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2019-09 23

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Adsorption Desalination, a Road to Innovative Desalination

Desalination is the process of removing salt from seawater, which is refined and utilized for human consumption and irrigation. As many parts of the world suffer from water scarcity, the significance of desalination technology is increasing. There are several ways of performing desalination, but the most widely used ones are Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Forward Osmosis (FO), as they are more economical. However, Professor Kim Young-deuk (Department of Mechanical Engineering, ERICA Campus) is looking beyond those methods as he digs deeper into desalination through evaporation. Professor Kim Young-deuk (Department of Mechanical Engineering, ERICA Campus) is explaining his project on adsorption desalination. Adsorption desalination is a method of desalination which employs low-temperature waste heat as its energy source. It is one of the subfields of desalination, in which evaporation is triggered through the adsorption of heat. According to Kim, this method of desalination has three advantages compared to RO and FO desalination. First, the technology can work not only for desalination, but also for air-conditioning. It can also reduce energy use, consuming less than half of what RO and FO currently require. Finally, it is cost-effective as there is less of a need for big-scale infrastructure. “The source technology of desalination is further developed in other countries,” explained Kim. “And we pay royalty for its use. What I am trying goes along with the government’s policy to localize essential source technology.” Kim is now working on showing more visible performance as his team was nominated as one of the final three for the ‘Alchemist Project,’ a national project launched by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in order to support the research and development of innovative technology. Kim's project started from a small device but has improved over the years. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim started his project on this topic at the time he came to Hanyang as a professor, which he learned from his postdoctoral fellowship. He commented that his research is still in its early stage, but he is hopeful that the technology will bring a paradigm shift in terms of efficiency and utility. Kim stressed the importance of challenge and experience as a researcher. At the end of the interview, Kim advised the students of Hanyang to challenge and experience as much as possible. “Assuming that you are well-founded on your professional knowledge, you should go beyond and overcome your limits,” said Kim. “It will help you apply your knowledge into a new field and find a niche market.” Oh Kyu-jin alex684@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-09 09

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Development of Computer Vision Algorithms for Spatial Recognition of Videos

The Next-generation Information Computing Development Project is a research project executed by Hanyang University and six other research teams, which has been ongoing from September of 2017 and will end on December of 2020. There are two main parts of the research, and Professor Lim Jong-woo (Department of Computer Science) took charge of the first part, titled "fundamental study of vision algorithms for spatial recognition of videos." The focus of Lim's research was to develop computer vision algorithms for spatial recognition of videos. Professor Lim Jong-woo (Department of Computer Science) is taking part in the Next-generation Information Computing Development Project. The object of this research was to develop a computer vision algorithm to comprehensively recognize accurate three-dimensional information of surrounding environments and to detect and predict the location and movement of important figures through the various videos achievable in routine environments. With the basis on geometrical probabilistic computer vision algorithms that have been the subject of research as of now, the research team of six has been striving to develop an original technology that can successively perceive and comprehensively infer information on the environment and major objects inside the video. The first theme consists of geometrical environment information recognition, and the other is detection and tracking of principal objects. Devices with cameras equipped are usually used for taking photos or videos. This research plans to overcome the limitations of the existing methodology, which is the information quantity of the environment map and updating method. They developed a stochastic algorithm that can effectively accumulate long-cumulated information and extract three-dimensional street information of the overall environment by maximizing the information that can be earned from the video. The ultimate goal is to make sure that research output is applied to robots, wearable devices, and autonomous cars by developing an algorithm that accurately model the movements of objects. Original image and restored distance map from blurred image (Photo courtesy of Lim) Object detection technology is emerging and is recently being more widely used in research with deep learning to increase the accuracy of detection. To resolve the issue of difficulty in detecting, clearly due to complex interactions between objects, sudden movements or frequent covering of objects, Lim and his research team sought to develop a deep learning based object detecting technology. Lim has looked into geometric vision for about 10 years. He started motion estimations with a camera at Honda research, until in 2011, when he developed a service that enabled the technology to expand to indoors, as part of the street view team of Google. He continued with geometric vision research at Hanyang University from 2012. Now that the first part of research has been completed, Lim revealed that there is still a ways to go, as it is tough for a computer to recognize as well as humans. Nevertheless, aimed functions were developed and published as a thesis. Lim advises people interested in looking into deep learning to learn in a systematic fashion and study carefully. “Deep learning is a strong tool, but it is not almighty.”

2019-09 02

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Agent Manages Your House Energy

When a country's energy supply falls behind the households' energy consumption, a blackout occurs. Up until now, Korea attempted to regulate the energy consumption by giving a 30 percent margin to the energy supply, which required a lot of money and resources. A more efficient energy management would have been possible if the individual household could intelligently control their energy consumption. To address this problem, Professor Choi Jin-seek (Department of Computer Science) has recently published a new design of the Energy Management Agent (EMA) framework, presenting a 'hierarchically distributed' EMA framework in his paper, ‘A Hierarchical Distributed Energy Management Agent Framework for Smart Homes, Grids, and Cities.’ Professor Choi Jin-seek (Department of Computer Science) presented a hierarchically distributed energy management agent model. The suggested framework will share real-time information about the overall energy consumption of houses, towns, and countries, and intelligently manage the individual household energy consumption, which would ultimately improve Korea’s energy efficiency. Prior to Choi's research, it was impossible for individual users to access real-time information of the overall energy consumption. However, the EMA framework enables the AI agents in an individual household to access the information in real time, taking the job of regulating the energy consumption of each house. Every device and house would have an EMA, which shares informations on how much energy is spent and required with other agents, communicating through the energy internet. A diagram showing the Hierarchical Distributed Energy Management Agent Framework (Photo courtesy of Choi) Professor Choi has been working on the most efficient and user-friendly model of energy internet. Previously, there were two framework models: hierarchical and distributed. Choi’s hierarchical distributed framework combines the advantages of the two frameworks. First, Choi explained that the framework enables the agents to make smart autonomous decisions for the user by sharing energy information to each agent in real time. Agents that received the outside information through energy internet control the in-home energy usage accordingly. For instance, if the district’s overall energy usage is high, the agent could stop a certain household’s machines to temporarily save energy. Also, the agents learn each household’s specific requirements in order to control the supply with consideration. If there is a patient or a newborn who is vulnerable to heat, the agents will share such information and leave the household out from the control subject. Choi says that using the framework can decrease the amount of excess supply. "If the framework is implemented, a flexible control of energy consumption in households will be possible, and the country will not require such big margin in supply. Decreasing the current 30 percent margin to 10 or 20 will achieve a groundbreaking energy efficiency for Korea, whose efficiency assessment sits in the lowest within the OECD," said Choi. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-08 24

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Robot Brain with Robot Arms

AlphaGo presented one of the most famous breakthroughs in the field of AI. Nonetheless, even AlphaGo did not have hands. Professor Park Tae-joon (Department of Robotics, ERICA Campus) has started a new project to give arms to robot brains. The robot's first task will be to assemble a piece of furniture with the given paper assembly manual. It will be the first attempt in the world for AI to assemble furniture with the perfect concord of brain and body. Professor Park Tae-joon (Department of Robotics, ERICA Campus) highlighted the importance of the connection between the software and hardware of a robot, mainly, its brain and body. The robot will have two arms and four cameras for eyes. It will be given an assembly manual with the modules scattered on a worktable. Its task is to read the manual, understand the sequence, identify the modules, and assemble the modules with its hands, all by itself. Park explains that the past three Industrial Revolutions changed the physical and cyber worlds, and the fourth one will break down the wall between the two. For that reason, the organic linkage between cyber and reality (AI brain and body) is crucial. “The connection between the software and hardware departments has always been weak. Our aim is to take the first step in achieving a perfect convergence of the two,” said Park. The robot, with its two arms and four cameras, will read the assembly manual and assemble the scattered modules to finish a furniture. (Photo courtesy of Park) Park is expecting a satisfactory outcome by the end of next year. The team is making fast progress, with the voluntary participation of interested graduate students. “Robots working under this concept has never been tried before. There are many difficulties we need to overcome, but I see so many possibilities. We are paving a new way of AI,” said Park. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2019-08 12

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Lengthening the Service Lifespan of Building Structures

The paradigm of architecture is changing. The construction market used to focus on efficiency and speed, but the modern era values structures with high durability and long lifespans. Professor Lee Han-seung (Major in Architectural Engineering) developed the Durability Health Monitoring System, which collects information on the state of the corrosion of iron and whether chlorine ion and carbon dioxide have penetrated through a sensor installed inside concrete structures. This is groundbreaking technology that was published in the prestigious science journal Advanced Materials on April 15th, 2019, titled "A Colorimetric Multifunctional Sensing Method for Structural-Durability-Health Monitoring Systems." Professor Lee Han-seung (Major in Architectural Engineering) was featured in HY-ERICA magazine's 2019 summer edition, and he also received the 2019 HYU Academic Award. Lee majored in architecture materials and construction in the department of Architectural Engineering, and his main research interest is concrete materials. He is the director of the Innovative Durable Building and Infrastructure Research Center, created as part of the Engineering Research Center (ERC) business to develop material, construction, monitoring, and maintenance technology to enhance the durability of structures. Fourteen professors from eight universities are working together to focus on their research into four major topics: durability diagnosis monitoring sensors, durability design, protection and repair construction methods, and a maintenance and asset value comprehensive evaluation system. Concrete, which is most often the preferred material in construction projects, deteriorates when it comes into contact with chlorine ion or when the substance gradually permeates through the hardened surface. In a ferroconcrete structure, the iron will rust once chlorine ion infiltrates. And once chlorine ion pervades, the iron expands, and the concrete is destroyed. This phenomenon equals the end of the lifespan of the concrete structure. Lee wanted to be able to gauge how much chlorine ion has penetrated a structure, which would require monitoring technology with a sensor. His research team developed the Durability Health Monitoring System, which tells through wireless communication modules whether iron is corroded or chlorine ion and carbon dioxide have seeped through. A thin film type sensor is buried in the concrete infrastructure beforehand, in order to activate the durability monitoring system. The infiltration of carbon dioxide and chlorine ion inside a concrete structure is a tantalizing the problem, but Lee developed a sensor using optics. His solution was to prevent it from reaching the iron inside the concrete, through the use of the Durability Health Monitoring System. Structures built 30 to 40 years ago need to have their durability diagnosed and maintenance needs assessed, just as humans are obligated to undergo health check-ups at similar ages. There are two ways of monitoring a structure's health. One is to execute structural heath monitoring, in the way a seismometer warns of the danger of earthquake through vibrations. Another is to increase usage by making it convenient to use its waterproof system, air conditioning and heating, electricity and more. “My final goal is to extend the service lifespan of building structures to 200 years," said Lee, with a confident smile. Lee emphasized the importance of fusion research and incorporating Fourth Industrial Revolution technology with architectural engineering. He applied optical science when he put sensors on optical fibers to recognize the intensity when either carbon dioxide or chlorine ion has entered, in real time, by looking at the change of colors. “Securing durability is also eco-friendly," said Lee, when pointing out that long lifespans of structures decreases co2 and prevents the exhaustion of resources. He stressed that a structure that can stand longer is more beneficial financially, and in the life cycle perspective. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-08 06

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Development of Organic Semiconductor Gel for High-Resolution Organic Electronics

Organic semiconductor gel was first developed by Professor Kim Do Hwan (Department of Chemical Engineering) and his research team that opened doors to the dramatic performance enhancement of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices. His paper “Universal Route to Impart Orthogonality to Polymer Semiconductors for Sub-Micrometer Tandem Electronics” was published in the world-famous journal Advanced Materials as the cover acticle in July. Professor Kim Do Hwan (Department of Chemical Engineering) explained in detail the organic semiconductor gel, the keyword from his research. Among existing semiconductors, silicon semiconductors are used representatively in many facets of the semiconductor and display industries. However, silicon is too brittle and requires expensive processing such as vacuum deposition. In 1977, Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa found the first organic semiconductor made of carbon and hydrogen, uncovering the first organic matter that electricity flows through. In this sense, organic semiconductors were in the spotlight as the next generation of semiconductors, but they still could not substitute silicon semiconductors which allowed electricity to pass through at high speeds. That was, until about five years ago when high-performance organic semiconductors were created, enabling the speed of electricity transfer to become comparable to that of silicon semiconductors. However, another problem emerged as existing organic semiconductors could not adopt successive solutions and photolithography processes simultaneously, because organic semiconductors may dissolve or become damaged during patterning processes. Here, photolithography refers to the semiconductor patterning technology which uses UV light as in the process of silicon semiconductors. Kim and his research team investigated how organic semiconductors could keep the established solution processing, while maintaining the optoelectronic performance, as well as adopt the patterning process of silicon called photolithography. Ultra-High Definition (UHD) OLED microdisplay with a hyper-resistant organic semiconductor gel basis to realize AR or VR. (Photo courtesy ot Kim) They created organic semiconductor gel to apply a new conversion methodology that can be applicable to conventional photolithography processing as well as sequential solution processes while keeping the performance level of existing organic semiconductors. “Gel” refers to semi-Interpenetrating Diphasic Polymer Network (semi-IDPN), which is a three-dimensional, high-density, entangled structure between organic semiconductor and organosilica chains. Organosilica is a silica network that includes organic chains. Through the newly created organic semiconductor gel, the research team found that organic semiconductors can be made from sequential solution processing and patterned into desired sizes via photolithography. Kim (second from the left) and his research students who participated in this study. The results of this research are expected to widen the application of new technology into various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic image sensors and neuromorphic electrodes, as successive solution processing and photolithography processing are now applicable. “The performance of VR and AR devices that used to arouse giddiness and motion sickness due to low resolution is expected to advance drastically with the application of organic semiconductor gel,” said Kim. The virtual reality that we thought only possible in movies has now become closer than ever to real life, with ultrahigh-definition (UHD) OLED microdisplays and high-performance VR and AR devices coming alive with the development of organic semiconductor gel. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2019-07 31

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Smarter Production of Shale Gas Using AI

In the previous era of oil and gas, conventional natural resources like coal were hard to find and costly to attain. In the search for an easily obtainable energy source, shale gas entered the limelight and has become an increasingly important natural gas since the early 21st century. In his recent study "Smart Management of Unconventional Oil and Gas Wells," Professor Sung Won-mo (Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering) designed AI technology which manages a more efficient method of shale gas production. Professor Sung Won-mo (Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering)'s recent study aims to develop an AI management technology for the most efficient production of shale gas. Natural gas is extracted through wells that are drilled two to three kilometers deep from the ground. The conventional production of gas was an extremely uneconomical procedure, primarily because the source of gas is concentrated within a very small area, thus being difficult to find. For instance, while extracting marine gas a kilometer under the sea costs more than 100 billion won, its success rate hovers at three percent. Shale gas (natural gas extracted from shale, which is a fine-grained, laminated sedimentary rock consisting of silt and clay-sized particles), on the other hand, is an unconventional energy source that tends to be found over a wide area, hence is much easier to locate. For this reason, shale gas has become a very important energy source. “Gas consumption will reach its peak in 2050. Until the end of the 21st century, securing the gas supply will be very important, and shale gas is a highly productive and cost-efficient energy source,” said Sung. Left is an image of a gas well. A conventional well is used for extracting conventional natural gas, and an unconventional well is used for shale gas. Right shows the various information that is gathered from a well. AI management technology will analyze the data to ensure the most efficient production of gas. (Photo courtesy of Sung) Sung’s research focuses on developing AI management technology for the most efficient production of shale gas. Attaching an AI sensor onto the well allows it to collect and analyze related data to ensure the most precise and efficient production procedure. “The data we collect from the sensor is so vast that it is impossible to be analyzed by humans or with a regular computer. However, AI learns from the information and analyzes the new data with impressive speed and accuracy,” explained Sung. The model will help predict the type of rock, type of gas, and components of gas according to the depth. As the result, more accurate drilling and product predictions will be possible, ultimately lowering the unit cost of gas. Sung said he has been aware of the prospect of shale gas for a long time and hopes that in the future, the new technology will help secure this gas resource for Korea. “Korea does not possess many natural resources and relies heavily on imports,” added Sung. “I hope this new technology can be developed further so that it can be implemented in policies, helping to secure this gas resource in Korea.” Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-07 23

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Precisely Investigating Catalytic Reactions

Professor Lee Sang-uck (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering) has recently developed a computer simulation methodology, also known as One Probe Non Surface green’s function (OPNS) to precisely understand the catalytic reaction of energy production storage using catalysts. In order to exchange existing catalysts that use rare-earth elements into ones that use cheaper carbon material, one must understand the catalyst reaction of carbon materials. Lee’s research and thesis titled “Unraveling the Controversy over a Catalytic Reaction Mechanism Using a New Theoretical Methodology: One Probe and Non-Equilibrium Surface Green's Function” contributed to developing a methodology of accurately interpreting catalyst reactions and to the development of a new and cheaper carbon catalyst. Professor Lee Sang-uck (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering) is explaining the logic of the One Probe Non Surface green’s function (OPNS) methodology. The first step of the research was to interpret the traits of catalysts in a particular material. He used the most prevalent methodology for interpretation, but was faced with a theological problem: while chemical reactions and catalyst reactions must accurately consider the flow of electrons, the widely used method does not give such considerations. For instance, the former would consider the reaction of the parallel state when it should interpret the reaction of a non-parallel state. Using the High Performance Computing server (HPC), which is a super computer with around 360 cores, it was possible to solve quantum mechanics that mathematized natural phenomena. Lee is pointing to the High Performance Computing servers (HPC) that were used for the research. Research typically consists of understanding a natural phenomenon and expresses the research results in the form of a formula. Through coding, natural phenomena can be simulated in a computer, and that enables researchers to interpret any phenomena. Lee specifically utilized quantum mechanics computer simulations to understand the conduct of electrons and atoms, thereby solving the problem of the existing methodology. Such computer simulations can be applied in semiconductor materials or energy materials. Computer simulations have the advantage of allowing simultaneous screenings using several computers when developing high performance matters. Lee and his team suggested a guideline to understanding and predicting the new property of matter, and developing a new matter after adopting a computer simulation technique to electrons and energy materials. This thesis in particular suggests a way to clearly establish the reaction mechanism to know how catalytic reactions occur when developing poles for solar cells. While previously it was impossible to perfectly reflect all experiment environments, Lee developed a new methodology that took into account most of the real experiment atmosphere and developed a definite catalytic reaction mechanism. Also, a way to attach electric fields in computer simulations for catalyst reactions with voltage was made possible through the new findings. A catalyst reaction is a chemical reaction, thus requiring electrons to move; however, no methodology was available that took into account the movement of electrons. This new methodology is one that can interpret chemical reactions, with respect to the flow of electrons. Lee was designated Researcher of the Month with the development of the OPNS methodology to precisely investigate catalytic reactions. “What we do is basic research for the future process of developing real things. There was a need to concretely understand what happens within the development of lithium batteries, solar cells, and fuel cells, which is why we strived to develop a methodology to accurately interpret such theories,” said Lee. He went on to emphasize the need for parallel effort in experiments and computer simulations in order to achieve innovations, and the use of a clear methodology to enhance data credibility. Kim Hyun-soo soosoupkimmy@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-07 14

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Korea-Belgium Student Program for Semiconductors, 3D Printing, and Robotics

The Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) conducted the Innovation-Growth Global Talent Cultivation Enterprise this year. Hanyang University applied for the program and will receive support on conducting the Global Expert Education for Korea-Belgium Future Innovation. The enterprise enables a joint research project to develop semiconductor technology through the cooperation of Korea and Belgium. Professor Park Jin-goo (Department of Bionanotechnology) is the general manager, and Professor Kim Tae-gon (Division of Smart Convergence Engineering) is in charge of practical affairs. Recruitment announcement for Global Expert Education for Korea-Belgium Future Innovation. Six students will conduct research with IMEC on semiconductors (processor-in-memory), and seven students will join KU Leuven for research on 3D printing and robotics. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Through the enterprise, 13 master's and doctorate students of Hanyang will join Belgium's IMEC or KU Leuven for a minimum of 6 months to a maximum of 12 months. They will conduct joint research in three fields: semiconductors (specifically, processor-in-memory) at IMEC, and 3D printing and robotics at KU Leuven. Students may apply and will be chosen through a selection process. The application period is currently open, and the recruited students will be sent this December. The next applicants will be recruited this October and sent in January of 2020. Professor Kim Tae-gon (Division of Smart Convergence Engineering) explained that the program aims to foster talented Hanyang students to demonstrate their acquired ability at the many small but strong companies of Korea. Kim said, "During my 10 years working at IMEC, I felt that the cultivation of young talented workers was more important than anything." Kim also explained that the aim of the program is to nurture outstanding individuals who can help small but influential businesses in Korea. "I hope students acquire a lot of experience through this program and use their ability in Korea's 'small giant' companies." For this, Kim prepared a special curriculum with Park Systems. One out of thirteen students who complete the program will automatically be offered jobs at Park Systems after graduation. Kim says they plan to increase the number of participating companies in the future. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Kim Ju-eun

2019-07 02

[Academics][Excellent R&D] 26 Graduate Students Conduct Joint Research Abroad

The Robot-Engineering Innovative Design Global Talent Cultivation Program is a project that sponsors prospective graduate students to conduct joint research with renowned institutions abroad and is organized by Korea’s Ministry of Commerce Industry and Energy. From April 2019 to December 2020, Hanyang University will conduct this project in the two fields of robotics and engineering. Professor Simon Song (Division of Mechanical Engineering) is the project's director. Hanyang University is conducting the Robot-Engineering Innovative Design Global Talent Cultivation Program, which aims to sponsor prospective graduate students to conduct joint research with renowned institutions abroad. (Photo courtesy of Song) Graduate students will be assigned to 26 laboratories around the world. Through the project, 26 Hanyang University graduate students (including 9 post-doctoral researchers, 10 PhD candidates, and 6 master’s students) will be assigned to 26 famous laboratories in 14 different institutions or universities including MIT, Stanford, and Harvard University. Based on the previous research that students have conducted at Hanyang, they are to cooperate with a team with similar assignments to share and develop their knowledge in the field. The research topics include various subjects in engineering and robotics, such as IoT sensor technologies, AI, big data engineering, soft robotics, and rehabilitation robotics. Professor Simon Song (Division of Mechanical Engineering) added that, "I want to thank the head of the Industry-University Research Cooperation Foundation, Lee Soo-jae, who sent enormous support for the project." Previously, sending students abroad was met with many obstacles such as admission evaluation and cost-coverage. The program offers our graduate students a valuable opportunity to conduct joint research, which Song believes students can benefit greatly from. “After studying abroad, not only does their research improve, but the students’ attitude and confidence show a great difference, too. By networking with fellow researchers and professors, they seem to realize that the competition is not only within Hanyang or Korea, but rather, they need to strive to contribute to research world-wide.” Song added that he hopes to see a similar change through the program towards the end of next year. Lim Ji-woo il04131@hanyang.ac.kr Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon Design by Lim Ji-woo