcome the drawbacks of the silver nanoclusters by inducing agglutination of the compounds silver (Ag) and sulfur (S) at the surface of the silver nanoclusters. This extended the light conversion efficiency of solar cells by two times and extended the safe driving period of solar cells. Professor Bang Jin-ho and a professor from his research team are showing the darkroom used to evaluate the solar cells. This research began in 2013 and is still ongoing after the publication of this research article. Bang and his research team are the leading group in this field, holding the highest conversion efficiency. Currently, Bang is conducting research related to materials, specifically batteries. He is interested in the development of electrode materials, and the advancement of electrode systems, which have a lot in common with batteries. He discussed his ultimate goal of actualizing and commercializing his research findings, so that they can increase convenience in people's lives. The primary goal for the research team now is to increase the efficiency to a level that allows competition compared to the traditional solar cells, in terms of engineering perspectives. The secondary goal is in line with the initial goal in that fundamental research of knowing the basic principle of motion is vital in an attempt to increase efficiency. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-04 15

[Academics]2019 HEAD Start Program for Potential Artists

2019 HEAD Start Program is a project held from March to the end of December to support students who have talent and interest in art but cannot proceed with their education due to financial reasons. The HEAD Lab (Hanyang Education in Art+Design Lab) has been leading the program by providing the participants with a place for education and deploying the necessary human resources. Professor Kim Sun-ah (Department of Applied Art Education) has been in charge of the HEAD Start program since last year, and she is excited for the changes that the program is adopting this year. Professor Kim Sun-ah (Department of Applied Art Education) is the head of the HEAD Lab, leading the 2019 HEAD Start program. According to Kim, this project has been ongoing since 2010. The distinct feature of the 2019 HEAD Start program is that the HEAD Lab receives support from the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education, which is good news for participating students as well, since they are now able to receive an official certificate for completing the HEAD Start program. The program is held every Saturday and consists of a three hour class for elementary school students, and a four hour class for middle and high school students. “It is so hard to wake up early on Saturdays every week, yet these are determined future artists who persistently come to join our program," said Kim. What the students wish to express varies according to their age groups. For elementary schoolers, self-expression and the opportunity for communication seem important. As they get older, they want activities that can help them visualize their thoughts and effectively deliver them in a creative manner. Accordingly, the teaching methods and contents of the classes are different for both groups. For example, even if all the students are asked to draw a portrait, the given materials or expressions and teaching methods will be different. As of this year, there will be outdoor classes, allowing the students to wander around Seongdong district and see for themselves how regional materials can become artistic features. The increase in MOU collaboration with external institutions or local cultural foundations to allow the exhibition of art in local communities will create a valuable experience for the young artists. Also, the number of “highly talented" classes, classes for students desiring deep learning about art, or even a career in an art-related field, has increased from five to seven with the same number of students. The class curriculums will be based on what the students want to work on, by implementing a system called the student development program. The students enrolled in the HEAD Start program receive art education from around 20 training instructors, some of whom are school teachers with experience in gifted education, on-site designers, writers, and university professors. The mentors, on the other hand, are mostly students from the Department of Applied Art Education and are fixed for a year so that they can steadily look over the students throughout the process. The aim of the HEAD Start program is to foster future artistic professionals by cultivating interested, passionate individuals with high potential. Kim's research focuses on social integration, specifically on how art education can contribute to the integration of society, which triggered her to take the role as the head of the HEAD Lab for this project. Her decision to take part in the program was reinforced when she saw the dramatic development in the students' art skills as well as high satisfaction after joining the program, especially since they had not received much private education or financial support before. Kim proudly mentioned that assigning of one mentor per five students in the program has had a positive impact on the social and emotional development of the young participants. “I am excited for this year’s new and advanced HEAD Start program, and I hope increasing social support allows even more students to receive the art education they want. I am proud to be contributing to a program that supports the growth of future artists.” Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kang Cho-hyun

2019-04 01

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] The High Mobility of Single-Crystal Nanowires Opens Potential for Future Displays

Semiconductors have become indispensable in our daily lives as we use electronic goods almost every moment. In those goods, most of the semiconductors used are inorganic semiconductors, with occasional exceptions of organic semiconductors. This is because the former is far superior in conduction velocity than the latter. In response to the latter's inferiority, Professor Sung Myung-mo (Department of Chemistry), in his paper "Single-Crystal Poly Nanowires with Ultrahigh Mobility," have introduced a single-crystal nanowire using the newly created polymer called PCDTPT and increased the electrical coductivity of organic semiconductors by more than 10 times. Professor Sung Myung-mo (Department of Chemistry) is the researcher of the month with his thesis "Single-Crystal Poly Nanowires with Ultrahigh Mobility." The organic semiconductor has two noticeable advantages when it comes to applications in electronics. First, it is flexible, and it can be made into solution form. However, it is not yet widely used because it lacks in its mobility compared to inorganics. Also, it has the downside of being unsafe since it is organic matter. However, after Sung's research, humanity has come one step closer to the possibility of substituting inorganic semiconductors, now that the mobility performance of organic semiconductors has significantly increased. Organic semiconductors can be divided into small molecules and polymers. Organic semiconductor polymer is called conducting polymers, which means that the organic matter contains conductivity. Mobility is the speed per second that the transistor moves. The mobility has increasedby more than 10 times, overturning the previous notion that an organic matter cannot have high mobility. Here, the mobility is important because it is frequently used in transistors and decides the working speed. It only took Sung and his team about six months to deduct the research results, because they had already accumulated research needed to facilitate the process. One of the major research prjoects that they have been looking into over the past 10 years was the Nano Patterning method. It is the technology needed to make nano-sized sticks, with which matters that cannot be made into single crystal forms can transform with the creation of a nano-sized wire. They learned that the mobility increased when they made nanowire single crystals. The process of how single-crystal nanowires are made. Each stick-shaped line refers to one single-crystal nanowire. (Photo courtesy of Sung) The question on the surface may be, "How did the mobility increase by over 10 fold?" They predict that it is due to the unique structure of PCDTPT crystals. In existing conducting polymers, which are molecules that have the shape of a thin board, the molecules align next to each other and the conduction takes place sideways. In the case of PCDTPT crystals, however, it takes a vertical direction that differs by 90 degrees from the established conducting polymers. Samsung first created OLED electronics, made of organic semiconductors and it caught the attention of the global market due to its thin, lightweight structural characteristics, and low-power technology. While it seemed impossible at the time, it is now an ongoing research project that the world may conveniently be using as everyday technology in the future. “Persistence is the most important factor a researcher must have. Never give up, even if it seems unlikely that the research will succeed,” advised Sung to future researchers of Hanyang. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-02 25

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Using Proteogenomic Research to Look into Early Onset Gastric Cancer

Through the proteogenomic research of 80 early onset gastric cancer patients, Professor Paek Eun-ok (Department of Computer Science) and her team have provided a better understanding of cancer biology and patient stratification in diffuse type gastric cancers (GCs). The Research team which professor Paek was mostly responsible for in the interpretation of the collected data using software was recognized by publishing ‘Proteogenomic Characterization of Human Early-Onset Gastric Cancer’ in one of the most significant academic journals in the field of cancer named, Cancer Cell. 15 percent of our country’s gastric cancer patients are young, being 45 years old or younger. This is called Early Onset Gastric Cancer (EOGC). However, many of these types of cancers are diffuse types meaning that they are easy to spread and have shaky prognoses, often resulting in death. The research team collected paired tumors and adjacent normal tissues from 80 Early Onset Gastric Cancer patients under 45. They predicted that the research result, through genes and proteins, would be complementary, which is why they decided to go on with the proteogenomics research, combining both genomic and proteomic analysis. A photo indicating the subtypes of Early Onset Gastric Cancer (EOGC) sorted through proteogenomic analysis (Photo courtesy of Paek) Through integrated analysis of mRNA and proteins, it has shown that the 80 gastric cancer patients can be sorted into four different subtypes, and that each subtype is engaged in different cell signaling pathways. It is becoming more and more possible to precisely sort out the cause of disease in early onset gastric cancer patients through proteogenomics research. Amongst 7,000 somatic variations, they found rogue genes (CDH1, ARID1A, RHOA) which were related to the occurrence of early onset gastric cancer, and they discovered the high interrelationship in their variations and the state of Phosphorylation, proving that these genes are engaged in very important cell signaling pathways related to occurrences of EOGCs. While the research was highly successful in that it brought out the importance of personalized therapy in the future by categorizing patients into four different subtypes and allowing the team to look at a patient with more refinement, there were some difficulties that the team had faced during research. They had to take cancer tissues directly from patients which needs to be frozen within minutes out in the air before any proteomic changes happen. Also, professor Paek construed proteogenomics through an algorithm that she created, but she emphasized the need for advancement in technologies to better interpret proteome data, comparing the lack of available software to research around the genome. Professor Paek Eun-ok (Department of Computer Science) joined NewsH for an interview on February 22, 2018. When asked what professor Paek considers the most important trait in a researcher, she recalled objectivity. “Researchers must always try to be as objective as possible because it is easy to look only at what you want to see,” she advised to her students. She is currently working closely with researchers participating in the CPTAC (Clinical Proteome Tumor Analysis Consortium) program at NIH (National Institute of Health), USA. They are also actively sharing research methods and data with one another to find yet another discovery that could increase understanding of the once unknown diseases in our society. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photo by Park Geun-hyung

2018-12 31

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Nonfoamy Macrophages, More Effective in Restraining Arteriosclerosis

Department of Life Science Professor Choi Jae-hoon's thesis: "Transcriptome analysis reveals nonfoamy rather than foamy plaque macrophages are proinflammatory in atherosclerotic murine models" was officially published offline on October 26th of this year through the Circulation Research Journal. The objective of the study was to examine the state of foamy and nonfoamy macrophages to determine which are more likely to drive lesional inflammation. “The single-cell RNA sequencing” technique was selected as the breakthrough of the year by the 2018 science journal. That is, now it was possible to study how and when each cell creates a leg, a foot, or a tail through the single-cell RNA sequencing. Recently, technology has developed to the extent that using this technique has made it possible to catch the change of a gene in a single cell, instead of many cells. According to Professor Choi Jae-hoon (Department of Life Science), newly announcing the traits of macrophages during the process of discovering arteriosclerosis is one step forward for the science community. Inflammation is the reaction of our body in the case of injury or infection. Activating an immunocyte is a process of curing inflammation. Similarly, if lipids (simply known as fat) accumulate in blood vessels and bring infections to the body, the immunocytes that follow the inflammation are a compound of cells including macrophages and a lymphocytes. Among those, macrophages are one of the most important cells, which acts as a cleaner, eating up dead or damaged organic body. These macrophages detect and eliminate lipids effectively at first, but when lipids pile up, it becomes difficult to remove, and the infection tends to grow. The initial state of macrophages before they eat up lipids is called nonfoamy macrophages. Macrophages grows bigger as they consume lipids, and this state is known as foamy macrophages. Initially attacked macrophages actively trigger inflammation, whereas macrophages that consumed many lipids do not contain much genes related to infection and instead work hard to eliminate lipids. In the past, analysis was done on the whole rather than respecting the individual traits of single cells. Through single-cell RNA sequencing, they first discovered that macrophages that came into the blood vessel before the uptake of lipid facilitated inflammatory responses. On the other hand, the macrophages that had become bigger by consuming lipids lacked the ability to be inflamed, effectively eliminating lipids. Nonfoamy macrophages must be restrained. “The fire broke out in the nonfoamy state, so the fire must be put out in such a state,” stated professor Choi. The foamy macrophages take care of infections in the beginning, but when they cannot handle them, they die and the cells burst, creating inflammation all over again. Suppressing nonfoamy macrophages is a much more effective way to restrain arteriosclerosis since nonfoamy macrophages promote inflammation. Professor Choi is posing with his graduate students in the lab at the College of Natural Sciences. The beginning of professor Choi’s research was when one of his graduate students performed an experiment of extracting only the foamy macrophages in order to grasp the traits of them. That was in the year 2012, a year after he first came to Hanyang University. Professor Choi also studied at Washington State University for a year with his studies concluding in January of this year. The single-cell RNA sequencing, an integral part of research needed for his thesis, was conducted in Washington as the same technique was not available at Hanyang University. Professor Choi expressed his hopes to perform similar research in Korea in the future, when Hanyang University is equipped with the available sources. He enthusiastically went on to say that he wanted to further study bioinformatics, which is a technique used to analyze the big data that single-cell RNA sequencing produces. Professor Choi emphasized the need to accurately analyze what is going on in a living body, and advised students to do research that can help many people. “Just like the study of life science, look further into the future rather than seeing short term results and gains.” Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Jin-myung