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2019-10 14

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Technique to Improve Display Technology

In the modern world, people look, read, communicate, and even travel through the few-inch square screen. Thus, developing a better display technique has always been an aspired aim. Professor Kim Jaekyun's (Department of Photonics and Nanoelectronics) recent proposition for a better display technology with a ‘Programmable Non-Contact Assembly-based 5000ppi Micro LED Display’ suggests a new and better technology for the future of displays. Kim Jaekyun (Department of Photonics and Nanoelectronics), in his recent study proposition, suggested a better Micro LED transfer technology for the future of displays. Micro LED is an emerging display technology, consisting of an array of microscopic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) forming the individual color pixels. This particular LED is quickly becoming the “next big thing” for it outperforms, in many ways, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED), which is the current and dominant display technique used in most devices. Most importantly, Micro LED has much better energy efficiency. With the same amount of electricity, Micro LED emits light 1000 times brighter than OLED. This indicates that smaller, lesser, and more distantly arranged Micro LEDs will create the same smooth screen as the previous OLED. However, there is one big problem to solve before commercialization. For Micro LED, the Red-Green-Blue color pixels are manufactured separately, then directly transferred onto the display backplane. However, the current transfer technology, where each pixel is transferred one by one, is highly time-consuming and expensive. The result is an expensive product unfit for commercializing, such as Samsung’s new model of television, the Wall Professional, which costs up to 300 million won. A large Micro LED display in the Garosu-gil Apple store. Although the LEDs are arranged quite distantly in close view, the brighter light of Micro LED creates the illusion of a smooth surface from afar. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim proposed a technique that arranges the color pixels without any direct contact. First, the Micro LEDs dispersed in a solution will be spread on the backplane. As a result of the electric field from the sophisticatedly-designed backplane, the micro LEDs will automatically be arranged into correct position. The micro LED display made by this technique will be much cheaper, allowing a wide commercialization of the micro LED. Kim expects the technique to be implemented on all devices, including smartphones and TVs. He primarily expects its positive impact on the performance of AR glasses, which requires a small but bright display light as Micro LED. “The research will be difficult, but I have conviction that it will work,” said Kim. “When researching, one has to think less of ‘will it work?’ and more of ‘I need to make it work’; because in the end, somebody will. For the next three years, I’ll keep these words in mind and work my hardest to succeed in developing the new Micro LED technology.” Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-10 06

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] A New Association Between Muscle and Metabolic Syndrome

According to the National Institution of Health (NIH), metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk factors that raises your risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke. As metabolic diseases become more prevalent over the past few decades, researchers have been working to figure out the underlying cause. Professor Jun Dae-won (College of Medicine) has made a breakthrough over this field by discovering its association with muscle health. Professor Jun Dae-won (College of Medicine) discovered the link between muscle and metabolic diseases. “As people get older, they tend to lose muscle mass. This increases the risk of falls, which might cause the death of the elderly,” said Jun. “However, most of the researchers did not acknowledge why muscular issues lead to the aggravation of metabolic diseases.” Jun’s team, in collaboration with Professor Kim Ji-young’s team, made progress on finding the links between muscle and metabolic syndrome. What caught Jun's eyes was psoas muscle, which is an internal muscle of the loin. Jun made use of this muscle, as it is widely known to be proportional to the total muscle mass. Jun collected 1000 PET-CT (Positron emission tomography–computed tomography) images on psoas muscle and kept an eye on glucose inside the muscle. Jun found out that Fluorine‐18‐labelled fluoro‐2‐deoxy‐d‐glucose (18F‐FDG) uptake of psoas muscle is a promising surrogate marker for existing and incipient metabolic derangement. Jun's team identified Fluorine‐18‐labelled fluoro‐2‐deoxy‐d‐glucose (18F‐FDG) uptake through PET-CT as it provides a clear picture of psoas muscle. (Photo courtesy of Jun) Jun admitted that he could not eliminate all confounding variables, despite endless efforts to minimize them. "There are limitations in clinical trials, as it is not easy to find action mechanisms through these tests. That is the reason why we went abreast with animal testing and cell experiment,” explained Jun. “There may be some hindrance in interpretation due to differences between human and laboratory animals. But they still provide clues to action mechanisms.” Thus, he stated his plans to work on the revalidation of the research, digging deeper into the degree of association. Jun underlined the need for continued endeavor, as it eventually pays off, in an unexpected way at times. Jun highlighted the importance of being industrious and strong-minded. “My original research intended to find the relation between liver function and metabolic syndrome,” said Jun. “Unfortunately, I could not draw meaningful results.” Jun was on the verge of giving up the research. It was his continuous subgroup analysis that led to eureka. Just as what people say, sometimes coincidence is a plan in disguise. Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2019-09 30

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Stratification and Customization: A New Route Towards Curing Rare Intractable Diseases

A few years ago, the Ice Bucket Challenge went viral on social networking services and became a popular event all around the world. People either dumped ice water on their heads or donated 100 dollars to support funds for a rare disease called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Also referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, ALS is a disease that causes the death of neurons which control voluntary muscles. There is still no cure on ALS, with only minor treatments being available. Here is Professor Kim Seung Hyun (College of Medicine), an individual who has devoted his medical career to finding clues to this incurable disease. Professor Kim Seung Hyun (College of Medicine) has been on the field of neuro-degenerative disorders for more than 25 years. Kim has been working in the field of ALS and other neuro-degenerative disorders since 1993. Kim focuses on the issue of medication as he proposes a new model on the drug development process. “Most clinical trials are based on a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach as they do not consider individual differences among people,” said Kim. “Even though people suffer from the same disease, they might be showing different symptoms due to genetic differences. That is why some drugs cannot be commercialized regardless of their medicinal effect on selected specimen.” Kim explained that clinical trials in ALS were headed towards 'one-size-fits-all.' (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim, who has been conducting research on the unique genetic background of Korean and Asian populations, discovered that Koreans tend to have more Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) gene mutation than people of other ethnicities. Based on these findings, Kim is now working on applying this result to the development of new pharmaceuticals. “My research aims to establish a treatment strategy with a stratified model of Lou Gehrig's Disease,” Kim said. “The next step will be the customization of treatment by prescribing and providing a remedy in accordance with one’s genetic data.” Kim said his objective is to develop a diagnosis platform by utilizing AI technology. “I am endeavoring to build a nomogram that can tell what the patient requires, and I expect the discriminants to become more precise as time goes on.” By citing a 2016 Go match between AlphaGo and Lee Se-dol, Kim continued on. “AlphaGo’s victory attributes to effective processing of data accumulation. AI will lead to an innovative success on providing cures for rare intractable diseases just as AlphaGo read Lee Se-dol’s move and made an irresistible attack.” Kim advised students to be more versatile and challenging. As a renowned medical researcher and top-tier specialist, Kim highlighted the importance of being versatile. “You only deal with the basics at school,” said Kim. “Things have changed and will change even faster. You need to be prepared for globalization and technological advances.” In addition, Kim encouraged students to challenge more. “When I first started as an ALS specialist at Hanyang, I had only one patient for me to work with. However, 25 years of endless effort is what made Hanyang a world-class institution in the field of neurological disorders.” Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2019-09 23

[Academics][Excellent R&D] A Step Toward Coexistence of Cultural Properties

Did you know that there is a national treasure near Hanyang University? Salgoji Bridge, the longest bridge during the Joseon Dynasty period, was excavated by Professor Ahn Shin-won (Department of Cultural Anthropology), the current head of the ERICA Institute of Cultural Properties and the chief of the Hanyang University Museum. He is now leading the Ganghwa-gun designated cultural heritage comprehensive maintenance plan, which aims to recognize and analyze the present conditions of 60 city-designated cultural assets and plans to preserve, restore, and utilize them. Professor Ahn Shin-won (Department of Cultural Anthropology) is leading the Ganghwa-gun designated cultural heritage comprehensive maintenance plan to analyze and restore the heritages. The purpose of this project is to establish a comprehensive maintenance and restoration plan of Ganghwa-gun's city-designated cultural properties, to utilize them as baseline data for preservation management and application. This is a 10 month-long project which began in July of this year and is expected to finish in May of next year. The restoration project covers 60 cultural properties, including 17 tangible cultural assets, 34 monuments, and 9 cultural heritage materials. Although it is important that our cultural heritage is preserved and maintained, making use of them is an even more important project. The comprehensive maintenance plan is a scheme to preserve cultural heritage even more efficiently. In order to carry out such a plan, there must be research done on how the present condition is. The comprehensive maintenance plan is an extended study of archeology, according to Ahn, who majored in the field. It is possible that ordinary citizens do not know the value of the excavations, which is why they must be preserved, utilized, and openly known. The city-designated cultural properties are not managed well, according to Ahn, and there are many cases where the direction boards have been mislabeled, or the roads to cultural assets are rocky and difficult to access. This is why diagnosing the current conditions of the cultural properties is important in order to take the necessary measures to better improve their state of preservation. A picture of Bunori Dondae Fort (left) and Bugilgot Dondae Fort (right) from a field study (Photo courtesy of Ahn) Executing the Ganghwa-gun designated cultural heritage comprehensive maintenance plan to preserve local cultural properties can be an exemplary case in regards to utilizing cultural assets. It can also instill the idea of protecting our cultural properties in people's minds. “We need to make sure that our children grow up in an environment where preserving our cultural heritage is not a campaign, but a basic,” said Ahn. He also emphasized the importance of preserving intangible cultural assets such as folk games, pansori (a genre of Korean musical storytelling), or religions. The ERICA Institute of Cultural Properties has long deliberated on how to improve the cultural assets alongside people in their lives and have successfully taken the lead in this sector. They are now working on how to incorporate cultural properties in stages as early as urban planning at Hanam-si. It is unprecedented in Korea that city planners and experts in cultural assets work together, according to Ahn. Cultural properties is not something grandiose. "We must think of them as our family so that we naturally protect them," said Ahn. Analysis on the present condition of the 60 cultural heritages is finished, and now, Ahn is working on the report that describes how to preserve them and how to utilize the cultural properties. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-09 23

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Adsorption Desalination, a Road to Innovative Desalination

Desalination is the process of removing salt from seawater, which is refined and utilized for human consumption and irrigation. As many parts of the world suffer from water scarcity, the significance of desalination technology is increasing. There are several ways of performing desalination, but the most widely used ones are Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Forward Osmosis (FO), as they are more economical. However, Professor Kim Young-deuk (Department of Mechanical Engineering, ERICA Campus) is looking beyond those methods as he digs deeper into desalination through evaporation. Professor Kim Young-deuk (Department of Mechanical Engineering, ERICA Campus) is explaining his project on adsorption desalination. Adsorption desalination is a method of desalination which employs low-temperature waste heat as its energy source. It is one of the subfields of desalination, in which evaporation is triggered through the adsorption of heat. According to Kim, this method of desalination has three advantages compared to RO and FO desalination. First, the technology can work not only for desalination, but also for air-conditioning. It can also reduce energy use, consuming less than half of what RO and FO currently require. Finally, it is cost-effective as there is less of a need for big-scale infrastructure. “The source technology of desalination is further developed in other countries,” explained Kim. “And we pay royalty for its use. What I am trying goes along with the government’s policy to localize essential source technology.” Kim is now working on showing more visible performance as his team was nominated as one of the final three for the ‘Alchemist Project,’ a national project launched by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in order to support the research and development of innovative technology. Kim's project started from a small device but has improved over the years. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim started his project on this topic at the time he came to Hanyang as a professor, which he learned from his postdoctoral fellowship. He commented that his research is still in its early stage, but he is hopeful that the technology will bring a paradigm shift in terms of efficiency and utility. Kim stressed the importance of challenge and experience as a researcher. At the end of the interview, Kim advised the students of Hanyang to challenge and experience as much as possible. “Assuming that you are well-founded on your professional knowledge, you should go beyond and overcome your limits,” said Kim. “It will help you apply your knowledge into a new field and find a niche market.” Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-09 09

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Development of Computer Vision Algorithms for Spatial Recognition of Videos

The Next-generation Information Computing Development Project is a research project executed by Hanyang University and six other research teams, which has been ongoing from September of 2017 and will end on December of 2020. There are two main parts of the research, and Professor Lim Jong-woo (Department of Computer Science) took charge of the first part, titled "fundamental study of vision algorithms for spatial recognition of videos." The focus of Lim's research was to develop computer vision algorithms for spatial recognition of videos. Professor Lim Jong-woo (Department of Computer Science) is taking part in the Next-generation Information Computing Development Project. The object of this research was to develop a computer vision algorithm to comprehensively recognize accurate three-dimensional information of surrounding environments and to detect and predict the location and movement of important figures through the various videos achievable in routine environments. With the basis on geometrical probabilistic computer vision algorithms that have been the subject of research as of now, the research team of six has been striving to develop an original technology that can successively perceive and comprehensively infer information on the environment and major objects inside the video. The first theme consists of geometrical environment information recognition, and the other is detection and tracking of principal objects. Devices with cameras equipped are usually used for taking photos or videos. This research plans to overcome the limitations of the existing methodology, which is the information quantity of the environment map and updating method. They developed a stochastic algorithm that can effectively accumulate long-cumulated information and extract three-dimensional street information of the overall environment by maximizing the information that can be earned from the video. The ultimate goal is to make sure that research output is applied to robots, wearable devices, and autonomous cars by developing an algorithm that accurately model the movements of objects. Original image and restored distance map from blurred image (Photo courtesy of Lim) Object detection technology is emerging and is recently being more widely used in research with deep learning to increase the accuracy of detection. To resolve the issue of difficulty in detecting, clearly due to complex interactions between objects, sudden movements or frequent covering of objects, Lim and his research team sought to develop a deep learning based object detecting technology. Lim has looked into geometric vision for about 10 years. He started motion estimations with a camera at Honda research, until in 2011, when he developed a service that enabled the technology to expand to indoors, as part of the street view team of Google. He continued with geometric vision research at Hanyang University from 2012. Now that the first part of research has been completed, Lim revealed that there is still a ways to go, as it is tough for a computer to recognize as well as humans. Nevertheless, aimed functions were developed and published as a thesis. Lim advises people interested in looking into deep learning to learn in a systematic fashion and study carefully. “Deep learning is a strong tool, but it is not almighty.”

2019-09 02

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Agent Manages Your House Energy

When a country's energy supply falls behind the households' energy consumption, a blackout occurs. Up until now, Korea attempted to regulate the energy consumption by giving a 30 percent margin to the energy supply, which required a lot of money and resources. A more efficient energy management would have been possible if the individual household could intelligently control their energy consumption. To address this problem, Professor Choi Jin-seek (Department of Computer Science) has recently published a new design of the Energy Management Agent (EMA) framework, presenting a 'hierarchically distributed' EMA framework in his paper, ‘A Hierarchical Distributed Energy Management Agent Framework for Smart Homes, Grids, and Cities.’ Professor Choi Jin-seek (Department of Computer Science) presented a hierarchically distributed energy management agent model. The suggested framework will share real-time information about the overall energy consumption of houses, towns, and countries, and intelligently manage the individual household energy consumption, which would ultimately improve Korea’s energy efficiency. Prior to Choi's research, it was impossible for individual users to access real-time information of the overall energy consumption. However, the EMA framework enables the AI agents in an individual household to access the information in real time, taking the job of regulating the energy consumption of each house. Every device and house would have an EMA, which shares informations on how much energy is spent and required with other agents, communicating through the energy internet. A diagram showing the Hierarchical Distributed Energy Management Agent Framework (Photo courtesy of Choi) Professor Choi has been working on the most efficient and user-friendly model of energy internet. Previously, there were two framework models: hierarchical and distributed. Choi’s hierarchical distributed framework combines the advantages of the two frameworks. First, Choi explained that the framework enables the agents to make smart autonomous decisions for the user by sharing energy information to each agent in real time. Agents that received the outside information through energy internet control the in-home energy usage accordingly. For instance, if the district’s overall energy usage is high, the agent could stop a certain household’s machines to temporarily save energy. Also, the agents learn each household’s specific requirements in order to control the supply with consideration. If there is a patient or a newborn who is vulnerable to heat, the agents will share such information and leave the household out from the control subject. Choi says that using the framework can decrease the amount of excess supply. "If the framework is implemented, a flexible control of energy consumption in households will be possible, and the country will not require such big margin in supply. Decreasing the current 30 percent margin to 10 or 20 will achieve a groundbreaking energy efficiency for Korea, whose efficiency assessment sits in the lowest within the OECD," said Choi. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-08 24

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Robot Brain with Robot Arms

AlphaGo presented one of the most famous breakthroughs in the field of AI. Nonetheless, even AlphaGo did not have hands. Professor Park Tae-joon (Department of Robotics, ERICA Campus) has started a new project to give arms to robot brains. The robot's first task will be to assemble a piece of furniture with the given paper assembly manual. It will be the first attempt in the world for AI to assemble furniture with the perfect concord of brain and body. Professor Park Tae-joon (Department of Robotics, ERICA Campus) highlighted the importance of the connection between the software and hardware of a robot, mainly, its brain and body. The robot will have two arms and four cameras for eyes. It will be given an assembly manual with the modules scattered on a worktable. Its task is to read the manual, understand the sequence, identify the modules, and assemble the modules with its hands, all by itself. Park explains that the past three Industrial Revolutions changed the physical and cyber worlds, and the fourth one will break down the wall between the two. For that reason, the organic linkage between cyber and reality (AI brain and body) is crucial. “The connection between the software and hardware departments has always been weak. Our aim is to take the first step in achieving a perfect convergence of the two,” said Park. The robot, with its two arms and four cameras, will read the assembly manual and assemble the scattered modules to finish a furniture. (Photo courtesy of Park) Park is expecting a satisfactory outcome by the end of next year. The team is making fast progress, with the voluntary participation of interested graduate students. “Robots working under this concept has never been tried before. There are many difficulties we need to overcome, but I see so many possibilities. We are paving a new way of AI,” said Park. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2019-08 12

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Lengthening the Service Lifespan of Building Structures

The paradigm of architecture is changing. The construction market used to focus on efficiency and speed, but the modern era values structures with high durability and long lifespans. Professor Lee Han-seung (Major in Architectural Engineering) developed the Durability Health Monitoring System, which collects information on the state of the corrosion of iron and whether chlorine ion and carbon dioxide have penetrated through a sensor installed inside concrete structures. This is groundbreaking technology that was published in the prestigious science journal Advanced Materials on April 15th, 2019, titled "A Colorimetric Multifunctional Sensing Method for Structural-Durability-Health Monitoring Systems." Professor Lee Han-seung (Major in Architectural Engineering) was featured in HY-ERICA magazine's 2019 summer edition, and he also received the 2019 HYU Academic Award. Lee majored in architecture materials and construction in the department of Architectural Engineering, and his main research interest is concrete materials. He is the director of the Innovative Durable Building and Infrastructure Research Center, created as part of the Engineering Research Center (ERC) business to develop material, construction, monitoring, and maintenance technology to enhance the durability of structures. Fourteen professors from eight universities are working together to focus on their research into four major topics: durability diagnosis monitoring sensors, durability design, protection and repair construction methods, and a maintenance and asset value comprehensive evaluation system. Concrete, which is most often the preferred material in construction projects, deteriorates when it comes into contact with chlorine ion or when the substance gradually permeates through the hardened surface. In a ferroconcrete structure, the iron will rust once chlorine ion infiltrates. And once chlorine ion pervades, the iron expands, and the concrete is destroyed. This phenomenon equals the end of the lifespan of the concrete structure. Lee wanted to be able to gauge how much chlorine ion has penetrated a structure, which would require monitoring technology with a sensor. His research team developed the Durability Health Monitoring System, which tells through wireless communication modules whether iron is corroded or chlorine ion and carbon dioxide have seeped through. A thin film type sensor is buried in the concrete infrastructure beforehand, in order to activate the durability monitoring system. The infiltration of carbon dioxide and chlorine ion inside a concrete structure is a tantalizing the problem, but Lee developed a sensor using optics. His solution was to prevent it from reaching the iron inside the concrete, through the use of the Durability Health Monitoring System. Structures built 30 to 40 years ago need to have their durability diagnosed and maintenance needs assessed, just as humans are obligated to undergo health check-ups at similar ages. There are two ways of monitoring a structure's health. One is to execute structural heath monitoring, in the way a seismometer warns of the danger of earthquake through vibrations. Another is to increase usage by making it convenient to use its waterproof system, air conditioning and heating, electricity and more. “My final goal is to extend the service lifespan of building structures to 200 years," said Lee, with a confident smile. Lee emphasized the importance of fusion research and incorporating Fourth Industrial Revolution technology with architectural engineering. He applied optical science when he put sensors on optical fibers to recognize the intensity when either carbon dioxide or chlorine ion has entered, in real time, by looking at the change of colors. “Securing durability is also eco-friendly," said Lee, when pointing out that long lifespans of structures decreases co2 and prevents the exhaustion of resources. He stressed that a structure that can stand longer is more beneficial financially, and in the life cycle perspective. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-08 06

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Development of Organic Semiconductor Gel for High-Resolution Organic Electronics

Organic semiconductor gel was first developed by Professor Kim Do Hwan (Department of Chemical Engineering) and his research team that opened doors to the dramatic performance enhancement of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices. His paper “Universal Route to Impart Orthogonality to Polymer Semiconductors for Sub-Micrometer Tandem Electronics” was published in the world-famous journal Advanced Materials as the cover acticle in July. Professor Kim Do Hwan (Department of Chemical Engineering) explained in detail the organic semiconductor gel, the keyword from his research. Among existing semiconductors, silicon semiconductors are used representatively in many facets of the semiconductor and display industries. However, silicon is too brittle and requires expensive processing such as vacuum deposition. In 1977, Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa found the first organic semiconductor made of carbon and hydrogen, uncovering the first organic matter that electricity flows through. In this sense, organic semiconductors were in the spotlight as the next generation of semiconductors, but they still could not substitute silicon semiconductors which allowed electricity to pass through at high speeds. That was, until about five years ago when high-performance organic semiconductors were created, enabling the speed of electricity transfer to become comparable to that of silicon semiconductors. However, another problem emerged as existing organic semiconductors could not adopt successive solutions and photolithography processes simultaneously, because organic semiconductors may dissolve or become damaged during patterning processes. Here, photolithography refers to the semiconductor patterning technology which uses UV light as in the process of silicon semiconductors. Kim and his research team investigated how organic semiconductors could keep the established solution processing, while maintaining the optoelectronic performance, as well as adopt the patterning process of silicon called photolithography. Ultra-High Definition (UHD) OLED microdisplay with a hyper-resistant organic semiconductor gel basis to realize AR or VR. (Photo courtesy ot Kim) They created organic semiconductor gel to apply a new conversion methodology that can be applicable to conventional photolithography processing as well as sequential solution processes while keeping the performance level of existing organic semiconductors. “Gel” refers to semi-Interpenetrating Diphasic Polymer Network (semi-IDPN), which is a three-dimensional, high-density, entangled structure between organic semiconductor and organosilica chains. Organosilica is a silica network that includes organic chains. Through the newly created organic semiconductor gel, the research team found that organic semiconductors can be made from sequential solution processing and patterned into desired sizes via photolithography. Kim (second from the left) and his research students who participated in this study. The results of this research are expected to widen the application of new technology into various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic image sensors and neuromorphic electrodes, as successive solution processing and photolithography processing are now applicable. “The performance of VR and AR devices that used to arouse giddiness and motion sickness due to low resolution is expected to advance drastically with the application of organic semiconductor gel,” said Kim. The virtual reality that we thought only possible in movies has now become closer than ever to real life, with ultrahigh-definition (UHD) OLED microdisplays and high-performance VR and AR devices coming alive with the development of organic semiconductor gel. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun