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2020-03 09

[Academics]Professor Shin Hyun-goo Publishes a Research Paper on ‘Targeted Temperature Management for Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients’

▲ Professor Shin Hyun-goo Professor Shin Hyun-goo, and his team of professors from the Hanyang University Hospital, Guri branch, stated that they have successfully published a paper on targeted temperature management for post-cardiac arrest patients on the March edition of the ‘Resuscitation’ journal on March 4th. The research results were published under the title, “Efficacy of the cooling method for targeted temperature management in post-cardiac arrest patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” and his studies suggested that when implementing targeted temperature management treatment for patients who successfully recovered from a spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest, the body surface cooling method and the blood vessel cooling method did not show much difference between the survival rate of the patients and other positive neurological outcomes. Professor Shin stated that, “It is still difficult to decide which method is superior when trying to undergo targeted temperature management, whether it is the body surface cooling method, or the blood vessel cooling method,” and that “the proper method must be chosen according to the patient’s medical conditions, and what is financially efficient for him/her.” He also added that there is a “need to an additional randomized controlled study in a large scale.” Meanwhile, Professor Shin Hyun-goo graduated from Hanyang University’s College of Medicine, and also received his doctoral degree from the same university. He is currently working as an assistant professor at the Department of Emergency Medicine in Hanyang University Hospital, Guri Branch. He is currently active in the medical field as a member of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine and the Korean Council of EMS Physicians, is also an advanced cardiac life support instructor at the American Heart Association, an advanced resuscitation instructor of Korea at the Korean Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitations and a specialized instructor for trauma treatment in Korea. Global News Team

2020-03 02

[Academics]Professor Jang Jae-young Developed Thermoelectric Material with Possible Use for Energy Source for Wearable Electronics

Hanyang University Professor Jang Jae-young (36·Photo) of the Department of Energy Engineering and his team recently developed a stretchable organic thermoelectric material that has a self-healable characteristic. Thermoelectric material is a material that converts heat energy into electric energy using temperature difference, that has been so far using materials based on metal or ceramics. When the research outcome created by Professor Jang's team is commercialized, which was introduced on the cover of Advanced Functional Materials, one of the world's most renowned papers on materials academics, it will allow the wearable electronics to recharge the battery by only using the body temperature, expecting a great increase in its hours of usage. Professor Jang Jae-young Professor Jeong Yong-jin There have been active researches being done on high polymer-based thermoelectric materials, which has better flexibility than metal-based materials with difficulties on modifications. However, due to the drawback that an organic material with a soft property of matter can easily lose the characteristic of thermoelectricity when under a physical collision, researchers were having a hard time commercializing the results. Accordingly, to utilize the source throughout a wider area than the energy source of wearable devices, the need for the development of new organic thermoelement was raised, which has flexibility, elasticity and also can self-heal the cracks created through outside impacts. To solve this problem, Professor Jang's research team used functional organic material and provided material design and manufacturing process strategy at the same time, leading to the development of a material showing the best thermoelectricity. The team went through successful doping of conjugated polymer in a form of nano-wire and showed its thermoelectrical characteristic, while also embedding this to thermoplastic elastomer matrix and developing a thermoelectricity material with both a complex form of elasticity and self-healable characteristics. The developed material features great thermal conversion property on low-temperature and small temperature differences, keeping its stable self-healable ability throughout outside impacts such as scratches or cracks. The significance of the research lies in the fact that it has confirmed the possibility of utilization of organic high polymer-based thermoelectricity material as an energy source of wearable devices. Professor Jang mentioned that "this thermoelectricity material will be a great help to the development and commercialization of future electric materials such as electric skin and wearable smart devices," he also added, "the specific technology is also expected to be used throughout the next-generation energy harvesting related field." The research was conducted under the Ministry of Education(Basic Research Support Program-SGER) with support from the National Research Foundation of Korea, co-working with Professor Jeong Yong-jin of Korea National University of Transporation, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering. ▲ Result of self-healable and stretchable organic thermoelectric materials developed by Professor Jang Jae-young's team ▲ Cover of the world renowned paper on materials academics, Advanced Functional Materials <References> ■ Thesis Title: Self-Healable and Stretchable Organic Thermoelectric Materials: Electrically Percolated Polymer Nanowires Embedded in Thermoplastic Elastomer Matrix ■ Writer Information: Professor Jeong Yong-jin (1st writer, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation), Jung Jae-min Doctor Candidate (Hanyang University), Suh Eui-hyun Doctor Candidate (Hanyang University), Doctor Yun Dong-jin (Samsung Advanced Institue of Technology), Oh Jong-gyu Doctor Candidate (Hanyang University), Professor Jang Jae-young (Communications Writer, Hanyang University) Global News Team

2020-02 25

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Establishing the Basis for Drug Development

Membrane proteins are proteins that function as the gatekeepers of cells, controlling all interactions between cells. Due to its crucial role in cell activity, the protein is often recognized as the factor in many diseases. However, there have been limitations in figuring out the structure of protein due to its vulnerability in modification, without effective amphiphiles that stabilize the protein. Professor Chae Pil Seok (Department of Bionano Engineering, ERICA Campus) recently made progress in facilitating the research on membrane protein by producing a new type of amphiphiles—the TEMs. Professor Chae Pil Seok (Department of Bionano Engineering, ERICA Campus) developed a new type of amphiphiles. Amphiphiles—more commonly, detergents—are necessary tools to isolate membrane proteins from biological membranes for studies. “Amphiphiles with hydrophobic properties were found to have advantages in the stabilization of otherwise vulnerable membrane proteins,” said Chae. For a few decades, a molecule named DDM (dodecylmaltoside) was primarily used in the research as the amphiphiles. Unfortunately, the molecule could not provide the required stability for a large number of protein. Thus, many scholars devoted themselves to inventing the new amphiphilic molecules that could replace DDM. Many scholars, including Chae, are working on to develop new amphiphilic molecules that could replace the conventional amphiphiles. Chae registered success in such a trend, developing 1,3,5-Triazine-Cored Maltoside Amphiphiles, also known as TEMs. Chae’s team, a joint research team from Stanford University, Texas Tech University, Imperial College London, Copenhagen University, and Tsinghua University, introduced variations in the alkyl chain linkage and an amine-functionalized diol linker by designing and synthesizing 1,3,5-triazine-cored dimaltoside amphiphiles derived from cyanuric chloride. “TEMs have significant potential in membrane protein study for their structural diversity and universal stabilization efficacy for several membrane proteins,” said Chae. The professor expects TEMs to play a crucial role in the development of new pharmaceuticals for terminal illnesses. Chae's team will continue their research on membrane protein and amphiphiles. Chae seeks to continue his research on developing a better amphiphile. “I would like to implement a system that can maximize the stability of membrane protein in aqueous solution,” he said. Moreover, Chae is digging deeper into the process of membrane protein modification, especially focusing on post-translational modifications in his current research on native mass spectrometry with Professor Ying Ge of the University of Wisconsin. Chae is building the groundwork for treating incurable diseases through continuous research on figuring out the structure of membrane protein. Oh Kyu-jin

2020-02 16

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Stepping Stone to Overcome Stratospheric Conditions

Aircraft usually fly at the top of the troposphere or the lower end of the stratosphere. Although there is less turbulence and weather constraints in the stratosphere, launching an aircraft into the stratosphere is difficult because there exists no efficient battery that can stand the harsh conditions of the atmosphere as of now. Here to change this dilemma is Professor Kim Han-su (Department of Energy Engineering) who is working on developing a secondary battery that can withstand the harsh conditions of the stratosphere. Professor Kim Han-su (Department of Energy Engineering) is developing a secondary battery that can withstand the harsh conditions of the stratosphere. In order to survive in the stratosphere, the battery must have high-density (meaning it can store more energy in the given mass) as well as be resistant to low temperatures. Kim’s solution was to use the sulfide electrolyte based all-solid-state secondary battery. The fire-retardant characteristics of the battery ensured the battery’s stability. However, there remained a problem that all-solid-state batteries have relatively lower energy density compared to other secondary batteries on the market. Thus, Kim’s team is currently in the progress of attempting to use high-density lithium in the battery development process to create a battery that has high energy density and is temperature resistant. Kim’s research is especially valuable since the batteries can be used in drones, which are expected to substitute satellites in the future. According to the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), it takes about 30 million won per kilogram to launch a satellite. Scientists expect the drones in the stratosphere to perform the same but in a cost-efficient way. “Most of what we anticipate from satellites can be embodied by drones,” said Kim. “Even though we cannot replace the satellites’ roles in observing outer space, drones can be an alternative in a practical sense.” Kim's research is expected to support future military and commercial drones. Kim expressed his goals in creating a battery that can be utilized for both military and commercial purposes. The common facts of today are the products of yesterday’s research. The effort of Kim’s team will be a stepping stone to an unprecedented technology. Oh Kyu-jin

2020-02 11

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] A Suggestion for the Harmonized Standard of Wireless Devices

In order to sell commercial wireless devices in Europe, the products must meet the guidelines of the Radio Equipment Directive (RED), established by the European Commission (EC). However, most of the guidelines are abstract and expansive, and, therefore, regulation was realistically difficult. To complement this, EC consulted European standards institutes to establish a harmonized standard that corresponds to the RED guideline. The new harmonized standard will be chosen by EC in April, and commercialized wireless products will be regulated in the European market accordingly. Thus, manufacturers will need to prove that their products meet the particular harmonized standard to sell them to the European market in the future. Professor Choi Seung-won (Department of Electronic Engineering), with his recent thesis, ‘Market Access for Radio Equipment Directive in Europe Enabled by the Radio Equipment Directive (RED): Status, Next Steps and Implications,’ suggested a thoroughly researched standard that is competent as a new harmonized standard. Professor Choi Seung-won (Department of Electronic Engineering) has proposed a harmonized standard for wireless devices. The Hanyang Mobile Communication research center has been engaged in the standardization action at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute's (ETSI) Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) technical committee since 2009. Currently, the center is trying to pass its developed standard as the new harmonized standard of EC. Choi's thesis is a part of this ETSI standardization action, aiming to inform both domestic and foreign institutes about the center’s progressing standardization action and its importance. Choi stated that the center has developed a unique wireless device architecture and interface that makes it possible for software restructuring, and these patented architecture and interfaces were applied in the standard suggested by the center. “If our standard gets selected as the harmonized standard, wireless device manufacturers will have to follow our standard, meaning they will have to manufacture the products using our patented technologies,” said Choi. He added that this means manufacturers will have to pay royalty to the center and that is what makes the research of higher value. "Constant effort will be made in the future for our standard to be chosen as the harmonized standard, as well as to commercialize the RRS techniques," said Choi. Lim Ji-woo

2020-02 07

[Academics]Professor Jeong Jae-gyeong Develops a Stretchable Display

On the 6th, Hanyang University announced that Professor Jeong Jae-gyeong (Department of Electric Engineering) developed a ‘stretchable transistor’ technology that can be stretched out and easily change the size. Flexible OLED that is used for foldable cell phones, which became famous as ‘foldable smartphones,’ such as the Samsung Galaxy Fold and Huawei Mate X, is expected to evolve ultimately into a stretchable display after developing as foldable and rollable displays. Following such flows, the technology that Professor Jeong’s team developed is foreseen to be largely meaningful in the display field in the future. Commonly, the flexible display uses polyimide as a breadboard so that it can be curved or rolled. However, polyimide has a drawback that it cannot be stretched since it is a hard material. To overcome the limitation, Professor Jeong’s team made a high-performance oxide transistor over polyimide film and used polyethylene that can be stretched like a rubber band as a breadboard, so that it can be stretched threefold than before and can keep its high electric performances. Also, they planned a structure with a higher duration by replacing the previous silica gate insulator with a hybrid polymer of zirconium, organic matter, and a crosslinker. Professor Jeong said, “The hybrid material and semiconductor processing concept can later be applied to rubber breadboard that can be stretched as one wants in the future. Through this, they might be used not only for the display industry but also for various industries such as tablets, clothing, and human skin.” This research is done with the support of Samsung Electronics Research Funding & Incubation Center for Future Technology’s Next Generation Material / Element Project and the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy’s Element Part Industry Future Growth Basis Project. The research result is published in a world-renowned paper, 「Advanced Functional Materials (IF = 15.6)」 in January. Kim Jeong-o (Department of Information Display Engineering), taking the Ph. D. course joined as the lead author and Professor Hong Yong-taek of Seoul National University joined as a co-author. ■ Title of the Publication: Network structure modification enabled hybrid polymer dielectric film with zirconia for the stretchable transistor application ■ Authors Professor Jeong Jae-gyeong (Corresponding Author, Hanyang University) Kim Jeong-o (First Author, Hanyang University) Hong Yong-taek (Co-author, Seoul National University) ■ Research Principles It developed an oxide transistor array that can have elasticity and can keep high performance by introducing the stress-relief structure that has a different Young’s Modulus. In detail, it synthesized and developed a new hybrid polymer insulator that can keep a good dielectric property by dispersing zirconia ceramics with high permittivity to a high polymer called PVP-co-PMMA in molecular level through the introduction of a crosslink with a silanol group. Through this, it is applied to a high mobility IGTO oxide semiconductor element. With this, it proved a high-performance TFT array concept that is 300% stretchable in a -150℃ process. Global News Team Translation by: Lee Seong-chae

2020-02 06

[Academics]Hanyang University-Ground X, Publicly Opened a Blockchain Master's Course on 'Smart Contract and Decentralized Application' Lecture

Hanyang University and Ground X have announced on the 31st that they are publicly opening full lectures on the 'Smart Contract and Decentralized Application' for free, aiming for the general development of blockchain technology and human resources regarding the field. Last year, Hanyang University made an MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) joint business agreement with Ground X and opened formal master's degree lectures for the development of blockchain education and joint research. Korea's biggest company in the messenger industry, Kakao Corporation, supported the work, having the goal of creating education and joint researches that nurture future blockchain developers. The 'Smart Contract and Decentralized Application' lecture was held for a total of 15 weeks, starting from September of 2019, providing an education covering various contents, such as basic concepts and structure of blockchain, motion fundamentals of Ground X's self-developed platform Klaytn, consensus mechanism, smart contracts and more. Areas such as blockchain application training based on real-life examples, or methods to improve the UI (User Interface)·UX (User Experience) of blockchain services were also covered in the lecture. The lecture was held by the Evangelist Engineer of Ground X, Kim Woo-joong. The lecture is open to any student or developers interested in a blockchain platform and blockchain application development, which can be found at the IT technology education platform 'InfLearn' or 'Ground X Youtube Channel'. Kim Woo-joong Ground X Evangelist mentioned that "it was very memorable to give the lecture that covers not only the basic concepts of blockchain but also the experiences and business knowledge based on various scenarios that happen in the real-life business environment." He also noted that "since the whole Hanyang University lecture is opened online for free, I hope that it helps many people that are interested in Klaytn and development and operation of blockchain application." Logo of Hanyang University and Kakao's blockchain affiliate 'Ground X' Screenshot of the lecture that is open to the public on Youtube Watch lecture video of Ground X (Youtube) : Global News Team Translated by: Lee Wonyoung

2020-02 05

[Academics]Increasing Mileage of Electric Cars with a ‘Starch Battery’

On January 21st, a co-research team of Hanyang University's Department of Energy Engineering, Chonnam National University's Department of New Material Engineering, and the KIST Energy Storing Research Group announced that they have developed a silicon-based cathode which has a fourfold battery capacity than the graphite cathode that was previously used and can be charged more than 80% in five minutes. If this is applied to electric cars, the mileage can be increased more than double. Current commercialized electronic car batteries use graphite as cathode material but a disadvantage of it is that its mileage is shorter than internal combustion cars, due to small battery capacity. To develop electric cars with longer mileage, silicon that can save energy up to ten times than graphite is now highlighted as a new cathode material. However, the difficulty of silicon commercialization is that silicon rapid expansion of volume and loss of capacity, when charging and discharging are continued. Also, although many ways to enhance the safety of silicon as a cathode material are suggested, high price and complex processes are hindering silicon from replacing graphite. The co-researching team focused on cheap materials in daily lives such as water, oil, and starch to enhance the stability of silicon. They increased a carbon-silicon material by diluting starch in the water and oil in silicon and heating them. A carbon-silicon complex is made through a heating process just like frying something. Through this, the volume expansion of silicon cathode is prevented, when charging and discharging it. ▲ Carbon-Silicon Complex Synthesis Process Micelle is made of an emulsion of water, oil, starch, and surfactant and when it is repeatedly heated and carbonized, a carbon-silicon complex is formed. (Photo courtesy by KIST) The complex showed a battery capacity (1,530mAh/g) that is four times larger than the previous graphite-based cathode material (360mAh/g), and it also showed a characteristic of stabilized capacity after more than 500 times of charging, and of more than 80% charging in five minutes. This is because the carbon complex controls the volume expansion of silicon so that the stability is increased and it gained a large output due to carbon’s high conductivity and rearrangement of silicon structure. Doctor Jeong Hoon-gi of KIST who led this research showed his expectation by saying, “An easy process and great characteristics as such have a high possibility of commercialization and they will be further used in electric cars and Energy Storing System (ESS) when applied to a lithium-ion secondary battery.” This research was conducted by the support of the Ministry of Science and ICT and as a part of KIST’s main projects and climate change response development projects. The result of the research is published in the newest edition of 「Nano Letters」, an international journal of the field of nanotechnology. ▲ An imaginary image of an electric car equipping a carbon-silicon complex cathode, made by mixing and heating the silicon from eco-friendly materials, such as corn and sweet potatoes, which are mixed with oil (Photo courtesy of KIST) Global News Team Translation by: Lee Seong-chae

2020-02 03

[Academics]Professor Park Hui-Joon, Increased the Solar Battery Efficiency by Combining Compound Semiconductor and Perovskite

On the 19th, the joint research team of Professor Park Hui-Joon of Hanyang University's Department of Organic and Nano Engineering and Professor Lee Jae-Jin of Ajou University announced that they have developed a 'tandem solar cell' by combining a flexible 'Gallium-arsenic (GsAs) compound' and a 'Perovskite semiconductor.' They used the method that increases the conversion efficiency of electronic energy by using more diverse wavelength lights, laminating a semiconductor compound crystal that absorbs large wavelengths of light, over a thin film of Perovskite that absorbs short-wavelength light. The research team succeeded in creating a thin film of Perovskite with high-efficiency, by using a method of low-temperature solution processing. The tandem battery that is made through putting the film over a gallium-arsenic compound is found to have 15% higher efficiency. A possible increase in the price of the tandem solar battery has also been managed by using low-cost Perovskite, which has the function of increasing the photoconversion efficiency of the semiconductor compound. Professor Park mentioned that "the newly developed tandem solar battery is very light and flexible, which makes it useful for automobiles, drones, wearable devices, as well as the energy source for IoT (Internet of Things) sensors." The research has been conducted with the support of the Ministry of Science and ICT, the Ministry of Education, and the Fundamental Research Business by the National Research Foundation of Korea, and the result of the research was published on the cover paper of an international academic journal, 「Advanced Energy Materials」, on December 19th, 2019. Mimetic Diagram of Perovskite-Gallium·Arsenic Tandem Structure Solar Battery (Provided by National Research Foundation of Korea) Global News Team Translated by: Lee Wonyoung

2020-01 28

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Turning Waste into Fuel

Coal is an important energy source, providing for over a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of electricity. Nevertheless, the controversy over it causing air pollution is getting more intense each year. Professor Yang Hyun-ik (Department of Mechanical Engineering), in his recent research titled ‘Development and Demonstration of the Facility to create Green Pellet Using Waste Wood,’ has provided an eco-friendly way to burn coal and further showed the possibility to produce a competent renewable energy source, solely using wastes. The research aims to develop a facility that successfully converts waste wood and sewage sludge into pellets and burn them with coal. Pellets are a type of fuel that is burnt with coal in the process of generating electricity, made by condensing inflammable wood into a pellet shape. This addition is made almost mandatorily because it reduces the exhaust gas and fine dust caused by burning coal. However, Korea has very few facilities that are capable of producing pellets, and using inflammable-quality domestic wood is highly expensive, so currently, reliance on import is inevitable. Yang’s suggestion was to develop a domestic facility that could produce pellets out of waste wood from Korea as well as sewage sludge, thus making competent eco-friendly ‘green’ pellets. Professor Yang Hyun-ik (Department of Mechanical Engineering), in his recent research, designed a facility that successfully converts waste wood and sewage sludge into 'green' pellet. The green pellets are made using the hydrothermal carbonation technology. Much like the process of making charcoal, carbonation technology compresses carbon by heat. Hydrothermal carbonation is one kind of the technology that carries out the process underwater so that it creates no air pollution. Yang says the facility can convert not only specific wastes, like waste wood or sewage sludge, but all kinds of wastes, including food garbage and even human waste into fuel. The completed facility will be installed in the current cooperating company, Korea East-West Power Corporation. The first step is to succeed in a reduced scale production of one ton within two years, and the next three years will be devoted to producing a real-life scale of one-hundred-ton pellets. Once the technology proves successful, Yang anticipates spreading this technology globally. “Everyone says extracting renewable energy from wastes is important, but not many institutions are doing any practical research. In this sense, this technology is extremely important and necessary on a world-wide scale,” said Yang. Lim Ji-woo Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2020-01 26

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Bridging the Educational Gap through Welfare

People refer to education as the passport to the future. Nowadays, education is considered a type of welfare—provided from cradle to grave. However, school education cannot help but be emphasized due to its role in society. Here is Professor Song Ji-hoon (Department of Educational Technology) who is leading the research on the execution of welfare in school education. Professor Song Ji-hoon (Department of Educational Technology) is leading an institution that specializes in educational welfare. Song is the incumbent president of the Institute for Educational Research—a Hanyang-affiliated research institute on educational welfare. Educational welfare not only considers the infrastructure of a classroom but also the affective filter of the students. The institute is currently building a masterplan of school education with its point of reference. “We are surveying all authorities related to educational welfare,” said Song. There exists controversy on welfare catching up with one’s political stance. Educational welfare cannot escape from this dispute as well, especially in terms of providing the educational environment. “There are two types of welfare: universal welfare and selective welfare,” explained Song. The institute aims to verify educational policies from a utility point of view. For instance, people show different opinions on complimentary school uniforms. What the institute does is to make a report that evaluates the policy from both points of view. The goal is to avoid both reckless management and stigmatization—which are the double-edged swords of the two standpoints. Song also seeks to afford the emotional equilibrium to students through educational welfare. “Success in education derives from immersion,” defined the professor. “Students should be interested in what they learn and who they learn from.” Song emphasized the need for the right atmosphere, which is a key in narrowing down the educational gap. “The institute aims to pave the way for better conditions where students enjoy their school life.” Song proposes both physical and psychological welfare in bridging the educational gap. Nelson Mandela said that education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Song’s efforts are being carried over to a long-range plan where education serves as a way of resolving the social polarization in substance. Oh Kyu-jin Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2020-01 21

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Finding the Key to Detailed Information of the Ecosystem

How can we tell a drop of pure honey from sugar-mixed honey? How do we tell which of the pesticide is responsible for the corrupted soil? Or the correct place of origin of beef? All of these are possible by analyzing the ‘stable isotope ratio’ of the compound. Recently, ERICA Campus’s Institute of Ocena and Atmospheric Sciences successfully developed the nitrogen stable isotope analyses technology. It is the first in Korea, and one of the very few world-wide. Professor Shin Kyung-hoon (Department of Marine Science and Convergence Engineering, ERICA Campus) of the laboratory explained that there is a wide possibility of how the technology can be employed in various fields. Professor Shin Kyung-hoon (Department of Marine Science and Convergence Engineering, ERICA Campus) successfully developed the nitrogen stable isotope analyses technology. An isotope of an element is an atom that has a different number of neutrons than the other normal atoms. For instance, almost all carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, but about 1 percent of the carbon on Earth has 6 protons and 7 neutrons. Amongst them, stable isotope is a specific group of isotope that are not radioactive. The aforementioned 'stable isotope ratio' refers to the ratio of the atomic abundances of a specific stable isotopes within an element. So what is the significance of developing the technology that analyzes this stable isotope ratio? According to Shin, the ratio for each atom is generally constant throughout every elements in Earth's biosphere. However, they show slight, but notable, differences between the kinds, and a subtler difference between individual entity. “It is these subtle differences that carry the valuable information,” said Shin. “Take ecology, for example. Although each species has its basic internal isotope ratio, depending on the environment, the exact ratio differs slightly for each organism. In other words, by analyzing the stable isotopes ratio, we can figure out the environment it lived in, such as habitat, food, and trophic position. Ultimately, it gives us a correct and detailed information about the ecosystem,” said Shin. On the surface, what the technology can do is, it can also be applied in many other fields. In forensic science, it could be used to identify the used poison or the used weapon. It can also effectively place the place of origin of food products, and can even be used in archeology to find out what ancient people ate. “The stable isotope ratio analyses technique has endless possibilities of joint study, and a few of them are under way already. We have the machine set and are more than ready to cooperate. I hope more researchers of different fields come up with an interesting idea from their field, and use our machine to find out the answer,” said Shin. Lim Ji-woo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon