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2019-06 27

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Discovery of Brassino-steroid-Responsive Transcription Factor BZR1

The world is currently experiencing the fastest-growing technological developments in history. Much of this is due to the emergence of 5th Generation Wireless Communication (5G) which has enabled a wholly different aspect to the developments. Due to the intensively increasing level of convenience brought about by technology, people have began to realize the importance of innovation; therefore, a number of renowned industries are concentrating on creating new developments. As the trend nowadays seeks future-oriented objectives, interest in purely scientific endeavors has significantly decreased. Despite such a reality, Professor Kim Tae-wuk (Department of Life Science) and his lab students have discovered a new hormone called brassino-steroid (BZR1), which is a renovative detection in the field of a plant’s life. Professor Kim Tae-wuk (Department of Life Science) and his lab students have discovered a hormone named brassino-steroid that has an important relationship with a plant’s life. All human-beings possess hormones within their bodies, and these hormones have a significant impact on living organisms. Plants are particularly dependent on hormones. For example, if specific hormones are created within the plant, certain physiological transformations due to cellular reaction may occur; thus, it could be said that if the input is a hormone, the output is a physiological response. Kim wanted to innovate a signal transduction pathway so that entering a certain hormone would produce a corresponding and desirable phenomena. After much exhaustive research, Kim discovered the existence of BZR1, the key hormone responsible for a plant’s growth. BZR1 interacts with proteins, and if such a hormone is introduced, the receptors in the cell membrane perceive the hormone and begin to interact with each other, fostering growth. This is called the transcription factor. Kim notes, “The signal transduction procedure is merely the respective connection among proteins. They have to physically combine together first. However, the element I have figured out is that the transcription factor is not always prepared; rather, it is inactivated. In fact, we detected a new protein that promotes decomposition of the transcription factor, eventually disturbing the growth of the plant. This negative regulator is called Plant U-Box 40 (PUB40).” Interesting enough, PUB40 can only be found in the plant’s roots, and the greater the number of such a factor existing within the roots, the more it suppresses the growth. Fortunately, PUB40 can be artificially removed which enables the acceleration of plant growth and amplification of the root size. Kim’s lab successfully discovered the existence of Plant U-Box 40 which hinders the growth of the plant, and also how it can be removed artificially. Kim emphasizes the importance of conducting research on plants as it can be helpful to humankind. By manipulating certain factors within the plant, humans can control the speed of their growth. When wheat, barley, rice, and other sources of nutrition were vulnerable to rain and wind due to their large root size several decades ago, scholars discovered mutant hormones that reduce the size of the root, thereby allowing them to withstand the harsh weather. Smaller roots enabled an increase in the possible harvest per unit area and led to green evolution, directly addressing the world's food deficit problem. Furthermore, plant research has great potential in terms of dealing with fine dust issues. The openings in plants' epidermal layer called stoma constantly open and close at regular intervals. Throughout this process, moisture and air go in and out. Kim explains, “Current development only opens enough to suck in fine particulate matters, not fine dust. In this regard, finding certain mutant hormones that expand the size of the stoma will allow the absorption of fine dust, contributing to a benefit for society as a result.” Kim (front center) insists that conducting research on plants for purposes that aim to help humankind is important, as it has engendered green evolution which alleviated the world's food deficit problem and may potentially deal with current fine dust issues. Kim had a hard time mapping the location where the phosphorylation of proteins occurs due to the absence of a necessary piece of equipment - a mass spectrometer. Kim insisted, “Hanyang University did not possess such gear, so I had to ask other facilities. However, there were no advanced mass spectrometers in Korea, and I decided to request a collaboration with Stanford University which has technical facilities capable of analyzing the samples.” Unlike moving creatures, plants are stationary. Thus, it is essential to notice how they adapt to the environment. Whereas humans and animals are less vulnerable when it comes to a shortage in nutrients, plants are extremely sensitive in terms of survival and growth depending on the surrounding environment. Kim concludes that “plants have to passively adapt to the environment throughout their entire life, and it is fascinating how they evolved through such changing nature.” Kim Min-jae Photos by Kim Joo-eun

2019-06 25

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Conical Beam Enables a Wider Home Meter-Reading

In the past, inspecting the meters for electricity, gas, and water use in homes was done manually with workers going around visiting each house. However, as individual energy usage increased, Automatic Metering Infrastructure (AMI) was introduced for a more efficient home meter examination. AMI allows a remote meter reading by sending the information directly to the faraway central meter reading system (called Gateway) via communication technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT). This automatic inspection enabled efficient management of energy as well as significantly decreased the complaints about inspection errors. Nonetheless, AMI has always had a problem commonly shared by wireless access technologies, which is that its wireless coverage was limited and thus a long-distance connection was difficult. Professor Lee Chan-kil (Division of Electrical Engineering, ERICA Campus) solved the coverage limitation problem in meter reading by substituting the previous apple-shaped beam network pattern with a cone-shaped beam pattern. Professor Lee Chan-kil (Division of Electrical Engineering, ERICA Campus)’s recent research solves this problem. Previously, the antenna beam pattern of the IoT network was apple-shaped, which had very limited coverage. Instead, Lee proposed a cone-shaped beam that would expand the covered area significantly. Compared to the previous 10 kilometer radius coverage, the conical beam covers up to 15 kilometers. This reduces the necessary number of gateways per district from 10-30 down to 3-10. Advantages in cost are also significant, as the establishment of the AMI platform is expected to cost 70 percent less than before. Furthermore, with wider coverage, the meter can be buried deeper underground, resulting in less damage and creating a cleaner city appearance. The six projects on IoT Real-Time Location System (RTLS) technologies that Lee and the Digital Communication Systems laboratory have conducted. (Photo courtesy of Lee) Lee and the Digital Communication Systems laboratory focused on various projects regarding IoT Real-Time Location System (RTLS) technologies over the past few years. They successfully conducted five RTLS research projects in the fields of sports, concerts, the livestock industry, traffic, and security and are currently working on the last project in the medical field. “IoT technology, especially Location Based Service (LBS) is continuously growing. By 2020, almost 20 billion devices will be connected to the internet,” said Lee. “Our DCS laboratory will continue to work on technological developments and manpower training to be more innovative in the IoT field.” Lim Ji-woo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-06 19

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Creating a Virtual Power Plant

With the upcoming Industry 4.0 and development of technology, the trend in manufacturing is to put an enhanced emphasis upon mass production. Both the academic field and industrial world are looking for effective solutions that can adjust to meet to the fast-changing industry in which a variety of products and a fast production process are becoming important issues. While most machinery and systems have become automated, the production system itself has become more complex and has problems that have yet to be solved. Professor Hong Seung-ho (Division of Electrical Engineering) has released a paper titled "A data mining-driven incentive-based demand response scheme for a virtual power plant" which focuses on solving such problems within the current manufacturing system. Hong has continuously focused on a new industrial manufacturing technique that would help operate a factory more effectively. The Cyber Physical System (CPS), which Hong is currently working on, is a system that can help such problems by realizing a more efficient production process. The CPS creates a digital twin, an identical imaginary model of an actual tangible product, by using the information within a computer. This digital twin allows the effective operation of a factory, as the machinery within the program is provided with the ability to autonomously communicate with each other based on issues such as space and active areas. This model shows the actual demonstration of a manufacturing system. The Cyber Physical System (CPS) creates a digital twin, which allows automated communication between such machinery. (Photo Courtesy of Hong) As the system designers, engineers, and supervisors are able to solve problems in a much easier manner, the whole manufacturing process will be greatly accelerated. The development of CPS will also allow greater efficiency in productivity and energy usage. During the operation process, the system keeps track of the data of operating assets, such as temperature and speed, while continuously analyzing and preserving a stable state for operation. Furthermore, the saved data can be used for supervisors to keep track of and analyze both current and potential breakdowns. “The CPS would be a great innovation for the current smart manufacturing system,” stated Hong. Yet, there are further steps to be taken before the actual application of the system. First, the standardization of machinery data is necessary. They need to develop a standard language in which the machines can communicate with each other, to work alongside standardized information and communications technology (ICT) and information transmission technologies. The machinery also requires artificial technology to be applied in order to realize the overall system. Hong predicted the year 2035 for a complete smart manufacturing system, and 2045 for it to be practically applied within Korea. Professor Hong Seung-ho (Division of Electrical Engineering) predicted that the smart manufacturing system would be complete by 2035, and applied in Korea by 2045. As for last words, Hong expressed his hopes for Hanyang students to also contribute to future innovative techniques. He maintained that “Steve Jobs is often regarded as a figure of innovation. I hope that the students can also develop their creative thoughts and put an effort towards realizing such innovative ideas.” Hong concluded by explaining that in order to do so it is important for students to start thinking of even the smallest innovative ideas that can actually change the world. Choi Seo-yong Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-06 10

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Innovation of Robotic Technology for Conversational Voice Recognition

With the emergence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, countries and large conglomerates are concentrating on developing technologies combined with artificial intelligence (AI). Hanyang University is also putting significant emphasis on collaboration with major companies and fostering students to become experts knowledgeable about the current trend. In fact, Hanyang University does not stop at doing research and writing theses; rather, it comes up with actual products based on the theses and provides the technology to companies for further progressive development. Professor Chang Joon-hyuk (Department of Electronic Engineering), one of the professors who practices the university’s pursuit, has successfully invented robotic technology for conversational voice recognition which can be applied to our daily life. Professor Chang Joon-hyuk (Department of Electronic Engineering) has invented robotic technology that recognizes people’s conversational voices. Chang believes that voice is the most natural medium in human communication as it involves emotional delivery and indicates overall mood. Doing research where robots or computers recognize such types of voice is an extremely interesting field of study. Compared to the past when the performance of voice recognition was poor due to lack of technological development, nowadays there have been greater results in a short period of time thanks to the use of AI. As this voice recognition algorithm was applied to smartphones, automobiles, and robots, it has had a considerable impact on the market and industry. “I am happy that our research resulted in higher performance which led to the enhancement of the algorithm, but I feel a sense of pride that this research has strengthened the competence of Korean industries and created more potential occupations,” said Chang. Chang is currently working on creating a 100 percent AI-based voice recognition device. In particular, when the most natural interface tool is voice, he wanted to equip an ordering and replying mechanism in the robot that enables human-robot conversation. Chang played a pivotal role in creating an AI robot named Cloy for Incheon International Airport. This robot works as an information desk that answers customers’ questions. However, it has earned a low performance level as the environmental noise is too loud; thus, it is still going through enhancement procedures. In addition, Chang is working on assignments appointed by Hyundai Automobile. Since typing while driving a car is dangerous, Hyundai wants to apply the voice recognition system there as well. Currently, Hyundai is borrowing the engines from Kakao corporation and Amazon, but it wants to equip its own engine. For the capability reinforcement of Hyundai, Chang participated in the joint development project based on an engine made from Hanyang University. At the same time, he is carrying out a project that improves automobile After Service (AS). It is important to distinguish specific disorders within the car, and this particular maintenance duty can be only done by a proficient mechanic. However, the device conceived of by one of Chang’s student who is in the Doctorate Program discerns the possible problems in the automobile down to three issues simply by listening to the noise generated from the car so that the mechanic can easily proceed with his maintenance work. According to Chang, "Since such a technique is very efficient in terms of time and economic aspects, it has received high evaluations from Hyundai, my student was offered special employment and a monetary reward, which I think is a win-win situation for both the company and the school.” Chang is currently working on various projects with renowned large conglomerates that have already led to a win-win situation for both companies and the university. When inventing an AI algorithm, three major factors are to be considered. First, it is important to collect and handle data to establish a fine data base. Second is developing a deep learning AI algorithm that is almost as same as human thoughts or that even surpass human functionality, and then properly combining voice/sound perception with the data. Last but not least, apply the result and make an actual product. With the basis of these factors, Hyundai Automobile collected data by intentionally breaking all parts of automobiles to construct a database. Nonetheless, since deep learning is available only through big data, the database provided by Hyundai was extremely limited. Therefore, Chang decided to apply the method of data amplification which involves mathematical analysis and signal processing. The mathematical approach utilizes the concept of probability that first composes a probability model and then deducts abundant data following that model. On the other hand, the signal processing approach collects data from a specific environment. It then applies the signal characteristics of a variety of different environments to the given result from the specific environment. This way, data can be limitlessly reproduced. Chang suggested, “Thanks to such an algorithm, the performance rate increased from 50 percent to approximately 90 percent. This is revolutionary from the perspective of timeliness and economy.” Chang’s lab has also invented an AI speaker called PLUTO that has been exhibited in one of the most renowned home appliance exhibitions. This speaker perceives sound well and can understand a voice from a long distance and in a noisy environment. Samsung, LG, and Hyundai Automobiles are in joint development of this huge project which is expected to be extremely prosperous. Speech recognition: strong voice recognition is necessary in actual environments where various noises and reverberation exist; therefore, applying diverse machine learning algorithms improves the performance level in actual environments. (Photo courtesy of ASML Lab website) Chang wants students to be more aware of the fast-changing generation in terms of technological developments. “Simply listening to lectures and doing assignments is not enough. Students are encouraged to realize the current industry trends and developing their personal capabilities in accordance with the advancing society. Also, students’ ultimate goal should not be limited to employment in major companies. They should continuously put effort into enhancing their competence in accordance with the fourth industrial revolution,” concluded Chang. Kim Min-jae Photos by Kim Joo-eun

2019-06 04

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] New Synthesis of Metal-metalloid Material with Improved Catalyst Efficiency and Durability

Professor Song Tae-seup (Department of Energy Engineering) published “Electronically Double-Layered Metal Boride Hollow Nanoprism as an Excellent and Robust Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts” in the scientific journal Advanced Energy Materials on February 12th, 2019. Beginning with theories at the end of 2017 and proceeding from experimental analysis to demonstrations for a total of a year and half, this research was a joint effort between many excellent domestic and foreign researchers. Metal-metalloid compounds as water oxidation catalysts A catalyst is needed in order to create hydrogen and oxygen through water electrolysis. For this catalyst, metal-metalloid materials based on transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, and iron are actively being researched. The strong electro negativity of metalloids allows transition metals to have a high level of vitalization, giving them exceptional properties as a water electrolysis catalyst. The research team succeeded in making a synthesis of cobalt nickel boride (V-CNB) with doped vanadium using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method of construction on metal-metalloid materials of hollow structure. The vanadium metalized using the ALD facilitates the catalysis by spreading electrons to the surface and the interior. It also allows stable generation of hydrogen even in the electrolyte, which has a high PH, by blocking the dissolution of metallic elements. The metal-metalloid catalyst material shows higher durability compared to the previous catalyst of noble metals, and increased hydrogen production energy efficiency by more than 3 percent as well as lowered the unit cost of catalysts by more than 50 percent. Professor Song Tae-seup (Department of Energy Engineering) explained the need for a high durability and low priced catalyst material. The rising need for high durability catalyst material with a low unit price The price of "green hydrogen" produced through water electrolysis and photoelectrolysis is currently much more expensive than the "grey hydrogen" which is produced through the refining process and gas reforming. The reason can be traced to a very low efficiency system. Korea’s efficiency of water electrolysis companies is lower than that of other developed countries', which are 68 and 80 percent respectively. In order to facilitate the realization of hydrogen economy and secure the competitiveness of domestic water electrolysis companies, development of the catalyst material with high efficiency, a low unit price, and high durability is essential. Hanyang University, KITECH, and Seoul Women’s University synthesized the catalyst materials and proceeded with precise analysis, and analyzed the characteristics of electrochemistry. Hanyang University, KIST, and the University of Cologne in Germany made progress with simulation experiments that could support the theories and technologies, and Density Functional Theory (DFT) was calculated. The new findings Independently, using metal-metalloid material is not stable within the electrolyte due to the dissolution phenomenon of the metal element. Therefore, the focus was on improving the chemical and physical stability of the metallic element within the electrolyte, and advancing the efficiency of the metal-metalloid with quadruple elements. The ALD method of construction was used to evenly mix vanadium inside the metal-metalloid. The research not only suggested a new synthesis method of metal-metalloid material that includes quadruple elements, but also proposed an alternative that could improve the catalyst efficiency while at the same time enhance durability. This technology can be adopted for various energy elements of the next generation and contribute to the creation of future new growth engines including photoelectrolysis of water, secondary batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. Song stressed the importance of catalyst techniques related to future generation energy storage devices and hydrogen production as leading future energy industries. The next step In Jaunary, the Korean government announced the "Hydrogen Economy Vitalization Roadmap" which proposed the objective per hydrogen industry value chain until 2040. As evident in the steps taken by the government, the development of technology that will help lower the unit cost of hydrogen production is crucial in order to boost the hydrogen economy. The eco-friendly green hydrogen especially needs a reduction in the production unit price. Song plans to proceed with in-depth technological research to expand the domestic energy industry with sustainable clean energy. As time passed, he realized the importance of challenging oneself to research various other fields along with the flow of the generation. He advised Hanyang students, “If the foundation is not robust, you cannot build a great house above it. The basic studies that students encounter during their undergraduate studies will be the very foundational foothold in society.” Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Park Geun-hyung

2019-05 13

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Manpower Cultivation for Industry Convergence of 5G and Unmanned Vehicles

The Fourth Industrial Revolution has changed and is still influencing the development of all of society in its technological advancements, which has enabled further convenience in people's daily lives. Recently, South Korea obtained the title of being the first country in the world to launch the 5th generation (5G) of wireless communication, and the utilization of 5G technology has become a hot potato all across the globe. In light of pursuing 5G utilization, Professor Kim Sun-woo (Division of Electronic Engineering) is making efforts toward the innovation of the core original technology of 5G and unmanned vehicle technology based on 5G. Professor Kim Sun-woo (Division of Electronic Engineering) has successfully enrolled in a research center that concentrates on the intensive research of unmanned vehicles based on 5G technology. Kim was first appointed as a Hanyang University professor in 2005 and has continuously been conducting research on wireless communications, signal processing technology, and precise positioning, which is technology that accurately locates moving objects. Along with his steady efforts into his field of interest, Kim particiated in a 5G technology proposal contest at the 2017 University Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Research Center and was successfully selected among other fierce competitors. His team at the research center is composed of 10 professors from Hanyang University, Seoul National University, and Ajou University, along with 10 related large conglomerates and small and medium-sized enterprises. “Current research regarding 5G unmanned vehicles has been ongoing since 2017 and is expected to continue for up to six years. The research is based on in-depth applied mathematics for developing core original technology, and we are working on innovating both software and hardware for the realization of such technology,” said Kim. For the research to be successful, a firm basis along with a high quality of programming is also needed. Furthermore, in order to compete internationally, Kim’s team is actively progressing with joint research with skillful personnel from all parts of the world and conducting customized research in accordance with the enterprises’ requirements. The 5G Research Center is demonstrating drone flights incorporated with 5G, running a demonstration on an RC car that drives autonomously, and using a specific device that recognizes vision and motion. (Photo courtesy of Wireless Systems Laboratory) As 5G technology is becoming more commercialized in our society and is expected to maintain its influence for approximately 10 years, continuous innovation of original technology on communications is needed, and as time passes by, various applied technology will emerge. The current notable autonomous vehicles, smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT) technology, drones, etc. are all based on and will be further developed using 5G. According to Kim, “Developing 5G and original technology for unmanned vehicles, along with cultivating related manpower to this field, has significant implications. Keeping such a research center at Hanyang plays a pivotal role when it comes to increasing the status of our university.” While communication technology was utilized fundamentally for conversations between individuals or for transmitting data in the past, the current and the future trend of 5G technology will be expanded to include communication between objects. “Based upon such trends, a variety of applied services are expected to emerge, and these services will have considerable influence on human society that will change the entire spectrum of thoughts from people,” insisted Kim. Kim believes that gaining international competitiveness and surviving in such a fast-moving society is important. For these things to happen, providing the best quality of funding in Research and Development (R&D) and progressing differentiated research programs are necessary. In addition, efforts toward internationalization and participation in various academic activities are also needed. “Of course, I am willing to conduct more research into communication technology, but I think my first job as a professor is to foster Hanyang students into excellent academic experts. Students have limitless potential and talent. What we lack is imagination. With their infinite imagination, the way to success is to keep expanding their efforts into fulfilling their dreams,” Kim concluded. The Wireless Systems Laboratory will continue with their research and development to help increase their global competitiveness. (Photo courtesy of Kim) Kim Min-jae

2019-05 13

[Academics][Researcher of the month] Silver Nanoclusters for Solar Cells Advanced in Stability and Efficiency

Professor Bang Jin-ho (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, ERICA Campus) recently published his research "Ag(I)-Thiolate-Protected Silver Nanoclusters for Solar Cells: Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Look into the Photoelectrode/Electrolyte Interface," and was chosen as the researcher of the month for ERICA Campus. This research uncovered a new synthesis route that ensures better stability and extends the excited state lifetime of silver nanoclusters. Such research findings are expected to take our society one step closer to developing nontoxic, environmentally-friendly solar cells. Professor Bang Jin-ho (Department of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, ERICA Campus) secured the safety of solar cells and advanced the efficiency of light conversion. Silver is an environmentally-friendly material that easily absorbs light. However, silver is in a more unstable state than gold, and a new synthesis route was needed to improve its stability. In order for silver to be used in solar cells, the electron needs to be in a floating state for a long period. This so called floating state is known as the excited state lifetime, which is the length of time that the electron beamed by light stays in a high energy state. A longer excited state lifetime is necessary for more opportunity for electron transfer to occur. So what is the new synthesis route? The research team found out that if pH is reversible back and forth, then it is possible to create a ligand frame if pH is turned into acid, and back to normal if pH is raised. The ligands that cover the surface of the silver nanoclusters stabilize it. With the shell protection provided by the ligands, stability and the excited state lifetime can be enhanced. The new synthesis route helped overcome the drawbacks of the silver nanoclusters by inducing agglutination of the compounds silver (Ag) and sulfur (S) at the surface of the silver nanoclusters. This extended the light conversion efficiency of solar cells by two times and extended the safe driving period of solar cells. Professor Bang Jin-ho and a professor from his research team are showing the darkroom used to evaluate the solar cells. This research began in 2013 and is still ongoing after the publication of this research article. Bang and his research team are the leading group in this field, holding the highest conversion efficiency. Currently, Bang is conducting research related to materials, specifically batteries. He is interested in the development of electrode materials, and the advancement of electrode systems, which have a lot in common with batteries. He discussed his ultimate goal of actualizing and commercializing his research findings, so that they can increase convenience in people's lives. The primary goal for the research team now is to increase the efficiency to a level that allows competition compared to the traditional solar cells, in terms of engineering perspectives. The secondary goal is in line with the initial goal in that fundamental research of knowing the basic principle of motion is vital in an attempt to increase efficiency. Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-05 12

[Academics][Excellent R&D] Repairing Software with Software

As the era of the Internet of Things (IoT) approaches, the everyday embedded devices (from MP3 players to cars) also happen to carry their users' most personal information. If they fall into the wrong hands, these handy devices could easily turn against their users. Nevertheless, the software embedded in most devices has serious, well-known security weaknesses. Professor Oh Hee-kuck (Division of Computer Science, ERICA Campus) saw this problem, and through his recent study ARM Architecture-specific Binary Adjustment Technique and Low-level Obfuscation Method Research, invented software that can remove all software vulnerabilities. Through his research, Professor Oh Hee-kuck (Division of Computer Science, ERICA Campus) invented software that protects the security vulnerabilities of the software of embedded devices. According to Oh, many of the vendors of embedded devices are not mainstream platforms. Thus, they lack the capital and technology to properly implant the latest security technology or to offer sufficient updates for their software. Also, although 90 percent of small devices are based on the same ARM processor (a type of CPU), the devices have myriads of varieties. The security technologies applied on one device do not work on other kinds of devices, based on factors such as the manufacturing platform or the compiler version. For this reason, many embedded devices are left vulnerable to even the most outdated attacks. Through his research, Oh invented security software that can repair other software. His software aims to detect weak spots and strengthen devices’ security in a uniform way, regardless of the manufacturing platform or the program version. So, even if the device was not aided with security technology upon manufacturing or even if the original vendor disappeared, the device's security can constantly be strengthened. “Success in this research will greatly enhance the general security of embedded devices and may also encourage faster development of safe IoT,” explained Oh. Oh heavily emphasizes the importance of the individual device-user's awareness on the issue of security. Most importantly, Oh stressed the importance of individual’s awareness about security. “How many of you ignore the update message of the security system or set very weak passwords?” asked Oh. Even if the security system is strong, if the user’s password is weak, the attackers will easily make it through to the confidentialities. Furthermore, Oh explained that security is like a chain - if one link is broken, the others will easily collapse. “Perhaps, the ones who contribute the most to weak security are the individual users,” added Oh, encouraging each user to pay more attention to the importance of security. Lim Ji-woo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-04 30

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] Hedging Deep Features for Visual Tracking

Professor Lim Jong-woo (Division of Computer Science and Engineering) has recently published his thesis "Hedging Deep Features for Visual Tracking" in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI). The thesis was mainly about discovering an algorithm that enables visual tracking of objects' features within a video through an artificial neural network. Professor Lim Jong-woo (Division of Computer Science and Engineering) wrote a thesis on discovering an algorithm that enables the visual tracking of the features of objects within a video through an artificial neural network. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) According to Lim, the studies of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have led to the development of the field of computer vision and deep learning by producing continuous results over the past 10 years. A CNN refers to a network that delivers information about certain objects through the analysis of data produced within each layer of information. The former part of the network provides information about the location of a certain object, whereas the latter mainly handles data related to the type or meaning of the object. In order to accurately position or track an object within a video, both types of information are required, which leads to the need for technology that can successfully fuse the provided information within each layer. Lim’s recent research enables this particular fusion of the various layers of information by applying a technology called hedging, which was derived from machine learning methods. Whenever a new frame is input, the location of the object is traced based upon a corrective filter that collects the information within the different layers of the CNN. This "history sensitive hedging" method, which was newly introduced in Lim’s studies, recalls every result of each layer, enabling the selection of the most relevant layer in relation to the present frame. This hedging method has allowed more efficient and productive results compared to the conventional methods of the visual tracking of objects. The overall visual tracking process that occurs within a newly input frame, using the hedging technology introduced by Lim (Photo courtesy of Lim) The significance of the research Lim’s recent thesis is an extension of his past research "Hedged Deep Thinking," published in 2016 in the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), which focused on applying the visual features in deep learning to the procedures for tracking objects. The conventional method was simply using all the positional information derived from each layer of the CNN, yet the CVPR thesis introduced an algorithm that selects only the necessary information through a hedging method. “My latest thesis is one that expands such studies by applying a Siamese network that further distinguishes the object of scrutiny and a cumulative regret model that reflects the former weight measures within previous frames into the most present one,” explained Lim. A Scale search step was also added in order to prepare for situations in which the size of the object changes. Lim stated that his newly presented algorithm has allowed a further step within the field of visual tracking technology by producing superior results compared to the conventional State-of-the-art algorithm. For an easier understanding, Lim pointed out the current CCTV business. Enabling the visual tracking of certain objects within a video, which includes both organic and inorganic materials, Lim’s newly introduced algorithm allows this process to be conducted in a more intelligent manner by efficiently selecting only the necessary features within each layer of the CNN. As an example, Lim illustrated a potential use of this new technology by using the CCTV monitoring process at airports. His new technology would make the process of identifying and tracking suspicious figures easier. Automatic driving and action cameras were also other fields that Lim presented as examples the technology could be applied to. Lim is explaining the significance of his newly published thesis and how it can be applied to more practical fields. Future plans Lim shared his future plans of conducting research on the multiplex visual tracking technology that allows the tracking process to be widened towards multiple objects, which is an expansion of the current visual tracking technology which mainly focuses on tracking a single object. Furthermore, he also stated how he and his laboratory students are working on the image-based attitude estimation and three dimensional restoration technologies, which can be related to the fields of automatic driving, AR/VR, and even robots. As for the last comments, Lim stated that many professors and students of the Division of Computer Science and Engineering are currently conducting research on artificial intelligence and its related fields such as computer vision and data mining. “I hope that such research aids in the needed progress in this field, and that the professors and students are able to find various opportunities of acquiring the professional knowledge to develop their strengths and abilities,” finished Lim. Choi Seo-yong Photos by Kim Joo-eun

2019-04 15

[Academics][Excellent R&D] BK21 PLUS, Supporting and Fostering Talented Students

United Arab Emirates (UAE) is well known for being an oil-producing country and a typical example of a wealthy country whose prosperity is due to its natural resources. On the other hand, South Korea does not have any natural resources to export; thereby, it focuses on technological advancement to remain competitive in global society. In order to enable such development, the government has been putting a significant emphasis on fostering talented individuals. This has led South Korea to possess a high quality of education. Considering the situation and trend of Korea, Brain Korea (BK) business has emerged to educate and train more competent individuals. The current head of BK PLUS, Professor Park Wan-jun (Department of Engineering), introduces the necessity of such educational programs. Professor Park Wan-jun (Department of Engineering) is currently the representative of Hanyang University in BK21 PLUS business. What is BK21 PLUS? In general, the overall BK business's purpose is to foster the highest level of talented creative students in Master’s or Doctoral programs that supports new creativity-based knowledge and innovative technology. This business first started under the name BK Program at Seoul National University as a pilot project. With successful outcomes, BK project upgraded to BK21 PLUS, which aims to bring up outstanding individuals in the 21st century. Through the assistance of the Korean government, selected universities’ graduate students receive a considerable amount of financial support for advanced and further research. In fact, the Department of Electronic Engineering of Hanyang University has been participating in this business since September 1st of 2013 and will end on August 31st of 2020. During the seven years of this project, each selected university should meet quality outcomes standards in order to receive financial assistance. Hanyang University has successfully produced fulfilling outcomes and has been able to receive 2.3 billion from the government annually. BK21 PLUS business has its importance in improving the quality of graduate schools’ education and research that strengthens the basis of research-centered universities. In addition, it not only fosters talented master's and doctorate students to become proficient at field experiences through industrial cooperation, but also further supports those who are in specialized areas that can become legitimate experts. Lastly, it provides the graduate students’ research scholarships and actualizes the personnel expenses of rising research manpower. This means that by reflecting the inflation rate, the amount of financial support correspondingly increases so that graduate students do not have to worry about living expenses; this provides them with an environment in which they can fully concentrate on research and education. Hanyang University ranks the highest in terms of research capability amongst other participants in BK21 PLUS. Hanyang University’s performance in BK21 PLUS BK21 PLUS is currently focusing on a semiconductor display system, convergence of broadcasting communication systems, and mobile phone systems. The participating universities ought to produce a certain item regarding these technologies and those universities are: Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea University, Yonsei University, Kyunghee University, Sungkyunkwan University, Pohang University of Science and Technology, and Kaist. Park notes, “Our university ranks first in terms of research capability. In fact, in the 2015 mid-term evaluation, Hanyang University was reported as being the top class amongst the participants.” However, Park criticizes, “Although we have the highest level of research capability, we ranked low in educational capability and the extent of system improvement. Therefore, I believe our school should put more effort into this program.” National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea is planning to launch the succeeding business BK21 FOUR after the end of BK21 PLUS. Park believes, “It is absolutely appropriate for the government to make investments in education. Since there are a lot of privileges and advantages in this project, many graduate schools are seeking to become part of it. Hanyang University should keep up with the research results and definitely remain in this business in the future as well.” Kim Min-jae Photos by Park Guen-hyung

2019-04 01

[Academics][Researcher of the Month] The High Mobility of Single-Crystal Nanowires Opens Potential for Future Displays

Semiconductors have become indispensable in our daily lives as we use electronic goods almost every moment. In those goods, most of the semiconductors used are inorganic semiconductors, with occasional exceptions of organic semiconductors. This is because the former is far superior in conduction velocity than the latter. In response to the latter's inferiority, Professor Sung Myung-mo (Department of Chemistry), in his paper "Single-Crystal Poly Nanowires with Ultrahigh Mobility," have introduced a single-crystal nanowire using the newly created polymer called PCDTPT and increased the electrical coductivity of organic semiconductors by more than 10 times. Professor Sung Myung-mo (Department of Chemistry) is the researcher of the month with his thesis "Single-Crystal Poly Nanowires with Ultrahigh Mobility." The organic semiconductor has two noticeable advantages when it comes to applications in electronics. First, it is flexible, and it can be made into solution form. However, it is not yet widely used because it lacks in its mobility compared to inorganics. Also, it has the downside of being unsafe since it is organic matter. However, after Sung's research, humanity has come one step closer to the possibility of substituting inorganic semiconductors, now that the mobility performance of organic semiconductors has significantly increased. Organic semiconductors can be divided into small molecules and polymers. Organic semiconductor polymer is called conducting polymers, which means that the organic matter contains conductivity. Mobility is the speed per second that the transistor moves. The mobility has increasedby more than 10 times, overturning the previous notion that an organic matter cannot have high mobility. Here, the mobility is important because it is frequently used in transistors and decides the working speed. It only took Sung and his team about six months to deduct the research results, because they had already accumulated research needed to facilitate the process. One of the major research prjoects that they have been looking into over the past 10 years was the Nano Patterning method. It is the technology needed to make nano-sized sticks, with which matters that cannot be made into single crystal forms can transform with the creation of a nano-sized wire. They learned that the mobility increased when they made nanowire single crystals. The process of how single-crystal nanowires are made. Each stick-shaped line refers to one single-crystal nanowire. (Photo courtesy of Sung) The question on the surface may be, "How did the mobility increase by over 10 fold?" They predict that it is due to the unique structure of PCDTPT crystals. In existing conducting polymers, which are molecules that have the shape of a thin board, the molecules align next to each other and the conduction takes place sideways. In the case of PCDTPT crystals, however, it takes a vertical direction that differs by 90 degrees from the established conducting polymers. Samsung first created OLED electronics, made of organic semiconductors and it caught the attention of the global market due to its thin, lightweight structural characteristics, and low-power technology. While it seemed impossible at the time, it is now an ongoing research project that the world may conveniently be using as everyday technology in the future. “Persistence is the most important factor a researcher must have. Never give up, even if it seems unlikely that the research will succeed,” advised Sung to future researchers of Hanyang. Kim Hyun-soo Photos by Lee Hyeon-seon

2019-03 11

[Academics][Excellent R&D] To Stay Safe on Nuclear Power

Being a country in the possession of nuclear power plants, we are bound to be under the constant threat of a nuclear accident. The recent research of Professor Jae Moo-sung (Department of Nuclear Engineering) on Multi-Unit Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Test Regulation Technology Development is a step forward to keep us and our planet safe from a nuclear disaster. Professor Jae Moo-sung (Department of Nuclear Engineering)’s five-year-research on Multi-Unit Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Test Regulation Technology Development ensures greater safety around multi-unit nuclear plants. Korea has up to nine nuclear plants in one site, with a massive population living nearby. According to Jae, there are not many countries that have this many nuclear plants in one site as Korea does. For instance, America has a maximum of three plants in one site. Logically, malfunction of these plants could inflict catastrophic damage on those living nearby, which is why a thorough multi-unit risk test is necessary. Calculating the risk of a nuclear plant consists of three levels. Level 1 involves finding all possible combinations of conditions that could lead to the meltdown of the reactor core. Level 2 calculates the probability of a nuclear reactor containment building being destroyed and leaking radiation. Next, level 3 calculates how much damage the leaked radiation could have on the neighboring population, and the entire country. On top of these procedures, Jae managed to add a fourth level: calculating the risk of the multi-unit nuclear plants. The modeling Jae invented calculates whether a particular multi-unit plant meets the appropriate safety target level. This calculation allows for risk monitoring and deducing the optimum number of plants. In other words, it helps evaluate which part of the plant needs risk management, and finds out the maximum number of nuclear plants that can be located per site. With help from Jae’s modeling, the multi-unit plants could be up to 10 times safer. Calculating the risks posed by a nuclear plant consists of three levels. Jae added a fourth level: calculating the risk of the multi-unit nuclear plants, which increases the safety level by up to 10 times. Jae says this multi-unit PSA is the first in the world, and is thus receiving much attention from all over the world. His Multi-Unit Risk Research Group, consisting of eight institutes and more than a hundred researchers, awaits many important international workshops such as the International Symposium on Multi-Unit Risk and plans to stay on top of the latest research to ensure the greatest safety for our people. Lim Ji-woo Photos by Park Geun-hyung